HOME    ABOUT US    COURSES    CONTACT    RESOURCES

EARLY LATIN GRAMMAR    TESTIMONIALS        

 

Thematic list

 

The terms are arranged here by topic.

Those that appear in the individual author lists are indicated as follows:

E = Early attestations

V = Varro

Q = Quintilian

D = Donatus

P = Priscian

Examples from other authors are also given for some terms.

At the far right are links to full entries from Lewis and Short, where available.

For those terms that are not attested among early grammarians, and do not appear in Lewis and Short (or do appear but with no grammatical citations), a suggestion has been made (indicated with “S”).

Following the thematic list, there is a list of additional terms that may be useful for discussions of grammar.

For both lists, the emphasis in cited instances is on definitions, classifications, examples with extended commentary, and on authors specializing in a relevant subject (such as Diomedes on prepositions or Charisius on inflection).  The citations (as with the individual author lists) are not exhaustive, but point to some of the key early contributions in developing a technical approach.

 

Abbreviations

Aud. Audax (Keil)
Aug. Augustinus (Keil)
Caper Caper (Keil)
Cass. Cassiodorus (Keil)
Char. Charisius (Barwick)
Cic. Brut. Cicero, Brutus
Cic. de orat. de oratore
Cic. fin. de finibus
Cic. inv. de inventione rhetorica
Cic. off. de officiis
Cic. orat. orator ad M. Brutum
Cic. part. de partitione oratoria
Cic. top. topica
Cled. Cledonius (Keil)
Cons. Consentius (Keil)
Diom. Diomedes (Keil)
Dosith. Dositheus (Keil)
Eutych. Eutychus (Keil)
Gell. Aulus Gellius
Hor. ars Q. Horatius Flaccus, ars poetica
Hor. sat. Satirae
Just. Justinus
Macr. exc. Macrobius (Keil)
Mart. Cap. Martianus Capella
Martyr. Martyrius
Palaemon Remmius Palaemon
Pomp. Pompeius (Keil)
RP Remmius Palaemon
Sacerd. Plotius Sacerdos (Keil)
Sen. Ep. Seneca
Serv. Servius (Keil)
Vel. Velius Longus (Keil)

 

stem

stirps

S

stirps1

root

radix

V

radix2

base

basis

S

basis3

derivation

declinatio

V, Q

declinatio4

derivandum

Q

derivo5

inclinatio

V

inclinatio6

inflexio

Cic. part. orat.16

inflexio7

 

 

 

 

parts of speech

pars orationis

V, Q, D, P

oratio8

                substantive (nouns and pronouns)

substantivus

P

substantivus9

vocabulum

Q; Sen. Ep. 58, 6

vocabulum10

                noun

appellatio

Q

appellatio11

nomen

E, V, Q, D, P

nomen12

nominatus

V

nominatus13

vocabulum

V, Q

vocabulum14

                                proper noun

nomen

E, V, Q, D

nomen15

                                common noun

appellativum (nomen)

E, D, P

appellativus16

vocabulum

V, Q, P

vocabulum17

                                abstract noun

incorporalis

D, P

incorporalis18

                                concrete noun

corporalis

D, P

corporalis19

                                collective noun

collectivus

E, P

collectivus20

                pronoun

articulus

V, P

articulus21

pronomen

E, V, Q, D, P

pronomen22

provocabulum

E, V

provocabulum23

                                personal pronoun

pronomen personale

S

 

                                reflexive pronoun

reciprocum (pronomen)

P

reciprocus24

refractivum (pronomen)

P

 

                                possessive pronoun

cteticum (pronomen)

D

 

possessivum (pronomen)

Q, D, P

possessivus25

                                demonstrative pronoun

demonstrativum (pronomen)

D, P

demonstrativus26

                                relative pronoun

relativum (pronomen)

D, P

relativus27

                                interrogative pronoun

interrogativum (pronomen)

P

 

interrogativus28

 

                                indefinite pronoun

infinitivum (pronomen)

 

P; Char. 201.23, Dosith. 7.403.10

infinitivus29

 

infinitum (pronomen)

V, D, P

infinitus30

                                intensive pronoun

pronomen intentivum

S

 

                adjective

adiectio

Diom. 1.323.3

adiectio31

epitheton

E, Q, D

epitheton32

                                attributive adjective

adiectio attributa 

S

 

adiectivus attributus

S

 

                participle

in qua est utrum (casus et tempus)

 

V

 

 

iungendi

V

jungo33

participium

E, V, Q, D, P

participium34

                                present participle

participium praesentis

P

 

                                future participle

participium futurum

P

 

                                perfect participle

participium praeteriti

P

 

                verb

dicendi (pars)

V

dico35

verbum

E, V, Q, D, P

verbum36

verbum temporale

V

temporalis37

                                deponent verb

deponens

D, P

depono38

                                semi-deponent verb

inaequalis

D

inaequalis39

mixtus

Char. 338.24, Diom. 1.346.8

misceo40

transgressivus

Diom. 1.342.30, 1.346.4-5

transgressivus41

                                irregular verb

dispar (verbum)

V

dispar42

inaequale (verbum)

D, P

inaequalis43

anomalum (verbum)

P; Prob. 4.48.29, 128.20, Pomp. 5.231.15f., Serv. 4.415.4, 437.13

anomalus44

                                impersonal verb

impersonale (verbum)

V, Q, D, P

impersonalis45

                                principal parts

partes principales

S

 

                adverb

adverbium

E, Q, D, P; Sacerd. 6.442.15, Aug. 5.516.21

adverbium46

                                adverb of place

adverbium loci

S

 

                                adverb of time

adverbium temporis

S

 

                                adverb of manner

adverbium modi

S

 

                                adverb of degree

adverbium gradus

S

 

                                adverb of cause

adverbium causae

S

 

                                relative adverb

adverbium relativum

S

 

                                demonstrative adverb

adverbium demonstrativum

S

 

                preposition

praepositio

 

E, Q, D, P; Diomed. 1.408.31, 409.4, 7

praepositio47

praepositionum

Q

 

                conjunction

coniunctio

 

 

E, V, Q, D, P; Sacerd. 6.444.22, Aug. 5.495.23, 520.33                   

coniunctio48

 

 

convinctio

Q

convinctio49

                                coordinate conjunction

coniciendi

S

conicio50

                                                copulative conjunction

coniunctio copulativa

S

 

                                                disjunctive conjunction

disiunctiva (coniunctio)

D, P; Aug. 5.495.24

disjunctivus51

                                                adversative conjunction

adversativa (coniunctio)

P

adversativus52

                                                causal conjunction

causalis (coniunctio)

D, P

causalis53

                                                illative conjunction

illativa (coniunctio)

P

illativus54

                                subordinate conjunction

subiciendi

RP ap. Char. 291.22

subicio55

                                                conditional conjunction

coniunctio conditionalis

S

 

                                                comparative conjunction

coniunctio comparativa

S

 

                                                concessive conjunction

coniunctio concessiva

S

 

                                                temporal conjunction

coniunctio temporalis

S

 

                                                consecutive conjunction

coniunctio consecutiva

S

 

                                                final conjunction

coniunctio finalis

S

 

                                                causal conjunction

causalis (coniunctio)

D, P

causalis56

                interjection

interiectio

D, P; Sacerd. 6.447.2

interjectio57

                particle (not inflected; or, indicating form or

                construction of sentence)

coniunctio

Q

coniunctio58

                                interrogative particle

coniunctio interrogativa

S

 

                                negative particle

coniunctio negativa

S

 

 

 

 

 

gerund

gerundi

 

D; Serv. 4.411.26, Prob. 4.161.31, Diom. 1.354.17

gero59

 

gerundia

D, P; Aug. 5.520

gerundium60

gerundive

gerundivum

S

 

 

 

 

 

inflection

flexio

E, P

flexio61

flexura

V

flexura62

flexus

Q

flexus63

declinatio

V, Q, D, P

declinatio64

inclinatio

V

inclinatio65

inflexio

D; Serv. 4.423.35, 433.26, 439.19

inflexio66

                declension

declinatio casuale

V

casualis67

flexio

E, P

flexio68

ordo

E, V, Q

ordo69

                                first declension (ā-stem)

primus

P

primus70

                                second declension (ō-stem)

secundus

P

secundus71

                                third declension (consonant and i-stems)

tertius

P

tertius72

                                fourth declension (u-stem)

quartus

P

quartus73

                                fifth declension (ē-stem)

quintus

P

quintus74

 

 

 

 

                conjugation

coniugatio

 

E, P; Cons. 5.380.29, Aug. 5.511.41

conjugatio75

ordo

E, V, Q

ordo76

                                first conjugation (ā-stem)

prima (coniugatio)

D, P

primus77

                                second conjugation (ē-stem)

secundus

D, P

secundus78

                                third conjugation (ĕ-stem or in –iō)

tertius

D, P

tertius79

                                fourth conjugation (ī-stem)

quartus

D, P

quartus80

                                periphrastic

periphrasis

S

periphrasis81

                                                first periphrastic conjugation

                (with future active participle)

prima periphrasis

S

 

                                                second periphrastic conjugation

                (with gerundive)

secunda periphrasis

S

 

               

 

 

 

                indeclinable

indeclinabilis

P; Aug. 5.497.32, 501.13

indeclinabilis82

sterilis

V

sterilis83

 

 

 

 

case

casus

E, V, Q, D, P

casus84

                nominative

nominativus

E, V, Q, D, P

nominativus85

rectus

E, V, D, P

rego86

                genitive

genetivus

 

E, Q, D; Char. 15.8, Diom. 1.301.35

genetivus87

 

genitivus

P

genitivus88

                                predicate genitive

genetivus praedicamenti

S

 

                                subjective genitive

genetivus subiectivus

S

 

                                possessive genitive

genetivus possessivus

S

 

                                appositional genitive

genetivus appositivus

S

 

                                genitive of material

genetivus materiae

S

 

                                genitive of origin

genetivus originis

S

 

                                genitive of quality

genetivus qualitatis

S

 

                                partitive genitive

genetivus partitivus

S

 

                                objective genitive

genetivus obiectivus

S

 

                                genitive of value (indefinite)

genetivus pretii

S

 

                                genitive of charge or penalty

genetivus criminis

S

 

                dative

cui vocetur

V

voco89

dandi

V

do90

dativus

Q, D, P

dativus91

                                dative of possession

dativus possessivus

S

 

                                dative of agent (with gerundive, perfect

                participles, other forms)

dativus auctoris

S

 

                                dative of reference

dativus relationis

S

 

                                dative of advantage

dativus commodi

S

 

                                dative of disadvantage

dativus incommodi

S

 

                                dative of one judging

dativus iudicis

S

 

                                ethical dative

dativus implicamenti

S

 

                                dative of separation

dativus separationis

S

 

                                dative of purpose or end or tendency

dativus finalis

S

 

                accusative

accusandi

V

accuso92

accusativus

E, V, Q, D, P

accusativus93

quo vocetur

V

voco94

                                cognate accusative

accusativus cognatus

S

 

                                adverbial accusative

accusativus adverbialis

S

 

                                accusative of respect (specification)

accusativus affectionis

S

 

                                subject accusative

accusativus subiecti

S

 

                                accusative of end of motion

accusativus motus postremi

S

 

                                accusative of duration of time

accusativus perseverationis temporis

S

 

                                accusative of extent of space

accusativus extentus spatii

S

 

                ablative

a quo vocetur

V

voco95

ablativus

E, Q, D, P; Aug. 5.522.15

ablativus96

sextus casus

V

casus97

                                ablative of separation

ablativus separationis

S

 

                                ablative of origin (source)

ablativus originis

S

 

                                ablative of material

ablativus materiae

S

 

                                ablative of cause

ablativus causae

S

 

                                ablative of agent

ablativus auctoris

S

 

                                ablative of comparison

ablativus comparationis

S

 

                                ablative of means

ablativus instrumentalis

S

 

                                ablative of manner

ablativus modi

S

 

                                ablative of attendant circumstance

ablativus circumstantium

S

 

                                ablative of accompaniment

ablativus comitandi

S

 

                                ablative of association

ablativus consortionis

S

 

                                ablative of degree of difference

ablativus mensurae

S

 

                                ablative of quality (descriptive ablative)

ablativus qualitatis

S

 

                                ablative of price

ablativus pretii

S

 

                                ablative of respect (specification)

ablativus limitationis

S

 

                                ablative absolute

ablativus absolutus

S

 

                                ablative of time when

ablativus temporis

S

 

                                ablative of time within which

ablativus temporis sub quo

S

 

                                ablative of place from which

ablativus loci a quo

S

 

                                ablative of place where

ablativus loci

S

 

                vocative

quemadmodum vocetur

V

voco98

rectus

E, V, D, P

rego99

(casus) vocandi

V

voco (note 98)

vocativus

E, D, P

vocativus100

                locative

locativus

S

 

                supine

gerundi

 

D; Serv. 4.411.26, Prob. 4.161.31, Diom. 1.354.17

gero101

 

supinus

Diom. 1.342.29, Sacerd. 6.437.34

supinus102

                oblique

obliquus

V, Q, D, P

obliquus103

 

 

 

 

gender

genus

 

E, V, Q, D, P; Aud. 7.341.12, Cled. 5.10.18

genus104

 

sexus

V

sexus105

                masculine

masculinus

E, V, Q, D, P

masculinus106

virilis

V

virilis107

                feminine

femininus

E, V, Q, D, P

femininus108

muliebris

V

muliebris109

                neuter

neuter, neutrum

E, V, D, P

neuter110

neutralis

Q

neutralis111

 

 

 

 

number

multitudo

V

multitudo112

numerus

E, V, Q, D, P

numerus113

                singular

singularis

E, V, Q, D, P

singularis114

unum

V

unus115

                plural

multitudinis

V

multitudo (note 112)

plura

V

multus116

pluralis

E, V, Q, D, P

pluralis117

 

 

 

 

degree

contentio

V

contentio118

                positive

absolutivus

Char. 304.9

 

absolutus

Q

absolvo119

positivus

E, D, P

positivus120

primum

V

primus121

                comparative

comparandi

D; Char. 234.15

comparo122

comparativus

E, Q, D, P

comparativus123

medium

V

medius124

                superlative

summus

V

superus125

superlatio

Q

superlatio126

superlativus

E, D, P

superlativus127

 

 

 

 

person

persona

E, V, Q, D, P

persona128

                first person

nostra persona

Q

persona (note 128)

prima (persona)

E, Q, D, P; Aug. 5.507.27

primus129

qui loqueretur (persona)

V

loquor130

                second person

ad quem (persona)

V

 

secunda (persona)

E, V, D, P

secundus131

                third person

de quo (persona)

V

 

tertia (persona)

E, Q, D, P

tertius132

 

 

 

 

tense

tempus

E, V, Q, D, P; Char. 214.7, Cic. de orat. 3.11.40, inv. 1.36, part.36

tempus133

                present

instans

E, Q, P; Sacerd. 6.432.19

insto134

praesens

E, V, Q, D, P; Diom. 1.335.28

praesum135

                                gnomic present

praesens gnomicus

S

 

                                conative present

praesens conatus

S

 

                                historical present

praesens historicus

S

 

                imperfect

imperfectus

D, P

imperfectus136

infecta

V

infectus137

                                inceptive imperfect

imperfectus incepti

S

 

                                conative imperfect

imperfectus conatus

S

 

                future

futurum (tempus)

 

E, V, Q, D, P; Char. 214.5, 12

sum138

 

insequens

Q

insequor139

                perfect

perfectus

E, V, Q, D, P

perficio140

praeteritum tempus

Q

praetereo141

                                perfect definite (now completed)

perfectus definitus

S

 

                                historical (or aoristic) perfect (undefined

                past time)

perfectus historicus

S

 

                                gnomic perfect

perfectus gnomicus

S

 

                pluperfect

plusquamperfectus

E, D, P

 

                future perfect

futurus perfectus

S

 

                primary (principal) tenses (present, future, future

                perfect indicative; present, perfect subjunctive;

                present, future imperative)

tempora primaria

S

 

                secondary (historical) tenses (imperfect, perfect,

                pluperfect indicative, imperfect, pluperfect

                subjunctive; historical infinitive)

tempora secundaria

S

 

 

 

 

 

voice

contraria (verba)

V

contrarius142

diathesis

P

 

genus

E, V, Q, D, P; Char. 210.3f.

genus143

                active

activus

 

D, P; Char. 211.27, Cled. 5.18.35

activus144

 

agendi

E, P

ago145

agens

E; Char. 210.10

ago (note 145)

faciendi

V, Q

facio146

                passive

passivus

E, D, P

passivus147

patiendi

Q

patior148

patiendum

V

patior (note 148)

 

 

 

 

mood

modus

E, Q, D, P

modus149

status

Q

status150

                indicative

fatendi (modus)

Q

fateor151

indicandi

V, Q

indico152

indicativus

D, P

indicativus153

pronuntiativus (modus)

D; Diom. 1.338.25

pronuntiativus154

respondendi

V

respondeo155

                subjunctive

coniunctivus

 

D, P; Sacerd. 6.432.18, Aug. 5.510.26

conjunctivus156

 

subiunctivus

E, P

subjunctivus157

                                hortatory subjunctive

subiunctivus hortativus

S

 

                                jussive subjunctive

subiunctivus iussus

S

 

                                concessive subjunctive

subiunctivus concessivus

S

 

                                optative subjunctive

subiunctivus optativus

S

 

                                deliberative subjunctive (dubitative

                subjunctive)

subiunctivus deliberativus

S

 

                                potential subjunctive

subiunctivus potentialis

S

 

                                prohibitive subjunctive

subiunctivus prohibitivus

S

 

                imperative

imperandi

V

impero158

imperativus

E, D, P

imperativus159

                infinitive

infinitivus

E, D, P; Char. 216.3

infinitivus160

infinitus

Q, P; Char. 209.28f.

infinitus161

perpetuus

D

perpetuus162

                                complementary infinitive

infinitivus pleroticus

S

 

                                epexegetical infinitive

infinitivus epexegeticus

S

 

                                historical infinitive

infinitivus historicus

S

 

 

 

 

 

syntax

constructio

E, P

constructio163

dispositio

E, P

dispositio164

structura

P

structura165

                sentence

oratio

P

oratio166 

sensus

Q

sensus167

sententia

Q, D; Gell. 12.14.3

sententia168

sermo

Q

sermo169

                statement

propositio

S

propositio170

                                declarative (statement)

respondendi

V

respondeo171

                question

interrogans

V

interrogo172

                                interrogative (question)

interrogandi

D

interrogo (note 172)

interrogativus

P

interrogativus173

rogandi

V

rogo174

                                direct question

rogatio directa

S

 

                                indirect question

rogatio obliqua

S

 

                                alternative question

rogatio alternata

S

 

                exclamation

exclamatio

S

exclamatio175

                                exclamatory

exclamans

S

exclamo176

                command

imperandi

V

impero177

imperans

V

impero (note 177)

                                imperative (command)

imperandi

 

impero (note 177)

                prohibition

prohibitio

S

prohibitio178

                subject

subiectus

Mart. Cap. 4, 361

subicio179

                predicate

praedicamentum

S

praedicamentum180

                                predicate noun

nomen praedicamenti

S

 

                                predicate adjective

adiectio praedicamenti

S

 

                copula

copula

S

copula181

                transitive verb

transitivum (verbum)

P

transitivus182

                intransitive verb

intransitivum (verbum)

P

intransitivus183

neuter, neutrum

D, P

neuter184

neutralis

P

neutralis185

                direct object

obiectus directus

P

 

                indirect object

obiectus indirectus

P

 

                apposition

appositivus

P

 

 

 

 

 

conditional sentence

condicionalis

R Palaemon ap. Char. 293.23, 295.20

condicionalis186

                protasis

clausula condicionis

S

 

                apodosis

clausula consecutionis

S

 

                particular condition (simple:  present, past;

                future: more vivid, less vivid;

                contrary-to-fact: present, past)

condicionalis specialis

S

 

                                simple present conditional

condicionalis simplex praesens

S

 

                                simple past conditional

condicionalis simplex praeteritus

S

 

                                future more vivid conditional

condicionalis futurus vividior

S

 

                                future less vivid conditional

condicionalis futurus minus vividus

S

 

                                present contrary-to-fact conditional

condicionalis praesens contrarius veri

S

 

                                past contrary-to-fact conditional

condicionalis praeteritus contrarius veri

S

 

                general condition (present, past)

condicionalis generalis

S

 

                                present general conditional

condicionalis generalis praesens

S

 

                                past general conditional

condicionalis generalis praeteritus

S

 

 

 

 

 

indirect speech, discourse

oratio obliqua

Just. 38, 3, 11

 

direct speech (quotation)

oratio recta

S

 

concio directa

Just. 38, 3, 11

 

 

 

 

 

clause

clausula

Q

clausula187

membrum

Q

membrum188

sententia

D; Gell. 12.14.3, 13.14.1, Serv. 4.428.5, Diom. 1.439.8

sententia189

                subordinate clause

clausula secunda

S

 

                relative clause

clausula relativa

S

 

                                antecedent

antecedens

Q

antecedo190

                temporal clause

clausula temporalis

S

 

                conditional clause

clausula condicionalis

S

 

                purpose clause (final clause)

clausula propositi; clausula finalis

S

 

                clause of result (consecutive clause)

clausula eventus; clausula continuata

S

 

                clause of proviso

clausula praescriptionis

S

 

                concessive clause

clausula concessiva

S

 

                causal clause

clausula causalis

S

 

                clause of fearing

clausula timendi

S

 

                clause of prevention

clausula provisionis

S

 

                clause of characteristic

clausula proprietatis

S

 

 

Additional terms

accent

tenor

Q, D

accented on the penultimate syllable

paroxytonus

D

adjectival

adiectivus

P, D

agree, be appropriate

congruo

 

Serv. 4.427.32, Pomp. 5.243.35

convenio

Q, D, P

agreement (verbs with nouns)

consensus

Diom. 1.310.30

antepenultimate

antepaenultimus

D, P; Diom. 1.431.11

appositive, appositional

appositivus

P

arise by derivation (from)

orior

V, Q, D, P; Cic. top. 12

arise by inflection (from)

nascor

P

orior

V, D, P

arise from by inflection

venio

D, P

barytone

barytonus

P; Macr. exc. 5.602-603, 655.2

basic (form from which others are derived)

primitivus

P

principalis

E, P

be derived (from)

nascor

D, P

be derived, arise (from)

venio

D, P

begin

coepi

P

inchoo

 

 

 

Vel. 7.53.13, Serv. 4.419.23, 427.26, Pomp. 5.113.18, 205.17, Cass. 7.163.2

incipio

P; Diom. 1.428.8, 432.32

category

divisio

V

genus

V; Cic. top. 12

significatio

Macr. exc. 5.622.26

species

 

 

V, P; Sacerd. 6.432.21, 435.23, Aug. 5.521.36, 522.15

collective

collectivus

P

collocation (in syntax)

iunctura

E, P

comparison (of adjectives)

collatio

Dosith. 7.398.11

compound

compositicius

V

compositus

V, Q, D, P

connective, copulative

conexivus

D; Gell. 10.29

complexivus

E; Diom. 1.433.19

copulativus

D, P; Dosith. 7.418.1, Aug. 5.495.23

consonant

consonans

E, D, P; Dosith. 7.381.13

correlative

redditivus

E, P

corresponding, appropriate

congruus

P

customary usage

consuetudo

E, Q; Char. 62.14

declinable, which may be inflected

declinabilis

D, P

defective (verb)

defectivus

D, P

demonstrative

demonstrativus

D, P

denominative, derived from a noun

denominativus

E, P

denote, mean

noto

V, D, P

significo

V, Q, D, P

derived from a compound

decompositus

E, P

derived or inflected form

propagatum

V

propago

V

diminutive

diminutivus (deminutivus)

E, D, P; Char. 196.22

 

minuendi

V

diphthong

diphthongus

D

direct (speech)

directus

P

enclitic

encliticus

P

end

cado

 

 

 

D; Char. 50.17, 55.30, 57.14, 16, 171.20, 210.21, 211.8, 213.4, 231.8, 317.1

decurro

Char. 238.28

desino

D, P

excurro

Eutych. 5.487.8

exeo

 

Q, D, P; Aug. 5.497.3, 38, 498.1, 24-25, 518.41

mitto

D; Serv. 4.409.22

ending

terminatio

P; Char. 235.29

terminus

Martyr. 7.198.6

ending (word)

extremitas

P

ending of word

finis

P

etymology

etymologia

E, V, Q

expressing affirmation, affirmative

affirmandi

D

affirmativus

P

confirmativus

D, P

expressing urging, encouragement; hortatory

hortandi

(kind of adverb)

 

D, P

hortativus

(1st pers. pl. imperative)

 

P

(verb)

P

(adverb)

P

force, meaning

vis

E, Q, D, P

foreign

adventicius

V

alienus

V, Q

barbarus

V, Q

peregrinus

V, Q, D

form

forma

V, Q, D, P

form, variety

discrimen

V

govern

servio

D, P

govern, take

rego

Serv. 4.408.28, Pomp. 5.238.13, Cons. 5.385.1, Sacerd. 6.428.29, 428.34

govern, take, require

traho

D; Cons. 5.353.4, Char. 200.6, 379.16

grade of comparison

 

gradus

(adjectives)

 

E, D, P

(adverbs)

D; Aug. 5.519.27

having a single case-form

monoptotus

D, P

having no case inflection

aptotus

P; Aug. 5.505.41, 501.13, 524.20

impersonal

impersonalis

E, V, Q, D, P; Cled. 5.16.18, 5.19.29, Aug. 5.515.4, 515.18

inappropriate, incorrect (syntax)

incongruus

P

inceptive, inchoative

inceptivus

 

Char. 213.13, 231.9, Caper 7.93.19

inchoativus

D, P; Sacerd. 6.430.20, Char. 329.23

incongruous, inconsistent

inconsequens

P

indicate, show

demonstro

P

ostendo

P

inflect in accordance with

condeclino

P

inflectional or derivational form

figura

V, Q, P

inseparable (prefix)

inseparabilis

P

irregular

inaequalis

D, P

dispar

V

anomalus

P; Prob. 4.48.29, Pomp. 5.165.35, 193.13, Serv. 4.415.36

join (of words in speech)

alligo

Q

letter

littera

V, Q, D, P

linguistic rule

regula

D, P

long

longus

E, V, Q, D, P; Cic. orat. 159, Char. 8.16f.

mean

valeo

D; Cic. off. 3.39, fin. 2.13, Gell. 1.8.2, 13.1.2, 16.9.3, Diom. 1.417.2

mean, signify

monstro

P

meaning, sense

significantia

E, Q, P

significatio

V, D, P

minimal unit of sound, letter

elementum

P

negating, negative

negativus

P

not inflecting, not changing

immobilis

P

paradigm

forma

 

 

V, D, P; Char. 94.26, Prob. 4.78.2, Aug. 5.511.1

formula

V, P; Aug. 5.499.14, 499.23-24, 501.35, 502.3

parsing, analysis of a sentence into its component parts

partitio

P

penultimate

paenultimus

D, P

personal

personalis

D

possessive

possessivus

E, Q, D, P

postpositive

postpositivus

P; Pomp. 5.269.8

precede (of letters, syllables, words)

antecedo

Q, P

preposed, placed in front

praepositivus

D, P

privative, negative

privativus

E, P

refer to

refero ad

P

reflexive

reciprocus

P

refractivus

P

regular

regularis

Cled. 5.33.17

aequalis

P

legitimus

 

 

Macr. exc. 5.647.4, Cled. 5.64.18, Pomp. 5.219.25f., 245.36

sollemnis

 

Cons. 5.370.18, 28, 379.35, 382.21

catholicus

Prob. 4.164.1, 180.31, Char. 188.11

relationship, affinity

cognatio

V, P

relative, expressing reference, anaphoric

relativus

D, P

require

requiro

D; Diom. 1.312.9, Pomp. 5.222.27, Serv. 4.413.31

require, call for

exigo

D, P; Pomp. 5.214.13, 234.31, Cons. 5.373.25, 5.373.29

rule

ius

Aug. 5.517.6

lex

Q, P; Char. 237.5, 18, 251.16

sense, meaning

sensus

Q, D, P

sententia

V, Q

short

brevis

E, V, Q, D, P; Cic. orat. 159

simple (not compound)

simplex

V, Q, D, P

sound

sonus

D, P; Diom. 1.420.20, Aug. 5.497.33, 505.41

speech, utterance

oratio

V, D, P

structure of a word (whether simple or compound)

figura

D, P

suffix

supplementum

Gell. 2.21.7

syllable

syllaba

E, V, Q, D, P

synonym

synonymon

D, P

take, govern (of case)

teneo

Pomp. 5.237.28, 238.9, 188.10, Cled. 5.61.17, Aug. 5.523.1, 5.522.26

take, govern, occur with

deservio

D

teacher

litterator

E; Gell. 18.9.2-4, 16.6.1

transitive construction

minusquamcongruitas

P

usage

usus

 

 

 

V, Q, D, P; Pomp. 5.232.4, Cic. inv. 1.57, orat. 160, Hor. ars 70f., Aug. 5.494.6, 514.16

mos

 

P; Sacerd.. 6.489.13, Char. 379.5

usurpatio

P; Gell. 6.17.13, 7.16.1, 12.10.2, Diom. 1.371.12, Pomp. 5.14.10, 167.23, 177.22, 263.17

vowel

vocalis

E, Q, D, P; Char. 4.15

word

dictio

E, Q, D, P; Scaur. 7.20.6

lexis

E; Char. 204.18

locutio

Q

verbum

 

V, Q; Hor. sat. 1.3.103, Cic. orat. 162-3

vox

V, Q, P

 

Lewis and Short entries are from the Perseus website.

 

Sources

Grammatici Latini.  Ed. H. Keil.  Leipzig, 1855-1880.

Lewis, Charlton T., and Charles Short.  Latin Dictionary.  Oxford, 1879.

Schad, Samantha.  A Lexicon of Latin Grammatical Terminology.  Pisa, 2007.

 

 

Prepared by Devin Petrick

 

 

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. See Terms of Use for more information.

This web page was created in June 2012.

 

1 stirps (collat. form of the nom. stir-pes or stirpis , in the best MSS., Liv. 1, 1 fin.; 41, 8, 10; 26, 13, 16; v. Drak. ad locc.), pis, f. (poet. and post-Aug.; also m., Enn. ap. Fest. p. 313 Müll., and ap. Non. 226, 32 (Ann. 184); Pac. ap. Non. 227, 2 (Trag. Fragm. 421), and ap. Charis. p. 85 P.; Cato, R. R. 40, 2; Verg. G. 2, 379; id. A. 12, 208; 12, 770; 12, 781; Col. 5, 9, 13; Plin. 8, 26, 40, § 96; cf. Quint. 1, 6, 2) [root star-; cf. sternere; Gr. στορέννυμι; prop. that which extends or spreads].

I. Lit., the lower part of the trunk of plants, including the roots; a stock, stem, stalk; a root (class. and very freq.; cf. “radix): arborum altitudo nos delectat. radices stirpesque non item,” Cic. Or. 43, 147: “terra stirpes amplexa alat,” id. N. D. 2, 33, 83; cf. id. ib. 2, 10, 26; 2, 47, 120; “2, 51, 127: ut tantum modo per stirpis alantur suas,” id. ib. 2, 32, 81: “sceptrum in silvis imo de stirpe recisum,” Verg. A. 12, 208: harundo omnis ex unā stirpe numerosa, Plin. 16, 36, 65, § “163: palmarum stirpibus ali,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 38, § 99; so, “palmarum,” id. ib. 2, 5, 50, § “131 (for which: radices palmarum,” id. ib. 2, 5, 33, § 87); cf.: “lento in stirpe moratus,” Verg. A. 12, 781 (for which, just before: “lentā in radice): stirpes raptas volvere,” Hor. C. 3, 29, 37: “validis amplexae stirpibus ulmos,” Verg. G. 2, 367: “hic stirpes obruit arvo,” id. ib. 2, 24: “domos avium cum stirpibus imis Eruit,” id. ib. 2, 209; cf. “of hair: vellere albos ab stirpe capillos,” Prop. 3 (4), 25, 13. Tib. 1, 8, 45: “ex hac nimiā licentiā, ut ex stirpe quādam, exsistere, etc.,” Cic. Rep. 1, 44, 68.—

B. Transf.

1. Of vegetables.

a. A plant, shrub (esp. freq. in plur.): “stirpium naturae,” Cic. Fin. 5, 4, 10; cf.: “cum arborum et stirpium eadem paene natura sit,” id. ib. 5, 11, 33; so (with arbores) id. Phil. 2, 22, 55; (with herbae) id. N. D. 2, 64, 161: “pati (terram) stirpium asperitate vastari,” id. ib. 2, 39, 99: “stirpes tenent,” Luc. 4, 42: “internatas saxis stirpes et herbas vellentes,” Tac. H. 4, 60.—

b. A shoot, sprout: “rami stirpesque,” Lucr. 5, 1100: “stirpem praecisum circumligato, etc.,” Cato, R. R. 40, 2: “probatissimum genus stirpis deponere, i. e. malleolos,” Col. 3, 5, 4: “stirpem post annum praecidi,” id. 5, 6, 13: “stirpis committere ramis,” engraft, Lucr. 5, 1365.—

2. Of persons.

a. A stem, stock, race, family, lineage (cf.: “genus, familia): ignoratio stirpis et generis,” Cic. Lael. 19, 70: “stirpis ac gentilitatis jus,” id. de Or. 1, 39, 176: “qui sunt ejusdem stirpis,” id. Rab. Post. 1, 2: a stirpe supremo, Enn. ap. Non. 226, 32 (Ann. v. 184 Vahl.): “divinae stirpis Acestes,” Verg. A. 5, 711: “Priami de stirpe,” id. ib. 5, 297: “Herculis stirpe generatus,” Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 24: “hinc orti stirpe antiquissimā sumus,” id. Leg. 2, 1, 3: “hominum sceleratorum,” Caes. B. G. 6, 34: “ab stirpe socius et amicus populi Romani,” Sall. J. 14, 2 et saep.: “unum relictum, stirpem genti Fabiae futurum,” Liv. 2, 50 fin.—

b. Like Engl. scion, = offspring, descendant, progeny (mostly poet.; not in Cic.): stirps liberum, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 16 Müll. (Trag. v. 317 Vahl.); so, “liberum,” Liv. 45, 11; cf.: “aliquis magnā de stirpe nepotum,” Verg. A. 6, 864: “stirps et genus omne futurum,” id. ib. 4, 622; cf.: “en stirps et progenies tot consulum, tot dictatorum,” Tac. A. 2, 37 fin.: “stirpis virilis,” Liv. 1, 1, 11; cf.: “qui stirpem ex sese domi relinquerent,” id. 41, 8, 9.—

II. Trop., source, origin, foundation, first beginning, cause, etc.: “altae stirpes stultitiae,” Cic. Tusc. 3, 6, 13: “superstitionis stirpes,” id. Div. 2, 72, 149: “virtutis,” id. Cael. 32, 79: “quā ex stirpe orirentur amicitiae cognationum,” id. Fin. 4, 7, 17: “quodsi exquiratur usque ab stirpe auctoritas,” Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 180: “populum a stirpe repetere,” Cic. Rep. 3, 12, 21 Mos.: “repetam stirpem juris a naturā,” id. Leg. 1, 6, 20: “stirps ac semen malorum omnium,” id. Cat. 1, 12, 30; cf.: “ea pars, quae quasi stirps est hujus quaestionis,” id. Fin. 4, 2, 5: “non ingenerantur hominibus mores tam a stirpe generis ac seminis, quam, etc.,” original nature, id. Agr. 2, 35, 95; cf.: “exoletā stirpe gentis,” Liv. 37, 8, 4.—So esp. in phrase ab stirpe, utterly: “Karthago ab stirpe interiit,” Sall. C. 10, 1: “gens ab stirpe exstincta est,” Liv. 9, 34, 19: “omne genus ab stirpe sublatum esse,” id. 34, 2, 3; cf.: “omnis intra annum cum stirpe exstinctos,” id. 9, 29, 10: “velut ab stirpibus renata urbs,” id. 6, 1, 3.

2 rādix , īcis

I. gen. plur. radicium, Cassiod. H. E. 1, 1; Jul. Val. Itin. Alex. 32 (75)), f. Gr. ῥίζα, a root; ῥάδιξ, a shoot or twig; cf. ramus, a root of a plant (cf. stirps).

I. Lit.

1. In gen. (mostly in plur.): “radices agere,” to strike root, Varr. R. R. 1, 37 fin.; Ov. R. Am. 106; id. M. 4, 254; Col. 5, 6, 8; Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127; cf. “infra, II.: capere radices,” to take root, Cato, R. R. 133, 3; Plin. 17, 17, 27, § 123: “penitus immittere radices,” Quint. 1, 3, 5: “emittere radices e capite, ex se,” Col. 3, 18, 6; 5, 10, 13: “descendunt radices,” Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 129: “arbores ab radicibus subruere,” Caes. B. G. 6, 27, 4: “herbas radice revellit,” Ov. M. 7, 226: “radicibus eruta pinus,” Verg. A. 5, 449: “segetem ab radicibus imis eruere,” id. G. 1, 319.—Sing.: “(arbos) quae, quantum vertice ad auras, tantum radice in Tartara tendit,” Verg. G. 2, 292; Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 128; Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 150; Ov. H. 5, 147. —

2. In partic., an edible root, Caes. B. C. 3, 48; esp. a radish: “Syriaca,” Col. 11, 3, 16; 59: “also simply radix,” Pall. 1, 35, 5; Hor. S. 2, 8, 8; Ov. M. 8, 666 al.: “dulcis,” licorice, Scrib. Comp. 170. —

B. Transf.

1. The root, i. e. the lower part of an object, the foot of a hill, mountain, etc.— In plur.: “in radicibus Caucasi natus,” Cic. Tusc. 2, 22, 52: “in radicibus Amani,” id. Fam. 15, 4, 9: “sub ipsis radicibus montis,” Caes. B. G. 7, 36; 7, 51 fin.; 69; id. B. C. 1, 41; 3, 85, 1 et saep. — In sing.: “a Palatii radice,” Cic. Div. 1, 45, 101; Plin. 37, 10, 66, § 180.—

2. That upon which any thing is fixed or rests (e. g. the tongue, a feather, a rock); a root, foundation (poet.; used alike in sing. and plur.): “linguae,” Ov. M. 6, 557: “plumae,” id. ib. 2, 583: “saxi,” Lucr. 2, 102; Ov. M. 14, 713.—

3. Radix virilis = membrum virile, Cael. Aur. Tard. 2, 1, 13.—

II. Trop., a root, ground, basis, foundation, origin, source (almost entirely in the plur.): “vera gloria radices agit atque etiam propagatur,” Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43: “virtus altissimis defixa radicibus,” id. Phil. 4, 5, 13: “audeamus non solum ramos amputare miseriarum, sed omnes radicum fibras evellere,” id. Tusc. 3, 6, 13: “facilitatis et patientiae,” id. Cael. 6, 14: “Pompeius eo robore vir, iis radicibus,” i. e. so deeply rooted, firmly established in the State, id. Att. 6, 6, 4: “illic radices, illic fundamenta sunt,” Quint. 10, 3, 3: “a radicibus evertere domum,” from its foundation, utterly, Phaedr. 3, 10, 49: “ex iisdem, quibus nos, radicibus natum (C. Marium),” i. e. a native of the same city, Cic. Sest. 22, 50; Varr. R. R. 2, 8, 1; cf. in sing.: “Apollinis se radice ortum,” Plin. 35, 10, 36, § 72: “ego sum radix David,” Vulg. Apoc. 22, 16 et saep.— “Of words,” origin, derivation, Varr. L. L. 6, 5, 61; 7, 3, 88 al.

3 băsis , is and ĕos

I. gen. basis, Vulg. 3 Reg. 7, 27; “7, 34: baseos,” Vitr. 10, 15; acc. usu. basim, but BASEM, Inscr. Orell. 1263 al.: basidem, Ven. Fort. 8, 14; abl. usu. basi, but base, Treb. Pol. Gall. 18, 4; Inscr. Grut. 63, 3: “BASIDE,” ib. 16, 14; gen. plur. BASIVM, Inscr. Orell. 3272), f., = βάσις, a pedestal, foot, base.

I. In gen.: “in basi statuarum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 63, § 154; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 4, 34, § 74; id. Phil. 9, 7, 16: “quo (sc. ad sepulcrum) cum patefactus esset aditus, ad adversam basim accessimus,” id. Tusc. 5, 23, 66: “colossici Apollinis basis,” Vitr. 10, 6: “supra basim eriguntur regulae,” id. 10, 13; Ov. P. 3, 2, 52; Phaedr. 2, epil. 2; Plin. 17, 25, 38, § 244; Suet. Vesp. 23; Inscr. Orell. 49; Vulg. Exod. 26, 19: “villae,” the foundation-wall, Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 2, § 5.—

B. Trop.: “bases virtutis,” foundations, Vulg. Ecclus. 6, 30.—

II. In partic., prov.: aliquem cum basi suā metiri, to measure a pillar together with its pedestal, i. e. to give false measure, to estimate too high, Sen. Ep. 76, 31.—

III. Esp.

A. In math.: “basis trianguli,” the base of a triangle, Cic. N. D. 2, 49, 125: “arcus,” the chord of an arc, Col. 5, 2, 9; 3, 13, 12.—

B. In archit., the lowest part of the shaft of a column, Vitr. 4, 1, 6 (our pedestal is expressed by spira, q. v.).—

C. In gram., the primitive word, the root, Varr. ap. Non. p. 79, 33.—

D. Of cattle, a track, footprint, Veg. 1, 25, 6; 1, 26, 1; 1, 3, 46 al.

4 dēclīnātĭo , ōnis, f. id.,

I. a bending from a thing, a bending aside; an oblique inclination or direction (good prose).

I. Lit.: “lanceam exigua corporis declinatione vitare,” Curt. 9, 7 fin.; cf.: “quot ego tuas petitiones parva quadam declinatione effugi,” Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15: “declinare dixit (Epicurus) atomum perpaulum, et ipsa declinatio ad libidinem fingitur, etc.,” id. Fin. 1, 6, 19; so of the oblique motion of atoms, id. Fat. 10, 22; 22, 47.—

B. Like the Gr. κλίμα, the supposed slope of the earth towards the poles, a region of the earth or sky, a climate: “declinatio mundi,” Col. 1 prooem. § 22; so, “mundi,” id. 3, 1, 3; cf.: “positio caeli et declinatio,” id. 1, 6, 18; “so correspond. with regio caeli,” Col. 4, 24, 2; cf. “also caeli,” the altitude of the pole, Vitr. 9, 7, 1.—

II. Trop.

A. In gen., a turning away from any thing; an avoiding, avoidance: ut bona natura appetimus, sic a malis natura declinamus; “quae declinatio, si cum ratione fiet, cautio appelletur,” Cic. Tusc. 4, 6, 13; cf. “so opp. appetitio,” id. N. D. 3, 13, 33; and in plur. Gell. 14, 1, 23: “laboris, periculi,” Cic. Clu. 53 fin.—

B. t. t.

1. Of rhetor. lang., a short digression: “declinatio brevis a proposito, non ut superior illa digressio,” Cic. de Or. 3, 53 fin.; id. Part. 15; cf. Quint. 9, 1, 32 and 34.—

2. Of gramm. lang.: variation, inflection.

(a). In the older grammarians, every change of form which a word undergoes; as declension, strictly so called, conjugation, comparison, derivation, etc., Varr. L. L. 8, § 2 sq.; 10, § 11 sq.; Cic. de Or. 3, 54; cf. “also of declension in its stricter sense,” Quint. 1, 4, 29; 1, 5, 63; “of conjugation,” id. 1, 4, 13; “of derivation,” id. 8, 3, 32; 2, 15, 4.—

(b). Among the later grammarians, of declension, properly so called, as distinguished from conjugatio, comparatio, derivatio, etc. So, Donatus: in declinatione compositivorum nominum, p. 174 P. (p. 13 Lind.).

5 dē-rīvo , āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. rivus,

I. to lead, turn, or draw off a liquid, from or to a place.

I. Prop.: “de fluvio aquam,” Plaut. Truc. 2, 7, 12 sq.: aqua ex flumine derivata, * Caes. B. G. 7, 72, 3: “flumen,” Hirt. ib. 8, 40, 3; Liv. 5, 15, 12; 5, 16, 9: “derivata in domos flumina,” Sen. N. Q. 1 praef. 7; 4, 2, 8; cf.: “umorem in conliquias,” Col. 2, 8, 3.—

B. to disperse, distribute: “deriventur fontes tui foras,” Vulg. Prov. 5, 16.—

II. Trop.

A. In gen. (repeatedly in Cic.): “nihil in suam domum inde,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 25, 72: “alia ex his fontibus,” Quint. 2, 17, 40; cf.: “hoc fonte derivata clades,” Hor. Od. 3, 6, 19: derivare auimum curaque levare, to divert, * Lucr. 2, 365: “derivandi criminis causa,” Cic. Mil. 10 fin.: “iram alicujus in se,” Ter. Ph. 2, 2, 9: “culpam in aliquem,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 20 fin.; cf. id. Att. 4, 3, 2: “culpam derivare in rem,” Quint. 7, 4, 14: “partem aliquam curae et cogitationis in Asiam,” Cic. Phil. 11, 9, 22: “exspectationem largitionis agrariae in agrum Campanum,” id. Att. 2, 16: “alio responsionem suam,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 53.—

B. Esp., in gramm., to derive, sc. one word from another (postAug. for ducere), Quint. 1, 6, 38; 8, 3, 31; Diom. p. 310 P. et saep.

6 inclīnātĭo , ōnis, f. id.,

I. a leaning, bending, inclining to one side (class., esp. in the trop. signif.).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: “(corporis) ingressus, cursus, accubitio, inclinatio, sessio, etc.,” Cic. N. D. 1, 34, 94: “corporis,” Quint. 1, 11, 16: “fortis ac virilis laterum,” id. ib. 18: “incumbentis in mulierculam,” id. 11, 3, 90: “alternā egerunt scobem,” Plin. 16, 43, 83, § 227: “merso navigio inclinatione lateris unius,” id. 8, 51, 77, § 208.— In plur.: “variis trepidantium inclinationibus,” Tac. H. 2, 35; Plin. 37, 10, 58, § 160.—

B. In partic.: caeli, a transl. of the Gr. κλίμα, the inclination or slope of the earth from the equator to the pole, a parallel of latitude, clime, Vitr. 1, 1; Gell. 14, 1, 8; “for which, mundi,” Vitr. 6, 1.—

II. Trop., an inclination, tendency.

A. In gen.: “ad meliorem spem,” Cic. Sest. 31, 67: “crudelitas est inclinatio animi ad asperiora,” Sen. Clem. 2, 4 med.: “alii (loci communes) ad totius causae inclinationem (faciunt),” Quint. 5, 13, 57.—

B. In partic., inclination, bias, favor: “voluntatis,” Cic. de Or. 2, 29, 129; cf. “voluntatum,” id. Mur. 26, 53: “judicum ad aliquem,” Quint. 6, 1, 20: “principum inclinatio in hos, offensio in illos,” Tac. A. 4, 20: “utendum ea inclinatione Caesar ratus,” id. ib. 1, 28: “senatus,” id. ib. 2, 38: “animorum,” Liv. 44, 31, 1: “in aliquem,” Tac. H. 2, 92 —

C. Transf.

1. (Qs., a leaning or bending out of its former position; hence.) An alteration, change: “communium temporum,” Cic. Balb. 26, 58: “an ignoratis, populi Romani vectigalia perlevi saepe momento fortunae inclinatione temporis pendere?” id. Agr. 2, 29, 80; cf. id. Phil. 5, 10, 26: “hoc amplius Theophrastus (scripsit), quae essent in re publica rerum inclinationes et momenta temporum,” id. Fin. 5, 4, 11: “inclinationes temporum atque momenta,” id. Fam. 6, 10, 5; cf. id. Planc. 39, 94.—

2. Rhet. t. t.: vocis, the play of the voice, its elevation and depression in impassioned speech, Cic. Brut. 43, 158; plur., Quint. 11, 3, 168. —

3. In the old gram. lang., the formation or derivation of a word, Varr. L. L. 9, § 1 Müll.

7 inflexĭo , ōnis, f. inflecto,

I. a bending.

I. Prop.: “quasi helicis inflexio,” Cic. Univ. 9, 27: “dextra inflexio Bospori,” Amm. 22, 8, 14: “laterum inflexione forti ac virili,” a vigorous and manly attitude, Cic. de Or. 3, 59, 229.—

II. Transf., an inflection, modification: in adverbio temporum significationes non de ejusdem soni inflexione nascuntur, Macr. de Diff. c. 19, § 4.

8 ōrātĭo , ōnis, f. oro,

I. a speaking, speech, discourse, language

I. In gen., the connection of words to express thought: “non est autem in verbo modus hic, sed in oratione, id est, in continuatione verborum,” Cic. 3, 42, 167.

1. Speech, the power or faculty of speech, the habit or use of language: “quae (ferae) sunt rationis et orationis expertes,” Cic. Off. 1, 16, 50: “natura vi rationis hominem conciliat homini et ad orationis et ad vitae societatem,” id. ib. 1, 4, 12.—

2. Speech, language, utterance; opp. to fact, action, etc.: “lenitudo orationis, mollitudo corporis,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 16, 46: “idque videns Epicurus re tollit, oratione relinquit deos,” id. N. D. 1, 44, 123: “qui sunt leves locutores ... eorum orationem bene existimatum est in ore nasci, non in pectore,” Gell. 1, 15, 1: “nam quid te igitur rettulit beneficum esse oratione, si ad rem auxilium emortuum est,” Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 19: “ut in vitā, sic in oratione, nihil est difficilius quam quid deceat videre,” Cic. Or. 21, 70: qualis homo ipse esset, talem ejus esse orationem; “orationi autem facta similia, factis vitam,” id. Tusc. 5, 16, 47: “partes igitur orationis secundum dialecticos duae, nomen et verbum,” parts of speech, Prisc. 2, 4, 15.—

3. Hence, a mode of speaking; a kind, manner, style of speech; language: “quin tu istanc orationem hinc veterem atque antiquam amoves. Nam proletario sermone nunc utere,” Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 155: nam opulenti cum loquuntur pariter atque ignobiles, eadem dicta eademque oratio aequa non aeque valet, Enn. ap. Gell. 11, 4, 3: quam tibi ex ore orationem duriter dictis dedit, id. ap. Non. p. 512, 8: “aliam nunc mihi orationem despoliato praedicas,” Plaut. As. 1, 3, 52: Creta est profecto horum hominum oratio, quam orationem hanc aures dulce devorant, id. Poen. 5, 2, 9: “(Andria et Perinthia) non ita sunt dissimili argumento, sed tamen Dissimili oratione,” Ter. And. prol. 11.—Esp. (in gram.): oratio obliqua, indirect speech, the use of dependent clauses in citing the language of others: “quam (orationem) obliquam Pompeius Trogus exposuit (opp. to conciones directae),” Just. 38, 3, 11.—Hence,

4. Mode of speech, language, use of language, style: “mollis est enim oratio philosophorum,” Cic. Or. 19, 64: “(fabulae) tenui oratione et scripturā levi,” Ter. Phorm. prol. 5: “ut Stoicorum est astrictior oratio aliquantoque contractior, quam aures populi requirunt, sic illorum (Peripateticorum) liberior et latior, quam patitur consuetudo judiciorum et fori,” Cic. Brut. 31, 120: “orationem Latinam efficies profecto legendis nostris pleniorem,” id. Off. 1, 1, 2; cf. id. ib. 1, 1, 1.—

5. Esp., the language of any people or nation: “Timaeus in historiis quas oratione Graecā composuit,” Gell. 11, 1, 1: “semper cum Graecis Latina (exempla) conjunxi ... ut par sis in utriusque orationis facultate,” Cic. Off. 1, 1, 1.—

II. In partic., formal language, artificial discourse, set speech (opp. to sermo, ordinary speech, conversational language): “mollis est oratio philosophorum et umbratilis, nec verbis instructa popularibus nec vincta numeris, sed soluta liberius: itaque sermo potiusquam oratio dicitur. Quamquam enim omnis locutio oratio est, tamen unius oratoris locutio hoc proprio dignata nomine est,” Cic. Or. 19, 64; cf.: “et quoniam magna vis orationis est eaque duplex, altera contentionis, altera sermonis, contentio disceptationibus tribuatur judiciorum, contionum, senatus, sermo in circulis, disputationibus, congressionibus familiarium versetur, sequatur etiam convivia,” id. Off. 1, 37, 132.—Hence,

B. A set speech, harangue, discourse, oration: “(oratio) ut gravis, ut suavis, ut erudita sit, ut liberalis, ut polita, ut sensus, ut doloris habeat quantum opus sit, non est singulorum articulorum: in toto spectantur haec corpore, etc.,” Cic. de Or. 3, 25, 96; cf. “the context: illam orationem disertam sibi et oratoriam videri, fortem et virilem non videri,” id. ib. 1, 54, 231: “hanc habere orationem mecum principio institit,” Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 21: “pleraeque scribuntur orationes habitae jam, non ut habeantur,” Cic. Brut. 24, 91: “non est haec oratio habenda apud imperitam multitudinem,” id. Mur. 29, 61: “ignarus faciundae ac poliendae orationis,” id. de Or. 1, 14, 63: “in orationibus hisce ipsis judiciorum, contionum, senatus,” id. ib. 1, 16, 73: “quanta illa, di immortales, fuit gravitas, quanta in oratione majestas! sed adfuistis, et est in manibus oratio,” id. Lael. 25, 96: “qui orationem adversus rem publicam habuissent, eorum bona in publicum adducebat,” Caes. B. C. 2, 18, 5: “ab adulescentiā confecit orationes,” Nep. Cat. 3, 3: “Catonis aliae acerbae orationes extant, etc.,” Liv. 39, 42, 6: “oratio plebi acceptior,” id. 3, 69: “accurata et polita,” Cic. Brut. 95, 326: “longa,” Liv. 34, 5: “acris et vehemens,” Quint. 5, 13, 25: “admirabilis,” Cic. de Or. 3, 25, 94: “angusta et concisa, opp. collata et diffusa,” id. Or. 56, 187: “aspera, tristis, horrida, neque perfecta neque conclusa, opp. laevis et structa et terminata,” id. ib. 5, 20: “circumcisa et brevis,” Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 4: “rotunda et undique circumcisa,” Quint. 8, 5, 27: “cohaerens,” Cic. de Or. 3, 44, 173: “concinna,” id. ib. 3, 25, 98: “stabilis, opp. volubilis,” id. Or. 56, 187.—

III. Transf.

A. The power of oratory, eloquence: “tantam vim habet illa, quae recte a bono poëtā dicta est, flexamina atque omnium regina rerum oratio, ut non modo inclinantem excipere aut stantem inclinare, sed etiam adversantem ac repugnantem ut imperator fortis ac bonus capere possit,” Cic. de Or. 2, 44, 187: “satis in eo fuisse orationis atque ingenii,” id. Brut. 45, 165: “non enim verendum est ne te in tam bonā causā deficiat oratio,” Lact. 2, 3.—

B. Prose (opp. to poetry): “et in poëmatis et in oratione,” Cic. Or. 21, 70.—

C. (In gram.) A sentence, a clause expressing a complete sense: “oratio est ordinatio dictionum congrua sententiam perfectam demonstrans,” Prisc. 2, 4, 15: “oratio dicitur liber rhetoricus, necnon unaquaeque dictio hoc saepe nomine nuncupatur cum plenam ostendit sententiam,” id. ib.: defectio litterae, et syllabae, et dictionis, et orationis, id. 17, 1, 5.—

D. (Under the empire.) An imperial message, rescript: “orationes ad senatum missae,” Suet. Ner. 15: “oratio principis per quaestorem ejus audita est,” Tac. A. 16, 27: “orationesque in senatu recitaret etiam quaestoris vice,” Suet. Tit. 6; cf. id. Aug. 65.—

E. A prayer, an address to the Deity (eccl. Lat.): “respice ad orationem servi tui,” Vulg. 3 Reg. 8, 28: “per orationes Dominum rogantes,” id. 2 Macc. 10, 16: “pernoctans in oratione Dei,” id. Luc. 6, 12.—Also absol., prayer, the habit or practice of prayer: “perseverantes in oratione,” Vulg. Act. 1, 14: “orationi instate,” id. Col. 4, 2; cf. Gell. 13, 22, 1.

9 substantīvus , a, um, adj. substantia,

I. self-existent, substantive (post - class.).

I. In gen.: “res,” Tert. adv. Prax. 26; id. adv. Hermog. 26.—

II. In gram.: substantivum verbum, the substantive verb, i.e. sum (a transl. of the Gr. ὑπαρκτικόν), Prisc. p. 812 fin. P.

10  vŏcābŭlum , i, n. id.,

I. an appellation, designation, name of any thing (cf.: nomen, vox).

I. In gen.: “philosophorum habent disciplinae ex ipsis Vocabula,” Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 33: “nomen est, quo suo quaeque (persona) proprio et certo vocabulo appellatur,” Cic. Inv. 1, 24, 34: “si res suum nomen et proprium vocabulum non habet, ut pes in navi, etc.,” id. de Or. 3, 40, 159: “neque verborum tanta copia sit in nostrā linguā, res ut omnes suis certis ac propriis vocabulis nominentur,” id. Caecin. 18, 51: “rebus non commutatis immutaverunt vocabula,” id. Leg. 1, 13, 38; cf.: “ex more imponens cognata vocabula rebus,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 280: “proferet in lucem speciosa vocabula rerum,” id. Ep. 2, 2, 116; cf. Lucr. 5, 1042: “Chaldaei non ex artis, sed ex gentis vocabulo nominati,” Cic. Div. 1, 1, 2; id. N. D. 1, 15, 38: “vocabula tantum pecuniarum,” id. Pis. 37, 90: “cui nomen neniae: quo vocabulo etiam Graecis cantus lugubres nominantur,” id. Leg. 2, 24, 62: “liberta, cui vocabulum Acte fuit,” Tac. A. 13, 12: “artifex, vocabulo Locusta,” by name, id. ib. 12, 66: “multa renascentur, quae jam cecidere, cadentque, Quae nunc sunt in honore, vocabula,” Hor. A. P. 71: “juncta vocabula sumere,” Ov. F. 3, 511: “ululatus, neque enim alio vocabulo potest exprimi theatris quoque indecora laudatio,” Plin. Ep. 2, 14, 13.—

II. In partic., in gram., a substantive, both in gen. and as an appellative noun in partic. (in contradistinction to nomen, as denoting a proper name; “v. nomen): Aristoteles orationis duas partes esse dicit, vocabula et verba, ut homo et equus, et legit et currit,” Varr. L. L. 8, §§ 11, 12, 45, 52 sq., 80 Müll; Quint. 1, 4, 20; Sen. Ep. 58, 6.

11 appellātĭo , ōnis, f. 2. appello.

I. A going to one in order to accost or make a request of him (not found in earlier Lat.).

A. An address, an accosting: hanc nactus appellationis causam, this opportunity for an address or appeal, Caes. B. C. 2, 28.—Hence,

B. In judicial lang., t. t., an appeal: “intercessit appellatio tribunorum, i. e. ad tribunos,” Cic. Quint. 20 fin.; so id. Vatin. 14 fin.: “appellationem et tribunicium auxilium,” Liv. 9, 26: “appellatio provocatioque,” id. 3, 56; Suet. Aug. 33: “ut omnes appellationes a judicibus ad Senatum fierent,” id. Ner. 17; so, “ad populum,” Plin. 6, 22, 24, § 90 al.—

II. Esp.

A. A calling by name, a naming: “neque nominum ullorum intereos appellatio est,” Plin. 5, 8, 8, § 45.—Hence, meton. syn. with nomen, name, title, appellation (mostly post-Aug.): “voluit appellatione hac inani nobis esse par,” Cic. Att. 5, 20, 4: “regum appellationes venales erant,” id. Dom. 50: “qui non aura, non procella, sed mares appellatione quoque ipsā venti sunt,” Plin. 2, 45, 45, § 116; Tac. A. 3, 56; Suet. Ner. 55; id. Aug. 100; id. Dom. 13; id. Tib. 67; id. Vesp. 12: “nihil esse rem publicam, appellationem modo,” a mere name, id. Caes. 77.—

B. In gram.

1. Pronunciation: “suavitas vocis et lenis appellatio litterarum,” Cic. Brut. 74, 259; Quint. 11, 3, 35 (cf. 2. appello, II. E.).—

2. A substantive, Quint. 9, 3, 9; cf. id. 1, 4, 20, and Scaurus ap. Diom. p. 306 P.

12 nōmen , ĭnis

I. gen. sing. NOMINVS, S. C. de Bacch. Corp. Inscr. Lat. 196, 8), n. for gnōmen, from root gno, whence gnosco, nosco, co-gnosco, a name, appellation (syn. vocabulum).

I. Lit.: “nomen est, quod unicuique personae datur, quo suo quaeque proprio et certo vocabulo appellatur,” Cic. Inv. 1, 24, 134: “imponere nova rebus nomina,” id. Fin. 3, 1, 3: “qui haec rebus nomina posuerunt,” id. Tusc. 3, 5, 10: “appellare aliquem nomine,” id. de Or. 1, 56, 239: “huic urbi nomen Epidamno inditum est,” Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 37; cf. Liv. 7, 2, 6: “Theophrastus divinitate loquendi nomen invenit,” Cic. Or. 19, 62: “lituus ab ejus litui, quo canitur, similitudine nomen invenit,” id. Div. 1, 17, 30: “ut is locus ex calamitate populi Romani nomen caperet,” Caes. B. G. 1, 13 et saep.: “ludi, Pythia de domitae serpentis nomine dicti,” Ov. M. 1, 447: “clari nominis vir,” Vell. 2, 34, 4: “nominis minoris vir,” id. 2, 100, 5; cf. id. 2, 112, 2; 2, 103, 1: est mihi nomen, inditur mihi nomen, with nom.: “cui saltationi Titius nomen est,” Cic. Brut. 62, 225: “eique morbo nomen est avaritia,” id. Tusc. 4, 11, 24: “canibus pigris ... Nomen erit pardus, tigris, leo,” Juv. 8, 36.—With dat.: “haec sunt aedes, hic habet: Lesbonico'st nomen,” Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 110: “juventus nomen fecit Peniculo mihi,” id. Men. 1, 1, 1: “nam mihi est Auxilio nomen,” id. Cist. 1, 3, 6: “huic ego die nomen Trinummo facio,” id. Trin. 4, 2, 1: “nomen Arcturo est mihi,” id. Rud. prol. 5: “cantus cui nomen neniae,” Cic. Leg. 2, 24, 62: “puero ab inopiā nomen Egerio est inditum,” Liv. 1, 34: “est illis strigibus nomen,” Ov. F. 6, 139.—With gen.: “cujus nomen est Viventis,” Vulg. Gen. 25, 11.—Rarely with ad: “ut det nomen ad molas coloniam,” Plaut. Ps. 4, 6, 38.—Nomen dare, edere, profiteri, ad nomina respondere, to give in one's name, be enrolled, enlist; to answer to one's name when summoned to military duty: “ne nomina darent,” Liv. 2, 24: “nomina profiteri,” id. 2, 24: “nominis edendi apud consules potestas,” id. 2, 24: “virgis caesi, qui ad nomina non respondissent,” id. 7, 4; also, “dare nomen in conjurationem,” to join the conspiracy, Tac. A. 15, 48: “ab re nomen habet (terra),” is named for, Liv. 38, 18, 4: “quae (sapientia) divinarum humanarumque rerum cognitione hoc nomen apud antiquos adsequebatur,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 3, 7: “dea (Viriplaca) nomen hoc a placandis viris fertur adsecuta,” Val. Max. 2, 1, 6.—Esp.: “nomen accipere = nominari: turris quae nomen ab insulā accepit,” Caes. B. C. 3, 112, 1; Quint. 3, 3, 13; Just. 1, 5, 1; Tac. A. 6, 37; 15, 74; Plin. Ep. 2, 10, 8.—

2. In partic., the middle name of the three which every freeborn Roman had, as distinguished from the praenomen and cognomen. The nomen distinguished one gens from another, the cognomen one familia from another, and the praenomen one member of the familia from another, Quint. 7, 3, 27.—But sometimes nomen is used in the signif. of praenomen: “id nomen (sc. Gaja),” Cic. Mur. 12, 27.—So, too, in the signif. of cognomen: “Sex. Clodius, cui nomen est Phormio,” Cic. Caecin. 10, 27; cf.: “tamquam habeas tria nomina,” i. e. as if you were a Roman, Juv. 5, 127.—

3. Esp. in phrase: sub nomine, under the assumed name: “qui litteras exitiales Demetrio sub nomine Flaminini adtulerant,” Liv. 40, 54, 9: “sub nomine meo,” Quint. 7, 2, 24: “carmina sub alieno nomine edere,” Suet. Aug. 55: “multa vana sub nomine celebri vulgabantur,” Tac. A. 6, 12; 13, 25; id. H. 1, 5; cf.: “rogatio repente sub unius tribuni nomine promulgatur,” Liv. 43, 16, 6; Suet. Aug. 29; Plin. Pan. 50, 5; cf. also II. B. infra.—

4. A title of power or honor: “imperatoris,” Caes. B. C. 2, 32, 14.—

5. In gram., a noun, Quint. 1, 4, 18; 1, 5, 42 et saep.—

B. Transf.

1. Nomen alicu jus deferre, to bring an accusation against, to accuse a person: “nomen alicujus de parricidio deferre,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28: nomen recipere, to receive the accusation: “palam de sellā ac tribunali pronuntiat: si quis absentem Sthenium rei capitalis reum facere vellet, sese ejus nomen recepturum: et simul, ut nomen deferret, etc.,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 38, § 94; cf. context.—

2. A bond, note, a demand, claim, a debt: tituli debitorum nomina dicuntur praesertim in iis debitis, in quibus hominum nomina scripta sunt, quibus pecuniae commodatae sunt, Ascon. ap. Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 10, § 28: “repromittam istoc nomine solutam rem futuram,” Plaut. As. 2, 4, 48: “si neque in tuas tabulas ullum nomen referres, cum tot tibi nominibus acceptum Curtii referrent,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 39, § 102: “qui tibi, ut ais, certis nominibus grandem pecuniam debuit,” on good bonds, good security, id. Quint. 11, 38; cf.: “egone hos digitos meos impellere potui, ut falsum perscriberent nomen?” id. Rosc. Com. 1, 1: “volo persolvere, ut expungatur nomen, ne quid debeam,” Plaut. Cist. 1, 3, 40; so, “solvere,” Cic. Att. 6, 2, 7: “expedire, exsolvere,” id. ib. 16, 6, 3: “nomina sua exigere,” to collect one's debts, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 10, § 28: “hoc nomen, quod urget, nunc, cum petitur, dissolvere,” id. Planc. 28, 68: “transcribere in alium,” Liv. 35, 7: “qui venit ad dubium grandi cum codice nomen,” comes with a huge ledger to sue for a doubtful debt, Juv. 7, 110.—

b. Nomina facere, in the case of written obligations, to set down or book the items of debt in the account-book: “nomina se facturum, qua ego vellem die,” Cic. Fam. 7, 23, 1: “emit homo cupidus (Canius) tanti, quanti Pythius voluit et emit instructos: nomina facit (Pythius), negotium conficit,” id. Off. 3, 14, 59: “nomina facturi diligenter in patrimonium et vasa debitoris inquirimus,” Sen. Ben. 1, 1, 2.—

c. Nomen locare, to offer as surety, Phaedr. 1, 16, 1 (dub.).—

d. Transf., an item of debt; and hence, a debtor: “hoc sum assecutus, ut bonum nomen existimer,” i. e. a good payer, Cic. Fam. 5, 6, 2: “lenta nomina non mala,” Sen. Ben. 5, 22, 1; cf. id. ib. 7, 29, 2; Col. 1, 7, 2.—

3. A family, race, stock, people, nation: “C. Octavium in familiam nomenque adoptavit,” Suet. Caes. 83: “Crispum C. Sallustius in nomen ascivit,” Tac. A. 3, 30; Luc. 7, 584.—

4. With national names: nomen Romanum, whatever is called Roman, i. e. the Roman dominion, nation, power; esp. of the army: “gens infestissuma nomini Romano,” Sall. C. 52, 24: CEIVIS ROMANVS NEVE NOMINVS LATINI NEVE SOCIVM QVISQVAM, etc., S. C. de Bacch.; so, “concitatis sociis et nomine Latino,” Cic. Rep. 1, 19, 31; 3, 29, 41: “ubi deletum omnibus videretur nomen Romanum,” Liv. 23, 6, 3: “relicum Romani nominis,” id. 22, 55, 5; 27, 33, 11; 1, 10, 3; cf. id. 9, 7, 1: “Aeolio regnatas nomine terras,” Sil. 14, 70: “Volscūm nomen prope deletum est,” Liv. 3, 8, 10: “nomen Atheniensium tueri,” Just. 5, 6, 9.—

5. Poet.

a. A thing: “infaustum interluit Allia nomen,” Verg. A. 7, 717.—

b. A person: “popularia nomina Drusos,” Luc. 6, 759; 1, 311: “nec fidum femina nomen,” Tib. 3, 4, 61: “in diversa trahunt unum duo nomina pectus,” i. e. the love of a mother and sister, Ov. M. 8, 464; id. H. 8, 30.—

II. Trop.

A. Name, fame, repute, reputation, renown (syn.: “existimatio, fama): hujus magnum nomen fuit,” Cic. Brut. 67, 238: “nomen habere,” id. ib. 69, 244: “magnum in oratoribus nomen habere,” id. Or. 6, 22: “officere nomini alicujus, Liv. praef. § 3: et nos aliquod nomenque decusque Gessimus,” Verg. A. 2, 89: “nomen gerere,” Lact. 1, 20, 3; 4, 29, 15 al.: “multi Lydia nominis Romanā vigui clarior Iliā,” Hor. C. 3, 9, 7: “nomen alicujus stringere,” Ov. Tr. 2, 350: “homines nonnullius in litteris nominis, Plin Ep. 7, 20, 3: parentes, quorum maximum nomen in civitatibus est suis,” Liv. 22, 22, 13.—Of ill repute, bad reputation: malum nomen (only rare and late Lat.): magis eligendum in paupertate nomen bonum quam in divitiis nomen pessimum, Hier. Com. Ep. Tit., Paris, 1546, p. 104 H.—

2. Of inanimate things: “ne vinum nomen perdat,” Cato, R. R. 25: “nec Baccho genus aut pomis sua nomina servat,” Verg. G. 2, 240.—

B. A title, pretext, pretence, color, excuse, account, sake, reason, authority, behalf, etc.: alio nomine et aliā de causā abstulisse. Cic. Rosc. Com. 14, 40: “legis agrariae simulatione atque nomine,” id. Agr. 2, 6, 15: “classis nomine pecuniam imperatam queruntur,” id. Fl. 12, 27: “haec a te peto amicitiae nostrae nomine,” id. Fam. 12, 12, 3; 2, 1, 1: “nomine sceleris conjurationisque damnati,” id. Verr. 2, 5, 5, § 11: “nomine neglegentiae suspectum esse,” id. Fam. 2, 1, 1: “quid exornamus philosophiam, aut quid ejus nomine gloriosi sumus?” id. Tusc. 2, 14, 33: “qui cum luxuriose viverent, non reprehenderentur eo nomine,” id. Fin. 2, 7, 21: “gratias boni viri agebant et tuo nomine gratulabantur,” on your account, id. Phil. 1, 12, 30: “Antonio tuo nomine gratias egi,” on your behalf, id. Att. 1, 16, 16: “legationes tuo nomine proficiscentes,” id. Fam. 3, 8, 2: “quem quidem tibi etiam suo nomine commendo,” for his own sake, id. ib. 13, 21, 2: “meo nomine,” Tac. H. 1, 29: “feminarum suarum nomine,” id. G. 8: “bellum populo Romano suo nomine indixit,” Cic. Cat. 2, 6, 14: “decretae eo nomine supplicationes,” Tac. A. 14, 59; “but: acceptā ex aerario pecuniā tuo nomine,” on your responsibility, Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 7.—

C. A name, as opposed to the reality: “me nomen habere duarum legionum exilium (opp. exercitum habere tantum),” Cic. Att. 5, 15, 1: “Campani magis nomen ad praesidium sociorum, quam vires cum attulissent,” Liv. 7, 29: “nomen amicitia est, nomen inane fides,” Ov. A. A. 1, 740.—

III. In eccl. Lat.,

1. Periphrastically: “invocavit nomen Domini,” Vulg. Gen. 13, 4: “omnipotens nomen ejus,” ib. Exod. 15, 3: “psallam nomini Domini,” ib. Psa. 7, 18: “blasphemare nomen ejus,” ib. Apoc. 13, 6.—

2. Delegated power: “in nomine tuo daemones eicimus,” Vulg. Matt. 7, 22: “in quo nomine fecistis,” ib. Act. 4, 7: “locuti sunt in nomine Domini,” ib. Jacob. 5, 10.

13 nōmĭnātus, ūs, m. nomino,

I. a naming, a name; in gram., a noun (perh. only in Varr.), Varr. L. L. 8, § 52 Müll.; so id. ib. § “63: quod ad nominatuum analogiam pertinet,” id. ib. 9, 52, § 95; id. ib. 10, 1.

14 vŏcābŭlum , i, n. id.,

I. an appellation, designation, name of any thing (cf.: nomen, vox).

I. In gen.: “philosophorum habent disciplinae ex ipsis Vocabula,” Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 33: “nomen est, quo suo quaeque (persona) proprio et certo vocabulo appellatur,” Cic. Inv. 1, 24, 34: “si res suum nomen et proprium vocabulum non habet, ut pes in navi, etc.,” id. de Or. 3, 40, 159: “neque verborum tanta copia sit in nostrā linguā, res ut omnes suis certis ac propriis vocabulis nominentur,” id. Caecin. 18, 51: “rebus non commutatis immutaverunt vocabula,” id. Leg. 1, 13, 38; cf.: “ex more imponens cognata vocabula rebus,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 280: “proferet in lucem speciosa vocabula rerum,” id. Ep. 2, 2, 116; cf. Lucr. 5, 1042: “Chaldaei non ex artis, sed ex gentis vocabulo nominati,” Cic. Div. 1, 1, 2; id. N. D. 1, 15, 38: “vocabula tantum pecuniarum,” id. Pis. 37, 90: “cui nomen neniae: quo vocabulo etiam Graecis cantus lugubres nominantur,” id. Leg. 2, 24, 62: “liberta, cui vocabulum Acte fuit,” Tac. A. 13, 12: “artifex, vocabulo Locusta,” by name, id. ib. 12, 66: “multa renascentur, quae jam cecidere, cadentque, Quae nunc sunt in honore, vocabula,” Hor. A. P. 71: “juncta vocabula sumere,” Ov. F. 3, 511: “ululatus, neque enim alio vocabulo potest exprimi theatris quoque indecora laudatio,” Plin. Ep. 2, 14, 13.—

II. In partic., in gram., a substantive, both in gen. and as an appellative noun in partic. (in contradistinction to nomen, as denoting a proper name; “v. nomen): Aristoteles orationis duas partes esse dicit, vocabula et verba, ut homo et equus, et legit et currit,” Varr. L. L. 8, §§ 11, 12, 45, 52 sq., 80 Müll; Quint. 1, 4, 20; Sen. Ep. 58, 6.

15   nōmen , ĭnis

I. gen. sing. NOMINVS, S. C. de Bacch. Corp. Inscr. Lat. 196, 8), n. for gnōmen, from root gno, whence gnosco, nosco, co-gnosco, a name, appellation (syn. vocabulum).

I. Lit.: “nomen est, quod unicuique personae datur, quo suo quaeque proprio et certo vocabulo appellatur,” Cic. Inv. 1, 24, 134: “imponere nova rebus nomina,” id. Fin. 3, 1, 3: “qui haec rebus nomina posuerunt,” id. Tusc. 3, 5, 10: “appellare aliquem nomine,” id. de Or. 1, 56, 239: “huic urbi nomen Epidamno inditum est,” Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 37; cf. Liv. 7, 2, 6: “Theophrastus divinitate loquendi nomen invenit,” Cic. Or. 19, 62: “lituus ab ejus litui, quo canitur, similitudine nomen invenit,” id. Div. 1, 17, 30: “ut is locus ex calamitate populi Romani nomen caperet,” Caes. B. G. 1, 13 et saep.: “ludi, Pythia de domitae serpentis nomine dicti,” Ov. M. 1, 447: “clari nominis vir,” Vell. 2, 34, 4: “nominis minoris vir,” id. 2, 100, 5; cf. id. 2, 112, 2; 2, 103, 1: est mihi nomen, inditur mihi nomen, with nom.: “cui saltationi Titius nomen est,” Cic. Brut. 62, 225: “eique morbo nomen est avaritia,” id. Tusc. 4, 11, 24: “canibus pigris ... Nomen erit pardus, tigris, leo,” Juv. 8, 36.—With dat.: “haec sunt aedes, hic habet: Lesbonico'st nomen,” Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 110: “juventus nomen fecit Peniculo mihi,” id. Men. 1, 1, 1: “nam mihi est Auxilio nomen,” id. Cist. 1, 3, 6: “huic ego die nomen Trinummo facio,” id. Trin. 4, 2, 1: “nomen Arcturo est mihi,” id. Rud. prol. 5: “cantus cui nomen neniae,” Cic. Leg. 2, 24, 62: “puero ab inopiā nomen Egerio est inditum,” Liv. 1, 34: “est illis strigibus nomen,” Ov. F. 6, 139.—With gen.: “cujus nomen est Viventis,” Vulg. Gen. 25, 11.—Rarely with ad: “ut det nomen ad molas coloniam,” Plaut. Ps. 4, 6, 38.—Nomen dare, edere, profiteri, ad nomina respondere, to give in one's name, be enrolled, enlist; to answer to one's name when summoned to military duty: “ne nomina darent,” Liv. 2, 24: “nomina profiteri,” id. 2, 24: “nominis edendi apud consules potestas,” id. 2, 24: “virgis caesi, qui ad nomina non respondissent,” id. 7, 4; also, “dare nomen in conjurationem,” to join the conspiracy, Tac. A. 15, 48: “ab re nomen habet (terra),” is named for, Liv. 38, 18, 4: “quae (sapientia) divinarum humanarumque rerum cognitione hoc nomen apud antiquos adsequebatur,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 3, 7: “dea (Viriplaca) nomen hoc a placandis viris fertur adsecuta,” Val. Max. 2, 1, 6.—Esp.: “nomen accipere = nominari: turris quae nomen ab insulā accepit,” Caes. B. C. 3, 112, 1; Quint. 3, 3, 13; Just. 1, 5, 1; Tac. A. 6, 37; 15, 74; Plin. Ep. 2, 10, 8.—

2. In partic., the middle name of the three which every freeborn Roman had, as distinguished from the praenomen and cognomen. The nomen distinguished one gens from another, the cognomen one familia from another, and the praenomen one member of the familia from another, Quint. 7, 3, 27.—But sometimes nomen is used in the signif. of praenomen: “id nomen (sc. Gaja),” Cic. Mur. 12, 27.—So, too, in the signif. of cognomen: “Sex. Clodius, cui nomen est Phormio,” Cic. Caecin. 10, 27; cf.: “tamquam habeas tria nomina,” i. e. as if you were a Roman, Juv. 5, 127.—

3. Esp. in phrase: sub nomine, under the assumed name: “qui litteras exitiales Demetrio sub nomine Flaminini adtulerant,” Liv. 40, 54, 9: “sub nomine meo,” Quint. 7, 2, 24: “carmina sub alieno nomine edere,” Suet. Aug. 55: “multa vana sub nomine celebri vulgabantur,” Tac. A. 6, 12; 13, 25; id. H. 1, 5; cf.: “rogatio repente sub unius tribuni nomine promulgatur,” Liv. 43, 16, 6; Suet. Aug. 29; Plin. Pan. 50, 5; cf. also II. B. infra.—

4. A title of power or honor: “imperatoris,” Caes. B. C. 2, 32, 14.—

5. In gram., a noun, Quint. 1, 4, 18; 1, 5, 42 et saep.—

B. Transf.

1. Nomen alicu jus deferre, to bring an accusation against, to accuse a person: “nomen alicujus de parricidio deferre,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28: nomen recipere, to receive the accusation: “palam de sellā ac tribunali pronuntiat: si quis absentem Sthenium rei capitalis reum facere vellet, sese ejus nomen recepturum: et simul, ut nomen deferret, etc.,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 38, § 94; cf. context.—

2. A bond, note, a demand, claim, a debt: tituli debitorum nomina dicuntur praesertim in iis debitis, in quibus hominum nomina scripta sunt, quibus pecuniae commodatae sunt, Ascon. ap. Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 10, § 28: “repromittam istoc nomine solutam rem futuram,” Plaut. As. 2, 4, 48: “si neque in tuas tabulas ullum nomen referres, cum tot tibi nominibus acceptum Curtii referrent,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 39, § 102: “qui tibi, ut ais, certis nominibus grandem pecuniam debuit,” on good bonds, good security, id. Quint. 11, 38; cf.: “egone hos digitos meos impellere potui, ut falsum perscriberent nomen?” id. Rosc. Com. 1, 1: “volo persolvere, ut expungatur nomen, ne quid debeam,” Plaut. Cist. 1, 3, 40; so, “solvere,” Cic. Att. 6, 2, 7: “expedire, exsolvere,” id. ib. 16, 6, 3: “nomina sua exigere,” to collect one's debts, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 10, § 28: “hoc nomen, quod urget, nunc, cum petitur, dissolvere,” id. Planc. 28, 68: “transcribere in alium,” Liv. 35, 7: “qui venit ad dubium grandi cum codice nomen,” comes with a huge ledger to sue for a doubtful debt, Juv. 7, 110.—

b. Nomina facere, in the case of written obligations, to set down or book the items of debt in the account-book: “nomina se facturum, qua ego vellem die,” Cic. Fam. 7, 23, 1: “emit homo cupidus (Canius) tanti, quanti Pythius voluit et emit instructos: nomina facit (Pythius), negotium conficit,” id. Off. 3, 14, 59: “nomina facturi diligenter in patrimonium et vasa debitoris inquirimus,” Sen. Ben. 1, 1, 2.—

c. Nomen locare, to offer as surety, Phaedr. 1, 16, 1 (dub.).—

d. Transf., an item of debt; and hence, a debtor: “hoc sum assecutus, ut bonum nomen existimer,” i. e. a good payer, Cic. Fam. 5, 6, 2: “lenta nomina non mala,” Sen. Ben. 5, 22, 1; cf. id. ib. 7, 29, 2; Col. 1, 7, 2.—

3. A family, race, stock, people, nation: “C. Octavium in familiam nomenque adoptavit,” Suet. Caes. 83: “Crispum C. Sallustius in nomen ascivit,” Tac. A. 3, 30; Luc. 7, 584.—

4. With national names: nomen Romanum, whatever is called Roman, i. e. the Roman dominion, nation, power; esp. of the army: “gens infestissuma nomini Romano,” Sall. C. 52, 24: CEIVIS ROMANVS NEVE NOMINVS LATINI NEVE SOCIVM QVISQVAM, etc., S. C. de Bacch.; so, “concitatis sociis et nomine Latino,” Cic. Rep. 1, 19, 31; 3, 29, 41: “ubi deletum omnibus videretur nomen Romanum,” Liv. 23, 6, 3: “relicum Romani nominis,” id. 22, 55, 5; 27, 33, 11; 1, 10, 3; cf. id. 9, 7, 1: “Aeolio regnatas nomine terras,” Sil. 14, 70: “Volscūm nomen prope deletum est,” Liv. 3, 8, 10: “nomen Atheniensium tueri,” Just. 5, 6, 9.—

5. Poet.

a. A thing: “infaustum interluit Allia nomen,” Verg. A. 7, 717.—

b. A person: “popularia nomina Drusos,” Luc. 6, 759; 1, 311: “nec fidum femina nomen,” Tib. 3, 4, 61: “in diversa trahunt unum duo nomina pectus,” i. e. the love of a mother and sister, Ov. M. 8, 464; id. H. 8, 30.—

II. Trop.

A. Name, fame, repute, reputation, renown (syn.: “existimatio, fama): hujus magnum nomen fuit,” Cic. Brut. 67, 238: “nomen habere,” id. ib. 69, 244: “magnum in oratoribus nomen habere,” id. Or. 6, 22: “officere nomini alicujus, Liv. praef. § 3: et nos aliquod nomenque decusque Gessimus,” Verg. A. 2, 89: “nomen gerere,” Lact. 1, 20, 3; 4, 29, 15 al.: “multi Lydia nominis Romanā vigui clarior Iliā,” Hor. C. 3, 9, 7: “nomen alicujus stringere,” Ov. Tr. 2, 350: “homines nonnullius in litteris nominis, Plin Ep. 7, 20, 3: parentes, quorum maximum nomen in civitatibus est suis,” Liv. 22, 22, 13.—Of ill repute, bad reputation: malum nomen (only rare and late Lat.): magis eligendum in paupertate nomen bonum quam in divitiis nomen pessimum, Hier. Com. Ep. Tit., Paris, 1546, p. 104 H.—

2. Of inanimate things: “ne vinum nomen perdat,” Cato, R. R. 25: “nec Baccho genus aut pomis sua nomina servat,” Verg. G. 2, 240.—

B. A title, pretext, pretence, color, excuse, account, sake, reason, authority, behalf, etc.: alio nomine et aliā de causā abstulisse. Cic. Rosc. Com. 14, 40: “legis agrariae simulatione atque nomine,” id. Agr. 2, 6, 15: “classis nomine pecuniam imperatam queruntur,” id. Fl. 12, 27: “haec a te peto amicitiae nostrae nomine,” id. Fam. 12, 12, 3; 2, 1, 1: “nomine sceleris conjurationisque damnati,” id. Verr. 2, 5, 5, § 11: “nomine neglegentiae suspectum esse,” id. Fam. 2, 1, 1: “quid exornamus philosophiam, aut quid ejus nomine gloriosi sumus?” id. Tusc. 2, 14, 33: “qui cum luxuriose viverent, non reprehenderentur eo nomine,” id. Fin. 2, 7, 21: “gratias boni viri agebant et tuo nomine gratulabantur,” on your account, id. Phil. 1, 12, 30: “Antonio tuo nomine gratias egi,” on your behalf, id. Att. 1, 16, 16: “legationes tuo nomine proficiscentes,” id. Fam. 3, 8, 2: “quem quidem tibi etiam suo nomine commendo,” for his own sake, id. ib. 13, 21, 2: “meo nomine,” Tac. H. 1, 29: “feminarum suarum nomine,” id. G. 8: “bellum populo Romano suo nomine indixit,” Cic. Cat. 2, 6, 14: “decretae eo nomine supplicationes,” Tac. A. 14, 59; “but: acceptā ex aerario pecuniā tuo nomine,” on your responsibility, Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 7.—

C. A name, as opposed to the reality: “me nomen habere duarum legionum exilium (opp. exercitum habere tantum),” Cic. Att. 5, 15, 1: “Campani magis nomen ad praesidium sociorum, quam vires cum attulissent,” Liv. 7, 29: “nomen amicitia est, nomen inane fides,” Ov. A. A. 1, 740.—

III. In eccl. Lat.,

1. Periphrastically: “invocavit nomen Domini,” Vulg. Gen. 13, 4: “omnipotens nomen ejus,” ib. Exod. 15, 3: “psallam nomini Domini,” ib. Psa. 7, 18: “blasphemare nomen ejus,” ib. Apoc. 13, 6.—

2. Delegated power: “in nomine tuo daemones eicimus,” Vulg. Matt. 7, 22: “in quo nomine fecistis,” ib. Act. 4, 7: “locuti sunt in nomine Domini,” ib. Jacob. 5, 10.

16 appellātīvus , a, um, adj. id.; in gram.,

I. appellative, belonging to a species: “nomen (opp. nomen proprium),” Charis. p. 126 P.; Prisc. p. 579 P. al.

17 vŏcābŭlum , i, n. id.,

I. an appellation, designation, name of any thing (cf.: nomen, vox).

I. In gen.: “philosophorum habent disciplinae ex ipsis Vocabula,” Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 33: “nomen est, quo suo quaeque (persona) proprio et certo vocabulo appellatur,” Cic. Inv. 1, 24, 34: “si res suum nomen et proprium vocabulum non habet, ut pes in navi, etc.,” id. de Or. 3, 40, 159: “neque verborum tanta copia sit in nostrā linguā, res ut omnes suis certis ac propriis vocabulis nominentur,” id. Caecin. 18, 51: “rebus non commutatis immutaverunt vocabula,” id. Leg. 1, 13, 38; cf.: “ex more imponens cognata vocabula rebus,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 280: “proferet in lucem speciosa vocabula rerum,” id. Ep. 2, 2, 116; cf. Lucr. 5, 1042: “Chaldaei non ex artis, sed ex gentis vocabulo nominati,” Cic. Div. 1, 1, 2; id. N. D. 1, 15, 38: “vocabula tantum pecuniarum,” id. Pis. 37, 90: “cui nomen neniae: quo vocabulo etiam Graecis cantus lugubres nominantur,” id. Leg. 2, 24, 62: “liberta, cui vocabulum Acte fuit,” Tac. A. 13, 12: “artifex, vocabulo Locusta,” by name, id. ib. 12, 66: “multa renascentur, quae jam cecidere, cadentque, Quae nunc sunt in honore, vocabula,” Hor. A. P. 71: “juncta vocabula sumere,” Ov. F. 3, 511: “ululatus, neque enim alio vocabulo potest exprimi theatris quoque indecora laudatio,” Plin. Ep. 2, 14, 13.—

II. In partic., in gram., a substantive, both in gen. and as an appellative noun in partic. (in contradistinction to nomen, as denoting a proper name; “v. nomen): Aristoteles orationis duas partes esse dicit, vocabula et verba, ut homo et equus, et legit et currit,” Varr. L. L. 8, §§ 11, 12, 45, 52 sq., 80 Müll; Quint. 1, 4, 20; Sen. Ep. 58, 6.

 

18 incorpŏrālis , e, adj. id.,

I. bodiless, incorporeal (post-Aug.): “quod est aut corporale est aut incorporale,” Sen. Ep. 58, 11: “jus,” Quint. 5, 10, 116: nomina, that denote something incorporeal, e. g. virtus, Prisc. 2, p. 579.—Hence, subst.: incorpŏrāle , is, n., an incorporeal thing, that which is unsubstantial, immaterial: “dicimus enim quaedam corporalia esse, quaedam incorporalia,” Sen. Ep. 58, 11 sqq.; “89, 16: a corporibus se ad incorporalia transtulit,” id. ib. 90, 29.—

II. Esp., law t. t., incorporeal, that which is not perceptible by any sense: res, rights to or in things (opp. corporales, the things themselves), Gai. Inst. 2, 14 sqq.—Hence, subst.: incorpŏrāle , is, n., an intangible possession, a right: incorporalia sunt quae tangi non possunt, Gai. Inst. l. l. Abdy ad loc.; 3, 83 al.; id. Ben. 6, 2, 2. — Hence, adv.: incorpŏrālĭter , incorporeally, Claud. Mam. de Stat. An. 3, 14.

19 corpŏrālis , e, adj. corpus,

I. corporeal, pertaining to the body (post-Aug.; “most freq. in the jurists): voluptates,” Sen. Ep. 78, 22: “sapientiam Stoici corporalem dicunt,” id. ib. 117, 2: “pignora,” Dig. 1, 1, 15: “possessio,” ib. 13, 7, 40: “dicimus quaedam corporalia esse, quaedam incorporalia,” Sen. Ep. 58, 11.—Adv.: corpŏrālĭter , corporally, bodily, Petr. 61, 7; Dig. 41, 2, 1; Arn. 5, p. 168.

20 collectīvus (conl- ), a, um, adj. colligo. *

I. Collected, gathered together: “umor,” Sen. Q. N. 3, 7, 3.—

II. Trop.

A. In the rehet. lang. of Quint., pertaining to a syllogism, syllogistic, ratiocinatire: “status,” Quint. 3, 6, 46; 3, 6, 66: “quaestio,” id. 7, 1, 60.—

B. In the lang. of grammar: nomen, a collective noun; as exercitus, populus, etc., Prisc. p. 581 P. al.

21 artĭcŭlus , i, m. dim. 2. artus,

I. a small member connecting various parts of the body, a joint, knot, knuckle.

I. A.. Lit.: “nodi corporum, qui vocantur articuli,” Plin. 11, 37, 88, § 217: “hominis digiti articulos habent ternos, pollex binos,” id. 11, 43, 99, § 244: “summus caudae articulus,” id. 8, 41, 63, § 153 al.: “crura sine nodis articulisque,” Caes. B. G. 6, 27: “ipso in articulo, quo jungitur capiti cervix,” Liv. 27, 49: “auxerat articulos macies,” i. e. had made more joints, had made the bones visible, Ov. M. 8, 807: “articulorum dolores habere,” i. e. gouty pains, Cic. Att. 1, 5 fin.; cf. Cels. 5, 18: postquam illi justa cheragra Contudit articulos, * Hor. S. 2, 7, 16; cf. Pers. 5, 58: “gladiatorem vehementis impetus excipit adversarii mollis articulus,” Quint. 2, 12, 2.—Hence, molli articulo tractare aliquem, to touch one gently, softly, Quint. 11, 2, 70.—Of plants: “ineunte vere in iis (vitibus), quae relicta sunt, exsistit, tamquam ad articulos sarmentorum, ea quae gemma dicitur,” Cic. Sen. 15, 53; Plin. 16, 24, 36, § 88: “ante quam seges in articulum eat,” Col. 2, 11, 9; so Plin. 18, 17, 45, § 159. —Of mountains, a hill connecting several larger mountains: “montium articuli,” Plin. 37, 13, 77, § 201.—

B. With an extension of the idea, a limb, member, in gen. (cf. 2. artus), * Lucr. 3, 697.—Hence also for a finger, Prop. 2, 34, 80; so Ov. H. 10, 140; id. P. 2, 3, 18: “quot manus atteruntur, ut unus niteat articulus!” Plin. 2, 63, 63, § 158: “ab eo missus est articulus manūs,” Vulg. Dan. 5, 24: “aspiciebat articulos manūs,” ib. ib. 5, 5: erexit me super articulos manuum mearum, on the fingers or palms of my hands, ib. ib. 10, 10. —

II. Trop.

A. Of discourse, a member, part, division: articulus dicitur, cum singula verba intervallis distinguuntur caesā oratione, hoc modo: acrimoniā, voce, vultu adversarios perterruisti, Auct. ad Her. 4, 19: continuatio verborum soluta multo est aptior atque jucundior, si est articulis membrisque (κόμμασι καὶ κώλοις) distincta, quam si continuata ac producta, Cic. de Or. 3, 48, 186: (genus orationis) fluctuans et dissolutum eo quod sine nervis et articulis fluctuat huc et illuc, Auct. ad Her. 4, 11.— “Hence,” a short clause, Dig. 36, 1, 27; “also,” a single word, ib. 35, 1, 4: “articulus Est praesentis temporis demonstrationem continet,” ib. 34, 2, 35: “hoc articulo Quisque omnes significantur,” ib. 28, 5, 29.—In gram. the pronn. hic and quis, Varr. L. L. 8, § 45 Müll.; the article, Quint. 1, 4, 19.—

B. Of time.

1. A point of time, a moment: “commoditatis omnes articulos scio,” Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 31.—With tempus: “qui hunc in summas angustias adductum putaret, ut eum suis conditionibus in ipso articulo temporis astringeret,” at the most critical moment, Cic. Quinct. 5, 19: “in ipsis quos dixi temporum articulis,” Plin. 2, 97, 99, § 216: si de singulis articulis temporum deliberabimus, August. ap. Suet. Claud. 4; “also without tempus: in ipso articulo,” at the fit moment, at the nick of time, Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 21.—With dies: “in articulo diei illius ingressus est,” on that very day, Vulg. Gen. 7, 13.—And with res: “in articulo rerum,” Curt. 3, 5; also in articulo, instantly, immediately, = statim, Cod. Just. 1, 33, 3.—Hence with the idea extended,

2. A space, division of time: “hi cardines singulis articulis dividuntur,” Plin. 18, 25, 59, § 222: “octo articuli lunae,” id. 18, 35, 79, § 350: articulus austrinus, i. e. in which auster blows, id. 17, 2, 2, § 11.—

C. Of other abstract things, part, division, point: per eosdem articulos (i.e. per easdem honorum partes) et gradus producere, August. ap. Suet. Claud. 4: “stationes in mediis latitudinum articulis, quae vocant ecliptica,” Plin. 2, 15, 13, § 68; Dig. 1, 3, 12: “ventum est ergo ad ipsum articulum causae, i. e. ventum ad rei cardinem,” the turning-point, Arn. 7, p. 243.

22 prō-nōmen , ĭnis, n.;

I. “in gram.,” a pronoun, Varr. L. L. 8, § 45 Müll.; Quint. 1, 4, 19; 1, 5, 47; 26; 11, 3, 87 et saep.

23 prō-vŏcābŭlum , i, n.,

I. a word that is used for another, a pronoun, Auct. ap. Varr. L. L. 8, § 45 Müll.

24 rĕcī^prŏcus , a, um, adj. perh. from reque proque, back and forth.

I. Lit., turning back the same way, returning, receding (poet. and in post-Aug. prose): apud Attium: reciproca tendens nervo equino concita Tela; “reciproca est, quom unde quid profectum, redit eo,” flung back, Varr. L. L. 7, § 80 Müll. (an imitation of the Homeric παλίντονα τόξα).—Esp. freq. of receding waters: “vadosum ac reciprocum mare,” Plin. 5, 4, 4, § 26: “amnes,” id. 9, 57, 83, § 176; 16, 36, 66, § 169; Tac. A. 1, 70; “and of the ebb and flow,” Plin. 2, 27, 99, § 213; hence, poet., an epithet of the sea, Sil. 3, 60.—

II. Trop., alternating, reciprocal, etc.: “voces,” reverberating echoes, Plin. 2, 44, 44, § 115: argumenta, retorted, Gr. ἀντιστρέφοντα, Gell. 5, 10, 2: “ars,” alternaling, reciprocal, Plin. 11, 2, 1, § 3; cf. “taliones,” Gell. 20, 1, 35: “vices pugnandi,” id. 15, 18, 3: “epistulae,” Hier. Ep. 5, 1: “munus,” Aus. Ep. 7.—

2. In gram., pronomen, a reciprocal pronoun, as sibi, se, Prisc. p. 939 P.: versus, which has the same metre when the order of words is reversed, e. g. Verg. A. 1, 8 (4); Diom. p. 515 P.— Hence, adv.: rĕcī^prŏcē , alternately, to and fro (cf.: “invicem, vicissim): fluere,” Varr. R. R. 3, 17, 9.— Transf., conversely, Prisc. 1142 P.

25 possessīvus , a, um, adj. possideo

I. of or relating to possession, possessive; a gram. t. t. (post-Aug.): “nomina (e. g. Ciceronianus, Evandrius),” Charis. p. 128 P. and A.: “pronomina (e. g. meus, tuus, suus),” Quint. 1, 5, 45: casus, the possessive or genitive case, Prisc. p. 670 P.

26 dēmonstrātīvus , a, um, adj. demonstro,

I. pointing out, designating.

I. In gen. (very rarely): “digitus,” the indexfinger, forefinger, Cael. Aur. Tard. 5, 1, 21.—

II. In rhetor., demonstrative, = ἐγκωμιαστικόν: genus (orationis), a branch of rhetoric employed in praising or censuring, i. e. laudatory or vituperative (usuually the former), Cic. Inv. 1, 5, 7; Quint. 3, 4, 14; 2, 10, 11: “causa,” Cic. Inv. 2, 4: “materia,” Quint. 3, 8, 53; 11, 1, 48: “pars orationis,” id. 2, 21, 23; cf. 7, 4, 2.—

B. Subst.: dēmonstrātīva , ae, f., demonstrative kind of oratory, Quint. 3, 8, 63 sq.; 3, 8, 8.—* Adv.: dēmonstrātīvē , demonstratively, Macr. Somn. Scip. 2, 16.

27 rĕlātīvus , a, um, adj. refero,

I. having reference or relation, referring, relative (post-class.), Arn. 7, p. 221: “qualitas,” Mart. Cap. 5, § 451: “appellatio,” Aug. Trin. 5, 16.— “In gram.: pronomen,” Prisc. p. 1063 sq. P.— Adv.: rĕlātīvē , relatively: “vicinus et amicus relative dicuntur,” Aug. Trin. 5, 71.

28 interrŏgātīvus , a, um, adj. interrogo,

I. of or belonging to a question, interrogative: “adverbia,” Prisc. p. 1059 P.—Adv.: interrŏgātīvē , interrogatively, Ps.-Ascon. ap. Verr. 2, 1, 56; Tert. adv. Marc. 4, 41; Schol. Vet. Juv. 9, 48.

29 infīnītīvus , a, um, adj. id.,

I. unlimited, indefinite: modus, or absol.: infī-nītīvus , i, m.; “in gram.,” the infinitive, Mart. Cap. 3, § 310 sqq.; Isid. Orig. 1, 8; Diom. p. 331 P. al.

30 in-fīnītus , a, um, adj.,

I. not enclosed within boundaries, boundless, unlimited.

I. Lit.: “quod finitum est habet extremum ... nihil igitur cum habeat extremum, infinitum sit necesse est,” Cic. Div. 2, 50, 103: “aër, materia,” id. Ac. 2, 37, 118: “imperium,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 91: potestas, id: Agr. 2, 13, 33; Liv. 3, 9: magnitudines infinitissimae, Boëth. Inst. Arithm. 1, 4. — Subst.: infī-nītum , i, n., boundless space, the infinite: “ex infinito coorta,” Lucr. 5, 367.—

II. Transf.

A. Without end, endless, infinite: “altitudo,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 48: “spes,” id. Deiot. 5, 13: “odium,” id. Balb. 27, 62: “labor,” id. de Or. 1, 1: “licentia,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 94, § 220: “imperium,” id. ib. 2, 3, 91, § “213: potestas,” id. Agr. 2, 13, 33: “occupationes,” Nep. Att. 20, 2: “pretium,” immoderate, Dig. 35, 2, 61: “sin cuipiam nimis infinitum videtur,” too prolix, Cic. de Or. 1, 15, 65. — Subst.: infīnītum , i, n., an infinitude, an endless amount or number: “infinitum auri,” Eutr. 9, 9: ad or in infinitum, to infinity, without end: “haec (ars statuaria) ad infinitum effloruit,” Plin. 34, 7, 16, § 35: “crescere,” id. 34, 2, 3, § 5: “durescere,” id. 13, 9, 18, § 62: “sectio in infinitum,” Quint. 1, 10 fin.: “ne in infinitum abeamus,” Plin. 17, 25, 38, § 243: “infinitum quantum,” beyond all measure, exceedingly, extraordinarily, Plin. 18, 28, 68, n. 3, § “277: infinito plus or magis,” infinitely more, far more, Quint. 3, 4, 25; 11, 3, 172.—

B. Innumerable, countless: “multitudo librorum,” Cic. Tusc. 2, 2, 6: “multitudo,” id. Off. 1, 16, 52: “causarum varietas,” id. de Or. 1, 5, 16; Caes. B. G. 5, 12, 3: “legum infinita multitudo,” Tac. A. 3, 25: “numerus annorum,” Gell. 14, 1, 18: “pietatis exempla,” Plin. 7, 36, 36, § 121: pecunia ex infinitis rapinis, Auct. B. Alex. 64, 4; Spart. Hadr. 20, 5; Eutr. 1, 3; 3, 20 al.—

C. Indefinite.

1. In gen.: infinitior distributio, where no person or time is mentioned or implied, Cic. Top. 8: “quaestio,” id. Part. Or. 18: “res,” id. de Or. 1, 31: “conexa,” indefinite conclusions, id. Fat. 8.—Adv.: “in infinito,” to infinity, everywhere, at pleasure, Dig. 8, 2, 24; 8, 1, 9.—

2. In gram.: “verbum,” i. e. the infinitive, Quint. 9, 3, 9; also absol., id. 1, 6, 7 and 8: “articulus,” an indefinite pronoun, Varr. L. L. 8, § 45; 50 Müll.: vocabula, appellative nouns (as vir, mulier), ib. § 80.— Adv.

A. infīnītē .

1. Without bounds, without end, infinitely: “ne infinite feratur ut flumen oratio,” Cic. Or. 68, 228: “concupiscere,” excessively, id. Par. 6, 3: “dividere,” id. Ac. 1, 7: “perorare,” without cessation, constantly, id. Or. 36 fin.—

2. Indefinitely, in general: “referre de re publica,” Gell. 14, 7, 9.—

B. in-fīnītō (rare ), immensely, vastly: “magis delectare,” Quint. 11. 3, 4: “magis flexa sunt,” id. 8, 4, 25: “plus cogitare,” id. ib.: “infinito praestare,” Plin. 25, 8, 53, § 94.

31 adjectĭo , ōnis, f. id.,

I. an adding to, addition, annexation.

I. In gen.: “Romana res adjectione populi Albani aucta,” Liv. 1, 30: “illiberalis,” a small addition, id. 38, 14 ext.: “caloris,” Sen. Ep. 189: “litterarum,” Quint. 1, 5, 16; also the permission of adding, etc. (cf.: “accessus, aditus): Hispalensibus familiarum adjectiones dedit,” he granted to them the right of settling new families, Tac. II. 1, 78.—More freq.,

II. Esp., as t. t.

A. In archit.

1. A projection in the pedestal of columns, the cornice of the pedestal, Vitr. 3, 2.—

B. In medicine, a strengthening, invigorating remedy: “quae (i. e. diseases) non detractionibus, sed adjectionibus curantur,” Vitr. 1, 6, 3.—

C. In rhet., the repetition of the same word, e. g. occidi, occidi, Quint. 9, 3, 28 (in Cic., adjunctio, q. v.).—

D. In auctions, the addition to a bid, Dig. 18, 2, 17 al.; cf. adjicio.

32 ĕpĭthĕton , i, n., = ἐπίθετον, in gram.,

I. an epithet, adjective, Quint. 8, 2, 10; 8, 3, 20; Macr. S. 6, 5 al.

33 jungo , nxi, nctum, 3, v. a. Sanscr. jug, junagmi, to unite; juk, joined; Goth. juk; O. H. Germ. joh, joch; Gr. ζυγ, ζεύγνυμι, ζυγός, ζυγόν,

I. to join or unite together, connect, attach, fasten, yoke, harness.

I. Lit.

A. In gen.

1. With acc.: “Narcissum et florem anethi,” Verg. E. 2, 48: “pontes et propugnacula,” id. A. 9, 170: “nemoris carentia sensu robora,” Claud. B. G. 17: “gradus,” to close the ranks, Sil. 4, 372: “montes,” to heap up, Val. Fl. 1, 198: “ostia,” to shut, Juv. 9, 105; cf.: “junctas quatere fenestras,” Hor. C. 1, 25, 1: “oscula,” to exchange, Ov. M. 2, 357; cf. id. Am. 2, 5, 59; Petr. 67: “da jungere dextram,” to clasp, Verg. A. 6, 697: “cur dextrae jungere dextram non datur,” id. ib. 1, 408; cf.: “quas junximus hospitio dextras,” id. ib. 3, 83; “11, 165: duos sinus,” Plin. 5, 29, 31, § 116: “juncto ponte milites transmittit,” Tac. A. 1, 49.—So with abl. of means or manner: “Ticinum ponte,” to span, Liv. 21, 45, 1: “amnem ponte,” Plin. 5, 24, 21, § 86: “ratibus flumen,” to bridge, Liv. 21, 47, 2; cf.: “qui biduo vix locum rate jungendo flumini inventum tradunt,” id. 21, 47, 6: “eo omnia vallo et fossa,” id. 38, 4, 6: “plumbum nigrum albo,” Plin. 33, 5, 30, § 94; cf.: “nam calamus cera jungitur,” Tib. 2, 5, 32: “illos defendit numerus junctaeque umbone phalanges,” Juv. 2, 46: “erga juncta est mihi foedere dextra,” Verg. A. 8, 169: “Pompei acies junxerat in seriem nexis umbonibus arma,” Luc. 7, 453. —

2. With dat. of indir. object: “hoc opus ad turrim hostium admovent, ut aedificio jungatur,” Caes. B. C. 2, 10 fin.: “humano capiti cervicem equinam,” Hor. A. P. 2: “mortua corpora vivis,” Verg. A. 8, 485; cf.: “his tignis contraria duo juncta,” Caes. B. G. 3, 17, 5: “se Romanis,” Liv. 24, 49, 1: “exercitum sibi,” Vell. 2, 80, 1: “socia arma Rutulis,” Liv. 1, 2, 3: “victores Germani juncturi se Pannoniis,” Suet. Tib. 17: “cervicem meam amplexui,” Petr. 86 dub. (Büch., vinxit amplexu): “dextra dextrae jungitur,” Ov. M. 6, 447; cf. Verg. A. 1, 408 supra: “aeri aes plumbo fit uti jungatur ab albo,” Lucr. 6, 1079: “juncta est vena arteriis,” Cels. 2, 10: “Comius incensum calcaribus equum jungit equo Quadrati,” drives against, Hirt. B. G. 8, 48.—

3. With inter se: “tigna bina inter se,” Caes. B. G. 3, 17, 3: “maxime autem corpora inter se juncta permanent, cum, etc.,” Cic. N. D. 2, 45, 115: “disparibus calamis inter se junctis,” Ov. M. 1, 712: “saltus duo alti inter se juncti,” Liv. 9, 2, 7.—

4. With cum: “cum Bruto Cassioque vires suas,” Vell. 2, 65, 1: “legiones se cum Caesare juncturae,” id. 2, 110, 1: “erat cum pede pes junctus,” Ov. M. 9, 44: “lecto mecum junctus in uno,” id. H. 13, 117: “digitis medio cum pollice junctis,” id. F. 5, 433: “lingua cum subjecta parte juncta est,” Cels. 7, 12, 4.—

B. Esp.

1. To harness, yoke, attach.

(a). Of animals: angues ingentes alites juncti jugo, Pac. ap. Cic. Inv. 1, 19, 27 (Trag. v. 397 Rib.): “junge pares,” i. e. in pairs, Verg. G. 3, 169; Grat. Cyneg. 263: “nec jungere tauros norant,” Verg. A. 8, 316: “currus et quatuor equos,” id. G. 3, 114: “grypes equis,” id. E. 8, 27 Forbig.: “curru jungit Halaesus Equos,” id. A. 7, 724: “leones ad currum,” Plin. 8, 16, 21, § 54: “mulis e proximo pistrino ad vehiculum junctis,” Suet. Caes. 31.—

(b). Of a vehicle (rare): “reda equis juncta,” Cic. Att. 6, 1, 25: “neve (mulier) juncto vehiculo veheretur,” Liv. 34, 1, 3: “juncta vehicula, pleraque onusta, mille admodum capiuntur,” id. 42, 65, 3. —

2. Of wounds, etc., to join, bring together, unite, heal: “ego vulnera doctum jungere Etiona petam,” Stat. Th. 10, 733: “parotidas suppuratas,” Scrib. Comp. 206: “oras (tumoris),” Cels. 7, 17, 1: “oras vulneris,” id. 5, 4, 23 al.—

3. Of lands, territories, etc.: “juncta pharetratis Sarmatis ora Getis,” adjoining, Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 110; cf.: “juncta Aquilonibus Arctos,” id. M. 2, 132: “quibus (campis) junctae paludes erant,” Front. Strat. 2, 5, 6; Vell. 2, 110, 4: “fundos Apuliae,” to add, join to, Petr. 77: “longos jungere fines agrorum,” Luc. 1, 167.—

4. To connect in time, cause to follow immediately: “cum diei noctem pervigilem junxisset,” Just. 12, 13, 7: “somnum morti,” Petr. 79: “vidit hic annus Ventidium consularem praetextam jungentem praetoriae,” Vell. 2, 65, 3: “nulla natio tam mature consino belli bellum junxit,” id. 2, 110, 5: “junge, puer, cyathos, atque enumerare labora,” Stat. S. 1, 5, 10: “laborem difficilius est repetere quam jungere,” to resume than to continue, Plin. Ep. 4, 9, 10.—So of pronunciation: “si jungas (opp. interpunctis quibusdam),” Quint. 9, 4, 108.—

5. Milit. t. t., of troops, an army, etc., to join, unite: “cum juncti essent,” Liv. 25, 35; 25, 37: “exercitum Pompei sibi,” Vell. 2, 80, 1: “junctis exercitious,” Vell. 2, 113, 1: “cum collegae se junxisset,” Front. Strat. 1, 1, 9; so, “exercitum,” id. ib. 1, 2, 9: “Ajacem naves suas Atheniensibus junxisse,” Quint. 5, 11, 40.—

6. To add, give in addition: “commoda praeterea jungentur multa caducis,” Juv. 9, 89.—

7. In mal. part.: “corpora,” Ov. M. 10, 464: “turpia corpora,” id. H. 9, 134: tu mihi juncta toro, id. F. 3, 511; id. R. Am. 408: “si jungitur ulla Ursidio,” Juv. 6, 41; 6, 448; cf. “Venerem,” Tib. 1, 9, 76; Ov. H. 353; id. R. Am. 407.

II. Transf.

A. In gen., of abstract things, to bring together, join, unite: “cum hominibus nostris consuetudines, amicitias, res rationesque jungebat,” Cic. Deiot. 9, 27: “omnem naturam, quae non solitaria sit ... sed cum alio juncta atque conexa, etc.,” id. N. D. 2, 11, 29: “an virtus et voluptas inter se jungi copularique possint,” id. de Or. 1, 51, 122: “sapientiam junctam habere eloquentiae,” id. ib. 3, 35, 142: “indignationem conquestioni,” id. Inv. 2, 11, 36: “insignis improbitas et scelere juncta,” id. de Or. 2, 58, 237: “plura crimina junguntur,” are combined, Quint. 4, 4, 5.—

B. Esp.

1. Of persons, to join, unite, bring together, associate, in love, marriage, relationship, etc.: “cum impari,” Liv. 1, 46: “cum pare,” Ov. F. 4, 98: “alicujus filiam secum matrimonio,” Curt. 5, 3, 12: “si tibi legitimis pactam junctamque tabellis non es amaturus,” Juv. 6, 200: “juncta puella viro,” Ov. A. A. 1, 682; id. Tr. 2, 284. —Of animals, etc.: “Appulis jungentur capreae lupis,” Hor. C. 1, 33, 8: “variis albae junguntur columbac,” Ov. H. 15, 37: “unaque nos sibi operā amicos junget,” Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 32: “ut quos certus amor junxit,” Ov. M. 4, 156: “amicos,” Hor. S. 1, 3, 54: “Geminum mecum tua in me beneficia junxerunt,” Plin. Ep. 10, 26, 1: “puer puero junctus amicitia,” Ov. P. 4, 3, 12.—Esp., of a treaty, alliance, etc.: “si populus Romanus foedere jungeretur regi,” Liv. 26, 24; Just. 15, 4, 24. —

2. Of things, to make by joining, enter into: “pacem cum Aenea, deinde adfinitatem,” Liv. 1, 1: “nova foedera,” id. 7, 30: “cum Hispanis amicitiam,” Just. 43, 5, 3: “societatem cum eo metu potentiae ejus,” id. 22, 2, 6: “foedus cum eo amicitiamque,” Liv. 24, 48; 23, 33: “juncta societas Hannibali,” id. 24, 6: “foedera,” id. 7, 30: “jungendae societatis gratia,” Just. 20, 4, 2.—

3. Of words, etc., to join, unite.

(a). Esp., gram. t. t.: verba jungere, to make by joining, to compound: “jungitur verbum ex corrupto et integro, ut malevolus,” Quint. 1, 5, 68: “in jungendo aut in derivando,” id. 8, 3, 31; so, “juncta verba,” Cic. Or. 56, 186; id. Part. Or. 15, 53.—

(b). To connect so as to sound agreeably: “quantum interest ... verba eadem qua compositione vel in textu jungantur vel in fine claudantur,” Quint. 9, 4, 15.—Hence, P. a.: junc-tus , a, um, joined, united, connected, associated: “in opere male juncto,” Quint. 12, 9, 17.—Comp.: “causa fuit propior et cum exitu junctior,” Cic. Fat. 16, 36.—Sup.: “junctissimus illi comes,” most attached, Ov. M. 5, 69: “principum prosperis et alii fruantur: adversae ad junctissimos pertineant,” their nearest of kin, Tac. H. 4, 52.

34 partĭcĭpĭum , ii, n. particeps,

I. a sharing, partaking, participation.

I. Lit. (post-class.): “omni ad illa participio in posterum abstinere,” Cod. Just. 1, 4, 34, § 3. —Far more freq.,

II. Transf., in gram., a verbal form which partakes of the functions of a noun, a participle, Varr. L. L. 8, § 58; 9, § 110 Müll.; Quint. 1, 4, 19; 27; 1, 5, 47 et saep.

35 dīco , xi, ctum, 3

I. praes. DEICO, Inscr. Orell. 4848; imp. usu. dic; cf. duc, fac, fer, from duco, etc., DEICVNTO, and perf. DEIXSERINT, P. C. de Therm. ib. 3673; imp. dice, Naev. ap. Fest. p. 298, 29 Müll.; Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 109; id. Bac. 4, 4, 65; id. Merc. 1, 2, 47 al.; cf. Quint. 1, 6, 21; fut. dicem = dicam, Cato ap. Quint. 1, 7, 23; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 72, 6 Müll.—Another form of the future is dicebo, Novius ap. Non. 507 (Com. v. 8 Rib.). —Perf. sync.: “dixti,” Plaut. As. 4, 2, 14; id. Trin. 2, 4, 155; id. Mil. 2, 4, 12 et saep.; Ter. And. 3, 1, 1; 3, 2, 38; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 100 et saep.; Cic. Fin. 2, 3, 10; id. N. D. 3, 9, 23; id. Caecin. 29, 82; acc. to Quint. 9, 3, 22.— Perf. subj.: “dixis,” Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 46; Caecil. ap. Gell. 7, 17 fin.: “dixem = dixissem,” Plaut. Pseud. 1, 5, 84; inf. dixe = dix isse, Plaut. Fragm. ap. Non. 105, 23; Varr. ib. 451, 16; Arn. init.; Aus. Sept. Sap. de Cleob. 8; inf. praes. pass. dicier, Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 32; Vatin. in Cic. Fam. 5, 9 al.), v. a. root DIC = ΔΕΙΚ in δείκνυμι; lit., to show; cf. δίκη, and Lat. dicis, ju-dex, dicio, to say, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state; to mean, intend (for syn. cf.: for, loquor, verba facio, dicto, dictito, oro, inquam, aio, fabulor, concionor, pronuntio, praedico, recito, declamo, affirmo, assevero, contendo; also, nomino, voco, alloquor, designo, nuncupo; also, decerno, jubeo, statuo, etc.; cf. also, nego.—The person addressed is usually put in dat., v. the foll.: dicere ad aliquem, in eccl. Lat., stands for the Gr. εἰπεῖν πρός τινα, Vulg. Luc. 2, 34 al.; cf. infra I. B. 2. γ).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: “Amphitruonis socium nae me esse volui dicere,” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 228: “advenisse familiarem dicito,” id. ib. 1, 1, 197: “haec uti sunt facta ero dicam,” id. ib. 1, 1, 304; cf. ib. 2, 1, 23: “signi dic quid est?” id. ib. 1, 1, 265: “si dixero mendacium,” id. ib. 1, 1, 43; cf. “opp. vera dico,” id. ib. 1, 1, 238 al.: “quo facto aut dicto adest opus,” id. ib. 1, 1, 15; cf.: “dictu opus est,” Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 68: “nihil est dictu facilius,” id. Phorm. 2, 1, 70: “turpe dictu,” id. Ad. 2, 4, 11: “indignis si male dicitur, bene dictum id esse dico,” Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 27: “ille, quem dixi,” whom I have mentioned, named, Cic. de Or. 3, 12, 45 et saep.: vel dicam = vel potius, or rather: “stuporem hominis vel dicam pecudis attendite,” Cic. Phil. 2, 12, 30; cf.: “mihi placebat Pomponius maxime vel dicam minime displicebat,” id. Brut. 57, 207; so id. ib. 70, 246; id. Fam. 4, 7, 3 al.—

b. Dicitur, dicebatur, dictum est, impers. with acc. and inf., it is said, related, maintained, etc.; or, they say, affirm, etc.: de hoc (sc. Diodoro) Verri dicitur, habere eum, etc., it is reported to Verres that, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 18: “non sine causa dicitur, ad ea referri omnes nostras cogitationes,” id. Fin. 3, 18, 60; so, “dicitur,” Nep. Paus. 5, 3; Quint. 5, 7, 33; 7, 2, 44; Ov. F. 4, 508: “Titum multo apud patrem sermone orasse dicebatur, ne, etc.,” Tac. H. 4, 52; so, “dicebatur,” id. A. 1, 10: “in hac habitasse platea dictum'st Chrysidem,” Ter. And. 4, 5, 1: “dictum est,” Caes. B. G. 1, 1, 5; Liv. 38, 56; Quint. 6, 1, 27: “ut pulsis hostibus dici posset, eos, etc.,” Caes. B. G. 1, 46, 3. Cf. also: hoc, illud dicitur, with acc. and inf., Cic. Fin. 5, 24, 72; id. de Or. 1, 33, 150; Quint. 4, 2, 91; 11, 3, 177 al. —Esp. in histt. in reference to what has been previously related: “ut supra dictum est,” Sall. J. 96, 1: “sicut ante dictum est,” Nep. Dion. 9, 5; cf. Curt. 3, 7, 7; 5, 1, 11; 8, 6, 2 et saep.—

c. (See Zumpt, Gram. § 607.) Dicor, diceris, dicitur, with nom. and inf., it is said that I, thou, he, etc.; or, they say that I, thou, etc.: “ut nos dicamur duo omnium dignissimi esse,” Plaut. As. 2, 2, 47: cf. Quint. 4, 4, 6: “dicar Princeps Aeolium carmen ad Italos Deduxisse modos,” Hor. Od. 3, 30, 10 al.: “illi socius esse diceris,” Plaut. Rud. 1, 2, 72: aedes Demaenetus ubi dicitur habitare, id. As. 2, 3, 2: “qui (Pisistratus) primus Homeri libros confusos antea sic disposuisse dicitur, ut nunc habemus,” Cic. de Or. 3, 34, 137 et saep.: “quot annos nata dicitur?” Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 89: “is nunc dicitur venturus peregre,” id. Truc. 1, 1, 66 et saep. In a double construction, with nom. and inf., and acc. and inf. (acc. to no. b. and c.): petisse dicitur major Titius ... idque ab eis facile (sc. eum) impetrasse, Auct. B. Afr. 28 fin.; so Suet. Oth. 7.—

d. Dictum ac factum or dictum factum (Gr. ἅμα ἔπος ἅμα ἔργον), in colloq. lang., no sooner said than done, without delay, Ter. And. 2, 3, 7: “dictum ac factum reddidi,” it was "said and done" with me, id. Heaut. 4, 5, 12; 5, 1, 31; cf.: “dicto citius,” Verg. A. 1, 142; Hor. S. 2, 2, 80; and: “dicto prope citius,” Liv. 23, 47, 6.—

B. In partic.

1. Pregn.

a. To assert, affirm a thing as certain (opp. nego): “quem esse negas, eundem esse dicis,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 6, 12; cf.: “dicebant, ego negabam,” id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; and: “quibus creditum non sit negantibus, iisdem credatur dicentibus?” id. Rab. Post. 12, 35.—

b. For dico with a negative, nego is used, q. v.; cf. Zumpt, Gram. § 799; “but: dicere nihil esse pulchrius, etc.,” Liv. 30, 12, 6; 21, 9, 3 Fabri; so, “freq. in Liv. when the negation precedes,” id. 30, 22, 5; 23, 10, 13 al.; cf. Krebs, Antibar. p. 355.—

2. dico is often inserted parenthetically, to give emphasis to an apposition: “utinam C. Caesari, patri, dico adulescenti contigisset, etc.,” Cic. Phil. 5, 18, 49; id. Tusc. 5, 36, 105; id. Planc. 12, 30; Quint. 9, 2, 83; cf. Cic. Or. 58, 197; id. Tusc. 4, 16, 36; Sen. Ep. 14, 6; id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 1, 6, 24: “ille mihi praesidium dederat, cum dico mihi, senatui dico populoque Romano,” Cic. Phil. 11, 8, 20; Sen. Ep. 83, 12; Plin. Ep. 2, 20, 2; 3, 2, 2.—

3. In rhetor. and jurid. lang., to pronounce, deliver, rehearse, speak any thing.

(a). With acc.: “oratio dicta de scripto,” Cic. Planc. 30 fin.; cf.: “sententiam de scripto,” id. Att. 4, 3, 3: “controversias,” Quint. 3, 8, 51; 9, 2, 77: “prooemium ac narrationem et argumenta,” id. 2, 20, 10: “exordia,” id. 11, 3, 161: “theses et communes locos,” id. 2, 1, 9: “materias,” id. 2, 4, 41: “versus,” Cic. Or. 56, 189; Quint. 6, 3, 86: “causam, of the defendant or his attorney,” to make a defensive speech, to plead in defence, Cic. Rosc. Am. 5; id. Quint. 8; id. Sest. 8; Quint. 5, 11, 39; 7, 4, 3; 8, 2, 24 al.; cf. “causas (said of the attorney),” Cic. de Or. 1, 2, 5; 2, 8, 32 al.: “jus,” to pronounce judgment, id. Fl. 3; id. Fam. 13, 14; hence the praetor's formula: DO, DICO, ADDICO; v. do, etc.—

(b). With ad and acc. pers., to plead before a person or tribunal: “ad unum judicem,” Cic. Opt. Gen. 4, 10: “ad quos? ad me, si idoneus videor qui judicem, etc.,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 72; Liv. 3, 41.—

(g). With ad and acc. of thing, to speak in reference to, in reply to: “non audeo ad ista dicere,” Cic. Tusc. 3, 32, 78; id. Rep. 1, 18, 30.—

(d). Absol.: “nec idem loqui, quod dicere,” Cic. Or. 32: “est oratoris proprium, apte, distincte, ornate dicere,” id. Off. 1, 1, 2; so, “de aliqua re pro aliquo, contra aliquem, etc., innumerable times in Cic. and Quint.: dixi, the t. t. at the end of a speech,” I have done, Cic. Verr. 1 fin. Ascon. and Zumpt, a. h. 1.; “thus, dixerunt, the t. t. by which the praeco pronounced the speeches of the parties to be finished,” Quint. 1, 5, 43; cf. Spald. ad Quint. 6, 4, 7.—Transf. beyond the judicial sphere: “causam nullam or causam haud dico,” I have no objection, Plaut. Mil. 5, 34; id. Capt. 3, 4, 92; Ter. Ph. 2, 1, 42.—

4. To describe, relate, sing, celebrate in writing (mostly poet.): “tibi dicere laudes,” Tib. 1, 3, 31; so, “laudes Phoebi et Dianae,” Hor. C. S. 76: “Dianam, Cynthium, Latonam,” id. C. 1, 21, 1: “Alciden puerosque Ledae,” id. ib. 1, 12, 25: “caelestes, pugilemve equumve,” id. ib. 4, 2, 19: “Pelidae stomachum,” id. ib. 1, 6, 5: “bella,” id. Ep. 1, 16, 26; Liv. 7, 29: “carmen,” Hor. C. 1, 32, 3; id. C. S. 8; Tib. 2, 1, 54: “modos,” Hor. C. 3, 11, 7: “silvestrium naturas,” Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 138 et saep.: “temporibus Augusti dicendis non defuere decora ingenia,” Tac. A. 1, 1; id. H. 1, 1: “vir neque silendus neque dicendus sine cura,” Vell. 2, 13.—

b. Of prophecies, to predict, foretell: “bellicosis fata Quiritibus Hac lege dico, ne, etc.,” Hor. C. 3, 3, 58: “sortes per carmina,” id. A. P. 403: “quicquid,” id. S. 2, 5, 59: “hoc (Delphi),” Ov. Tr. 4, 8, 43 et saep.—

5. To pronounce, articulate a letter, syllable, word: Demosthenem scribit Phalereus, cum Rho dicere nequiret, etc., Cic. Div. 2, 46, 96; id. de Or. 1, 61, 260; Quint. 1, 4, 8; 1, 7, 21 al.—

6. To call, to name: habitum quendam vitalem corporis esse, harmoniam Graii quam dicunt, Lucr. 3, 106; cf.: Latine dicimus elocutionem, quam Graeci φράσιν vocant, Quint. 8, 1, 1: “Chaoniamque omnem Trojano a Chaone dixit,” Verg. A. 3, 335: “hic ames dici pater atque princeps,” Hor. Od. 1, 2, 50: “uxor quondam tua dicta,” Verg. A. 2, 678 et saep. —Prov.: “dici beatus ante obitum nemo debet,” Ov. M. 3, 135.—

7. To name, appoint one to an office: “ut consules roget praetor vel dictatorem dicat,” Cic. Att. 9, 15, 2: so, “dictatorem,” Liv. 5, 9; 7, 26; 8, 29: “consulem,” id. 10, 15; 24, 9; 26, 22 (thrice): “magistrum equitum,” id. 6, 39: “aedilem,” id. 9, 46: “arbitrum bibendi,” Hor. Od. 2, 7, 26 et saep.—

8. To appoint, set apart. fix upon, settle: “nam mea bona meis cognatis dicam, inter eos partiam,” Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 113; cf. Pompon. ap. Non. 280, 19: “dotis paululum vicino suo,” Afran. ib. 26: “pecuniam omnem suam doti,” Cic. Fl. 35: quoniam inter nos nuptiae sunt dictae, Afran. ap. Non. 280, 24; cf.: “diem nuptiis,” Ter. And. 1, 1, 75: “diem operi,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 57: “diem juris,” Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 16: “diem exercitui ad conveniendum Pharas,” Liv. 36, 8; cf. id. 42, 28, and v. dies: “locum consiliis,” id. 25, 16: “leges pacis,” id. 33, 12; cf.: “leges victis,” id. 34, 57: “legem tibi,” Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 18; Ov. M. 6, 137; cf.: “legem sibi,” to give sentence upon one's self, id. ib. 13, 72: “pretium muneri,” Hor. C. 4, 8, 12 et saep.—With inf.: prius data est, quam tibi dari dicta, Pac. ap. Non. 280, 28. —Pass. impers.: “eodem Numida inermis, ut dictum erat, accedit,” Sall. J. 113, 6.—

9. To utter, express, esp. in phrases: “non dici potest, dici vix potest, etc.: non dici potest quam flagrem desiderio urbis,” Cic. Att. 5, 11, 1; 5, 17, 5: “dici vix potest quanta sit vis, etc.,” id. Leg. 2, 15, 38; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 57, § 127; id. Or. 17, 55; id. Red. ad Quir. 1, 4; cf. Quint. 2, 2, 8; 11, 3, 85.—

10. (Mostly in colloq. lang.) Alicui, like our vulg. to tell one so and so, for to admonish, warn, threaten him: “dicebam, pater, tibi, ne matri consuleres male,” Plaut. As. 5, 2, 88; cf. Nep. Datam. 5; Ov. Am. 1, 14, 1.—Esp. freq.: “tibi (ego) dico,” I tell you, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 30; id. Bacch. 4, 9, 76; id. Men. 2, 3, 27; id. Mil. 2, 2, 62 et saep.; Ter. And. 1, 2, 33 Ruhnk.; id. ib. 4, 4, 23; id. Eun. 2, 3, 46; 87; Phaedr. 4, 19, 18; cf.: “tibi dicimus,” Ov. H. 20, 153; id. M. 9, 122; so, dixi, I have said it, i. e. you may depend upon it, it shall be done, Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 90; 92.—

11. Dicere sacramentum or sacramento, to take an oath, to swear; v. sacramentum.

II. Transf., i. q. intellego, Gr. φημί, to mean so and so; it may sometimes be rendered in English by namely, to wit: “nec quemquam vidi, qui magis ea, quae timenda esse negaret, timeret, mortem dico et deos,” Cic. N. D. 1, 31, 86; id. de Or. 3, 44, 174: M. Sequar ut institui divinum illum virum, quem saepius fortasse laudo quam necesse est. At. Platonem videlicet dicis, id. Leg. 3, 1: “uxoris dico, non tuam,” Plaut. As. 1, 1, 30 et saep.—Hence, dictum , i, n., something said, i. e. a saying, a word.

A. In gen.: haut doctis dictis certantes sed male dictis, Enn. ap. Gell. 20, 10 (Ann. v. 274 Vahl.; acc. to Hertz.: nec maledictis); so, “istaec dicta dicere,” Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 40: “docta,” id. ib. 2, 2, 99; id. Men. 2, 1, 24; Lucr. 5, 113; cf. “condocta,” Plaut. Poen. 3, 2, 3: “meum,” id. As. 2, 4, 1: “ridiculum,” id. Capt. 3, 1, 22: “minimum,” Cic. Fam. 1, 9: “ferocibus dictis rem nobilitare,” Liv. 23, 47, 4 al.: “ob admissum foede dictumve superbe,” Lucr. 5, 1224; cf. “facete,” Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 73; id. Poen. 3, 3, 24; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 57; Cic. Off. 1, 29, 104 al.: “lepide,” Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 103: “absurde,” id. Capt. 1, 1, 3: “vere,” Nep. Alc. 8, 4: “ambigue,” Hor. A. P. 449 et saep.—Pleon.: “feci ego istaec dicta quae vos dicitis (sc. me fecisse),” Plaut. Casin. 5, 4, 17.—

B. In partic.

1. A saying, maxim, proverb: “aurea dicta,” Lucr. 3, 12; cf. “veridica,” id. 6, 24: Catonis est dictum. Pedibus compensari pecuniam, Cic. Fl. 29 fin. Hence, the title of a work by Caesar: Dicta collectanea (his Ἀποφθέγματα, mentioned in Cic. Fam. 9, 16), Suet. Caes. 56.—Esp. freq.,

2. For facete dictum, a witty saying, bon-mot, Enn. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 54 fin. (cf. Cic. ap. Macr. S. 2, 1 fin.); Cic. Phil. 2, 17; Quint. 6, 3, 2; 16; 36; Liv. 7, 33, 3; Hor. A. P. 273 et saep.; cf. also, dicterium.—

3. Poetry, verse (abstr. and concr.): dicti studiosus, Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 18, 71: “rerum naturam expandere dictis,” Lucr. 1, 126; 5, 56: “Ennius hirsuta cingat sua dicta corona,” Prop. 4 (5), 1, 61.—

4. A prediction, prophecy, Lucr. 1, 103; Verg. A. 2, 115; Val. Fl. 2, 326 al.; cf. dictio.—

5. An order, command: “dicto paruit consul,” Liv. 9, 41; cf. Verg. A. 3, 189; Ov. M. 8, 815: “haec dicta dedit,” Liv. 3, 61; cf. id. 7, 33; 8, 34; 22, 25 al.: dicto audientem esse and dicto audire alicui, v. audio.—

6. A promise, assurance: “illi dixerant sese dedituros ... Cares, tamen, non dicto capti, etc.,” Nep. Milt. 2, 5; Fur. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 34.

36 verbum , i

I. gen. plur. verbūm, Plaut. As. 1, 3, 1; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 37; id. Truc. 2, 8, 14), n. from the root er; Gr. ΕΡω, whence εἴρω and ῥῆμα, what is spoken or said; cf. Goth. vaurd; Germ. Wort; Engl. word, a word; plur., words, expressions, language, discourse, conversation, etc. (cf.: vox, vocabulum).

I. In gen.: “verbum nullum fecit,” Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 58: “si ullum verbum faxo,” id. Men. 1, 2, 47: “qui verbum numquam in publico fecerunt,” Cic. Brut. 78, 270; so, “facere,” to talk, chat, discourse, converse, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 65, § 147; id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; id. Planc. 8, 20 al.: “spissum istud amanti est verbum veniet, nisi venit,” Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 77; cf. id. Most. 5, 1, 2: “videtis hoc uno verbo unde significari res duas et ex quo et a quo loco,” Cic. Caecin. 30, 88: “verbum voluptatis,” id. Fin. 2, 23, 75 (for which: “vox voluptatis,” id. ib. 2, 2, 6); cf.: “libenter verbo utor Catonis (i. e. origines),” id. Rep. 2, 1, 3: “verbum usitatius et tritius,” id. Ac. 1, 7, 27: “verbum scribere ... verbi litterae,” id. de Or. 2, 30, 130: “nec vero ullum (verbum) aut durum aut insolens, aut humile aut longius ductum, etc.,” id. Brut. 79, 274: si pudor, si modestia, si pudicitia, si uno verbo temperantia (literally, in one word; cf. B. 2. infra), id. Fin. 2, 22, 73.—Plur.: “verba rebus impressit,” Cic. Rep. 3, 2, 3: “in quo etiam verbis ac nominibus ipsis fuit diligens (Servius Tullius),” id. ib. 2, 22, 40: “quid verbis opu'st?” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 289: “haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt,” Cic. Rep. 1, 7, 12: “verba facere,” to speak, Caes. B. G. 2, 14: contumelia verborum, insulting or abusive language, id. ib. 5, 58: “ut verbis, quid sit, definiam,” Cic. Rep. 1, 24, 38: “verba ponenda sunt, quae vim habeant illustrandi, nec ab usu sint abhorrentia, grandia, plena, sonantia, etc.,” id. Part. Or. 15, 53: “dialecticorum verba nulla sunt publica: suis utuntur,” id. Ac. 1, 7, 25: “verborum delectum originem esse eloquentiae,” id. Brut. 72, 253 et saep.: “multis verbis ultro citroque habitis ille nobis est consumptus dies,” much talk on both sides, id. Rep. 6, 9, 9; cf. id. ib. 3, 4, 7: accusabat Canutius Scamandrum verbis tribus, venenum esse deprehensum (literally, in three words; cf. B. 2. b. infra), Cic. Clu. 18, 50.—Prov.: verba facit emortuo, he talks to the dead, i. e. in vain, Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 18; “for which: verba fiunt mortuo,” Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 26.—

B. Adverbial phrases.

1. Ad verbum, verbum e (de, pro), verbo, or simply verbum verbo, to a word, word for word, exactly, literally (Cic. uses verbum e or ex verbo where the exact equivalent of a single word is given; verbum pro verbo of the literal translation of a passage; v. infra): “fabellae Latinae ad verbum de Graecis expressae,” Cic. Fin. 1, 2, 4; cf. Suet. Caes. 30 fin.: “ediscere ad verbum,” Cic. de Or. 1, 34, 157: “ea quae modo expressa ad verbum dixi,” id. Tusc. 3, 19, 44: “somnium mirifice ad verbum cum re convenit,” id. Div. 1, 44, 99: quae Graeci πάθη appellant: “ego poteram morbos, et id verbum esset e verbo,” id. Tusc. 3, 4, 7: istam κατάληψιν, quam, ut dixi, verbum e verbo exprimentes, comprehensionem dicemus, id. Ac. 2, 10, 31; id. Fin. 3, 4, 15; id. Top. 8, 35; id. Ac. 2, 6, 17: “verbum de verbo expressum extulit,” Ter. Ad. prol. 11: “verbum pro verbo reddere,” Cic. Opt. Gen. 5, 14: “nec verbum verbo curabis reddere fidus Interpres,” Hor. A. P. 133; cf.: ea sine scripto eisdem verbis reddebat, quibus cogitaverat, Cic. Brut. 88, 301.—

2. Verbi causā or gratiā, for the sake of example, for example, for instance: “si quis, verbi causā, oriente Caniculā natus est,” Cic. Fat. 6, 12: M. Quid dicis igitur! A. Miserum esse verbi causā M. Crassum, id. Tusc. 1, 4, 12; id. Mil. 22, 60: “qui verbi causā post mortem amici liberos ejus custodiant,” Auct. Her. 4, 47, 60: “ut propter aliam quampiam rem, verbi gratiā propter voluptatem, nos amemus,” Cic. Fin. 5, 11, 30.—

3. Uno verbo, or tribus verbis, or paucis verbis, in one word, in a word, briefly.

a. Quin tu uno verbo dic, quid est quod me velis, Ter. And. 1, 1, 18; Cato, R. R. 157, 7: “praetores, praetorios, tribunos plebis, magnam partem senatūs, omnem subolem juventutis unoque verbo rem publicam expulsam atque extirminatam suis sedibus,” Cic. Phil. 2, 22, 54.—

b. Pa. Brevin' an longinquo sermoni? Mi. Tribus verbis, Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 30: “pax, te tribus verbis volo,” Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 121.—

c. Sed paucis verbis te volo, Plaut. Mil. 2, 4, 22; cf.: “verbis paucis quam cito Alium fecisti me,” id. Trin. 1, 2, 123; cf. also paucus, II. B.—

4. Verbo.

a. Orally, by word of mouth (opp. scripturā): C. Furnio plura verbo quam scripturā mandata dedimus, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 8, 5: “cui verbo mandabo, quid, etc.,” Vulc. Gall. Avid. Cass. 10, § 10.—

b. Briefly, in a word: “postquam Caesar dicendi finem fecit, ceteri verbo alius alii varie adsentiebantur,” Sall. C. 52, 1: “aut verbo adsentiebatur, aut pedibus in sententiam ibat,” Liv. 27, 34, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.; 3, 40, 6; cf. also: rogatus a me etiamne majus quam dedecus, verbo de sententiā destitisti, at a word from me, Cic. Tusc. 2, 12, 28 Ernest. ad loc.—

5. Meis, tuis, suis verbis, in my, thy, or his name; for me, thee, or him: “gratum mihi feceris, si uxori tuae meis verbis eris gratulatus,” Cic. Fam. 15, 8; 5, 11, 2; id. Att. 16, 11, 8: “anulum quem ego militi darem tuis verbis,” Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 38; id. Bacch. 4, 4, 79: “denuntiatum Fabio senatus verbis, ne, etc.,” Liv. 9, 36, 14.

II. In partic.

A. Verbum, in the sing.

1. Of an entire clause, a saying, expression, phrase, sentence (mostly anteclass.; cf.: sententia, dictum): Me. Plus plusque istuc sospitent quod nunc habes. Eu. Illud mihi verbum non placet: “quod nunc habes!” Plaut. Aul. 3, 6, 11; id. Cas. 2, 5, 39; id. Most. 1, 3, 18; 1, 3, 95; 1, 3, 139; Ter. And. 1, 5, 5; id. Eun. 1, 2, 95; id. Ad. 5, 8, 29.—

2. Of a proverb: “verum est verbum, quod memoratur: ubi amici, ibidem opus,” Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 32; so id. ib. 4, 5, 39; Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 17: “quod verbum in pectus Jugurthae altius quam quisquam ratus erat descendit,” Sall. J. 11, 7.—

B. Pregn., mere talk, mere words (opp. to deed, fact, reality, etc.; cf. “nomen): qui omnia verborum momentis, non rerum ponderibus examinet,” Cic. Rep. 3, 8, 12; cf.: “verbo et simulatione (opp. re verā),” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 58, § 133; v. res: dolor est malum, ut disputas; “existimatio, dedecus, infamia verba sunt atque ineptiae,” empty words, id. Pis. 27, 65: “verborum sonitus inanis,” id. de Or. 1, 12, 51: “in quibus (civitatibus) verbo sunt liberi omnes?” in word, in name, id. Rep. 1, 31, 47. —Hence, verba dare (alicui), to give empty words, i. e. to deceive, cheat: “cui verba dare difficile est,” Ter. And. 1, 3, 6: “vel verba mihi dari facile patior in hoc, meque libenter praebeo credulum,” Cic. Att. 15, 16, A: descendit atque Gallis verba dedit, i. e. eluded, escaped from them, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 24: “curis dare verba,” i. e. to beguile, drive away, Ov. Tr. 5, 7, 40.—

C. In gram., a verb: “Aristoteles orationis duas partes esse dicit, vocabula et verba, ut homo et equus, et legit et currit, etc.,” Varr. L. L. 8, § 11 sq. Müll.; 9, § 95; 10, § 77 al.; Cic. de Or. 3, 49, 191.—

D. In eccl. Lat. as a translation of λόγος, the second person of the Trinity, Vulg. Joan. 1, 1; id. 1 Joan. 5, 7; id. Apoc. 19, 13.

37 tempŏrālis , e, adj. tempus.

I. In gen., of or belonging to time, lasting but for a time, temporary, temporal (mostly postAug.): “causa,” Sen. Q. N. 7, 23, 1: “laudes,” Tac. Agr. 46: πάθος temporale esse, Quint. 6, 2, 10: “concessio,” Dig. 29, 1, 1: “exsilium,” ib. 47, 10, 95: ARAE, erected for the occasion, Inscr. ap. Marin. Fratr. Arv. 43, 16; “opp. perpetuum,” Lact. 2, 8, 68; 7, 4, 12.—

B. In partic., in gram.: “temporale verbum,” denoting time, Varr. L. L. 9, § 108 Müll.: “nomen (as annus, mensis),” Prisc. p. 581 P.: “adverbia (e.g. pridem, nunc, modo),” id. p. 1017 ib.—

II. Of or belonging to the temples of the head: “venae,” the temporal veins, Veg. Vet. 2, 11; 2, 16.—Adv.: tempŏrālĭter , for a time, temporarily: “observata lex,” Tert. adv. Jud. 2 med.

38 dē-pōno , pŏsŭi, pŏsĭtum, 3

I. perf. deposivi, Plaut. Curc. 4, 3, 4: “deposivit,” id. Most. 2, 1, 35; Catull. 34, 8; inf. perf. deposisse, Verg. Cat. 8, 16; part. sync. depostus, Lucil. ap. Non. 279, 19, v. pono), v. a., to lay away, to put or place aside; to lay, put, or set down; to lay, place, set, deposit (freq. in all periods and sorts of writing).—Constr. with acc. alone; or acc. and locative or abl. with or without a prep.; or acc. and adv. of place where, or apud and personal name; rare and doubtful with in and acc. (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 340 sq.). —

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: “caput deponit, condormiscit,” Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 81; cf.: “caput terrae,” Ov. Am. 3, 5, 20: “corpora (pecudes),” Lucr. 1, 259; cf.: “corpora sub ramis arboris,” Verg. A. 7, 108: “fessum latus sub lauru,” Hor. Od. 2, 7, 19: “mentum in gremiis mimarum,” Cic. Phil. 13, 11, 24 et saep.: “onus,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 4, 10; id. Sull. 23, 65; Front. Strat. 1, 5, 3 al.; cf.: “onera jumentis,” Caes. B. C. 1, 80, 2: “arma,” id. B. G. 4, 32 fin.; id. B. C. 3, 10, 9; Liv. 5, 2 al.; cf.: “depositis in contubernio armis,” Caes. B. C. 3, 76, 2: “arma umeris,” Verg. A. 12, 707: “anulos aureos et phaleras,” Liv. 9, 46: “coronam, and, shortly after, coronam Romae in aram Apollinis,” id. 23, 11: “ungues et capillos,” i. e. to cut off, Petr. 104, 6; cf. “comas (for which, shortly before, secuit capillos),” Mart. 5, 48, 6: “crinem,” Tac. H. 4, 61 et saep.: “argenti pondus defossā terrā,” Hor. S. 1, 1, 42: “semina vel scrobe vel sulco,” to deposit in the earth, to plant, Col. 5, 4, 2; and: “stirpem vitis aut oleae,” id. 1, 1, 5: “malleolum in terram,” id. 3, 10, 19: “plantas sulcis,” Verg. G. 2, 24 et saep.: exercitum in terram (for exponere), to land, Just. 4, 5, 8: “hydriam de umero,” Vulg. Gen. 21, 46.— Poet. of bearing, bringing forth (as the putting off of a burden): (Latonia) quam mater prope Deliam Deposivit olivam, Catull. 34, 8; cf.: “onus naturae,” Phaedr. 1, 18, 5; 1, 19, 4; to lay as a stake, wager: Dam. Ego hanc vitulam ... Depono. Men. De grege non ausim quicquam deponere tecum ... verum pocula ponam Fagina, Verg. E. 3, 31 sq.—

B. In partic.

1. Pregn., to lay up, lay aside, put by, deposit anywhere; to give in charge to, commit to the care of intrust to any one: “non semper deposita reddenda: si gladium quis apud te sana mente deposuerit, repetat insaniens: reddere peccatum sit, etc.,” Cic. Off. 3, 25, 95; so, “aliquid apud aliquem,” Plaut. Bac. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Fam. 5, 20, 2; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Caes. B. C. 3, 108 fin.; Quint. 5, 13, 49; 9, 2, 92; Tac. H. 1, 13; Liv. 38, 19, 2 et saep.; cf.: “obsides apud eos,” Caes. B. G. 7, 63 al.: “praedam in silvis,” id. ib. 6, 41; cf.: “pecuniam in templo,” Liv. 44, 25: “pecunias in publica fide,” id. 24, 18 fin.; “also: liberos, uxores suaque omnia in silvas,” Caes. B. G. 4, 19 (dub.—al. in sylvis; id. B. C. 1, 23, 4 the true reading is in publico): “impedimenta citra flumen Rhenum,” id. B. G. 2, 29, 4: “saucios,” id. B. C. 3, 78, 1 and 5 et saep.: “pretium in deposito habendum,” in charge, Dig. 36, 3, 5 fin.: “si pro deposito apud eum fuerit,” ib. 33, 8, 8, § 5.—

2.

a. To put or bring down, lay upon the ground: “scio quam rem agat: ut me deponat vino, etc.,” to make drunk, Plaut. Aul. 3, 6, 39.—

b. Hence (because it was the custom to take a person who had just died out of bed and lay him on the ground), meton.: depositus, dead, just dead: “jam prope depositus, certe jam frigidus,” Ov. Pont. 2, 2, 47: “depositum nec me qui fleat ullus erit,” id. Tr. 3, 3, 40: “DEPOSITVS IN PACE,” Inscr. Orell. 5014; cf. ib. 4874.—As subst.: “depositus meus,” Petr. 133, 4.—

c. Also, because the hopelessly sick were often laid on the earth, dying, given up, despaired of: jam tum depostu' bubulcus Expirans animam pulmonibus aeger agebat, Lucil. ap. Non. 279, 19: “deponere est desperare, unde et depositi desperati dicuntur,” Non. 279, 30: depositus modo sum anima, vita sepultus, Caecil. ap. Non. 279 (Com. v. 121 Rib.): “ut depositi proferret fata parentis,” Verg. A. 12, 395 Serv.: texere paludes Depositum, Fortuna, tuum, Lucan. 2, 72; “and transf.: mihi videor magnam et maxime aegram et prope depositam reip. partem suscepisse,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 2, § 5.—

3. In post-Aug. lang. esp. freq. in the jurists, of buildings, etc., to pull down, take down, demolish, overthrow: “aedificium vel arboris ramos,” Dig. 8, 2, 17 (shortly after, qui tollit aedificium vel deprimit); so id. 8, 2, 31; 41, 3, 23 fin. et saep.: “deposita arx,” Stat. S. 1, 4, 91: “statuas,” pull down, Spart. Sev. 14: tabulas, destroy, Capit. Max. duob. 12: “adversarios tuos,” Vulg. Exod. 15, 7. —

II. Trop.

A. With a predominant notion of putting away, removing, etc., to lay down, lay aside, give up, resign, get rid of: “studia de manibus,” Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 3: “ex memoria insidias,” id. Sull. 6, 18: “in sermone et suavitate alicujus omnes curas doloresque deponere,” id. Fam. 4, 6, 2: “petitoris personam capere, accusatoris deponere,” id. Quint. 13 fin.; so, “contentionem,” Liv. 4, 6; cf. “certamina,” id. ib.; “and, bellum,” Ov. M. 8, 47; Tac. H. 2, 37; “opp. incipere,” Sall. J. 83, 1; “opp. coepisse,” Liv. 31, 1; “and with omittere,” id. 31, 31 fin.: “deponere amicitias, suscipere inimicitias,” Cic. Lael. 21, 77: “invidiam,” id. Agr. 2, 26, 69: “simultates,” id. Planc. 31, 76: “maerorem et luctum,” id. Phil. 14, 13: “omnem spem contentionis,” Caes. B. G. 5, 19: “consilium adeundae Syriae,” id. B. C. 3, 103: “imperium,” id. B. G. 7, 33 fin.; id. B. C. 2, 32, 9; Cic. N. D. 2, 4, 11; Liv. 2, 28 al.; cf. “provinciam,” Cic. Pis. 2, 5; id. Fam. 5, 2, 3; “dictaturam,” Quint. 3, 8, 53; 5, 10, 71: “nomen,” Suet. Ner. 41; Ov. M. 15, 543: “famem,” id. F. 6, 530; cf.: “sitim in unda vicini fontis,” i. e. to quench, id. M. 4, 98: “morbos,” Plin. 7, 50, 51: “animam,” i. e. to die, Nep. Hann. 1.—

B. To depose from an office (late Lat.): “te de ministerio tuo,” Vulg. Is. 22, 19.—

C. (Acc. to no. I. B.) To deposit, intrust, commit to, for safe-keeping: populi Romani jus in vestra fide ac religione depono, Cic. Caecin. 35 fin.: “aliquid rimosa in aure,” Hor. S. 2, 6, 46: “aliquid tutis auribus,” id. Od. 1, 27, 18: “eo scortum,” Tac. H. 1, 13.—Hence, dēpō-nens , entis, P. a., subst. (sc. verbum, lit., a verb that lays aside its proper pass. signif.), in the later grammar. a verb which, in a pass. form, has an act. meaning; deponent, Charis. p. 143 P.; Diom. p. 327 ib.; Prisc. p. 787 ib. sq. et saep.— dēpŏsĭtus , a, um, P. a., and esp. as subst. dēpŏsĭtum , i, n., any thing deposited or intrusted for safe-keeping, etc., a deposit, trust: “reddere depositum,” Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31: “si depositum non infitietur amicus,” Juv. 13, 60; cf. Dig. 36, 3, 5 al.: “contempto Domino negaverit proximo suo depositum,” Vulg. Lev. 6, 2; 1 Tim. 6, 20 al.

39 ĭn -aequālis , e, adj.

I. Uneven (in post-Aug. prose): “loca,” Tac. Agr. 36: “mensae,” i. e. not nicely finished, rough, Mart. 1, 56, 11; cf.: “inaequalia et confragosa (sc loca),” Quint. 8, 5, 29: “inaequales beryllo Virro tenet phialas,” Juv. 5, 38.—

II. Unequal, unlike (poet. and in post - Aug. prose): “portus,” of different sizes, Ov. M. 5, 408; cf.: “triangula inaequalibus lateribus (opp. aequa),” Quint. 1, 10, 41: “siccat inaequales calices conviva,” Hor. S. 2, 6, 68: “auctumni,” changeable, variable in temperature, Ov. M. 1, 117: “vixit inaequalis, clavum ut mutaret in horas,” inconstant, inconsistent, Hor. S. 2, 7 10: “stulti et inaequales,” Sen. Vit. Beat. 12: “tonsor,” that cuts unevenly, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 94: “procellae,” that roughen the sea, id. C. 2, 9, 3.—Comp.: “nihil est ipsa aequalitate inaequalius,” Plin. Ep. 9, 5, 3.— Sup.: “inaequalissimarum rerum sortes,” Suet. Aug. 75. — Adv.: ĭnaequālĭter , unevenly, disproportionately: “ova maturescunt,” Varr. R. R. 3, 9, 8 Bonon. (al. inaequabiliter): “censuram gerere,” Suet. Claud. 15; id. Galb. 9: “findi,” Col. Arbor. 7, 5: “dispergere bracchia,” Cels. 2, 6: “deprimere alios, alios extollere,” Liv. 37, 53, 6.

40 miscĕo , miscŭi, mixtum

I. x in later times; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 556), 2, v. a. root mik-, mig-; Sanscr. micras, mixed; Gr. μίσγω, μίγνυμι; cf. miscellus, to mix, mingle, to intermingle, blend (for the difference between this word and temperare, v. below, II. A.; cf. confundo).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.; with abl.: “(sortes) pueri manu miscentur,” Cic. Div. 2, 41, 86: “toxicum antidoto,” Phaedr. 1, 14, 8: “mella Falerno,” Hor. S. 2, 4, 24: “vina Surrentina faece Falernā,” id. ib. 2, 4, 55: “pabula sale,” Col. 6, 4: “nectare aquas,” Ov. H. 16, 198.— With dat.: “dulce amarumque mihi,” Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 61: “fletum cruori,” Ov. M. 4, 140; Col. 7, 5: “inter curalium virides miscere smaragdos,” Lucr. 2, 805: “cumque meis lacrimis miscuit usque suas,” Ov. P. 1, 9, 20. —

B. In partic.

1. To join one's self to, have carnal intercourse with one: “corpus cum aliquā,” Cic. Div. 1, 29, 60.—With dat.: “sic se tibi misceat,” Ov. M. 13, 866: “cum aliquo misceri in Venerem,” App. M. 9, p. 228, 16: “sanguinem et genus,” to intermarry, Liv. 1, 9, 4.—

2. To mix, prepare a drink: “alteri miscere mulsum,” Cic. Fin. 2, 5, 17; Ov. Am. 1, 4, 29: “Veientana mihi misces,” Mart. 3, 49, 1: “pocula alicui,” Ov. M. 10, 160: “lurida terribiles miscent aconita novercae,” id. ib. 1, 147; cf.: miscenda Cum Styge vina bibas, = you shall die, id. ib. 12, 321: “nullis aconita propinquis miscuit (Orestes),” Juv. 8, 219.—

3. Miscere se, or misceri, to mingle with others, to unite, assemble: “miscet (se) viris,” Verg. A. 1, 440: “se partibus alicujus,” Vell. 2, 86, 3: “ipsa ad praetoria densae Miscentur,” assemble, Verg. G. 4, 75.—

4. Miscere manus or proelia, to join battle, engage (poet.): “miscere manus,” Prop. 2, 20, 66: “proelia dura,” id. 4, 1, 28; “hence, vulnera,” to inflict wounds on each other, Verg. A. 12, 720.—

5. Of storms, to throw into confusion, to disturb, confound, embroil (poet.): “caelum terramque,” Verg. A. 1, 134: “magno misceri murmure pontum,” id. ib. 1, 124: “miscent se maria,” id. ib. 9, 714.—Hence, of persons, to raise a great commotion, make a prodigious disturbance, to move heaven and earth: “caelum ac terras,” Liv. 4, 3, 6: “quis caelum terris non misceat et mare caelo,” Juv. 2, 25; cf.: “mare caelo confundere,” id. 6, 282. —

II. Trop.

A. In gen., to mix, mingle, unite, etc.: “dulce amarumque una nunc misces mihi,” Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63: miscent inter sese inimicitiam agitantes, Enn. ap. Gell. 20, 10 (Ann. v. 275 Vahl.): “animum alicujus cum suo miscere,” Cic. Lael. 21, 81: “gravitate mixtus lepos,” id. Rep. 2, 1, 1: “misce Ergo aliquid de nostris moribus,” Juv. 14, 322: “ex dissimillimis rebus misceri et temperari,” Cic. Off. 3, 33, 119; cf.“, joined with temperare,” id. Or. 58, 197; “also opp. to temperare, since miscere signifies merely to mix, but temperare to mix in due proportion: haec ita mixta fuerunt, ut temperata nullo fuerint modo,” Cic. Rep. 2, 23, 42.—

B. In partic.

1. To share with, impart to another; to take part in, share in a thing (rare and perhaps not ante-Aug.): “cum amico omnes curas, omnes cogitationes tuas misce,” share, Sen. Ep. 3, 3: “se negotiis,” to take part in, engage in, Dig. 26, 7, 39, § 11: “administrationi,” ib. 27, 1, 17, § 5: “paternae hereditati,” ib. 29, 2, 42, § 3. —

2. (Acc. to I. B. 5.).

a. To throw into confusion, to embroil, disturb (class.): om nia infima summis paria fecit, turbavit, miscuit, Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 19: “rem publicam malis concionibus,” id. Agr. 2, 33, 91: “coetus,” Tac. A. 1, 16: “animorum motus dicendo,” Cic. de Or. 1, 51, 220: “anima, quae res humanas miscuit olim,” Juv. 10, 163.—

b. To stir up, occasion, excite, rouse: “ego nova quaedam misceri et concitari mala jam pridem videbam,” stirred up, devised, Cic. Cat. 4, 3, 6: “seditiones,” Tac. H. 4, 68 fin.—

3. Misceri aliquo, to be changed into: “mixtus Enipeo Taenarius deus,” Prop. 1, 13, 21.

41 transgressīvus , a, um, adj. id.; in the later gramm.,

I. that goes or passes over into another class, transgressive (late Lat.): verba (e. g. audeo, ausus sum; “gaudeo, gavisus sum, etc.),” Diom. p. 336 P.

42 dis-par , ăris,

I. adj., unlike, dissimilar, different, unequal (freq. and class.; cf.: impar, dissimilis, absimilis).

(a). Absol.: “dispares mores disparia studia sequentur, quorum dissimilitudo dissociat amicitias,” Cic. Lael. 20, 74: cf. id. Fin. 2, 3, 10: “ostendi, parem dignitatem, disparem fortunam in Murena atque in Sulpicio fuisse,” id. Mur. 21; cf. id. Planc. 24 fin.; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 17; Caes. B. G. 7, 39; Sall. J. 52, 1 al.: “tempora,” Cic. N. D. 1, 31, 87; cf. id. Off. 1, 34; 2, 18: “proelium,” Caes. B. G. 5, 16, 2; cf. “certamen,” unequal, ill-matched, Ov. Am. 2, 2, 61: “habitus animorum,” Liv. 30, 28: “via dicendi,” Quint. 10, 1, 67 et saep.: “calami,” i. e. unequal, of different lengths, Ov. M. 1, 711; cf. “avenae,” id. ib. 8, 192: “fistula,” id. ib. 2, 682; “and cicutae,” Verg. E. 2, 36.—

(b). With dat.: “color rebus (opp. par),” Lucr. 2, 738: “sunt his alii multum dispares,” Cic. Off. 1, 30, 109: “illa oratio huic,” id. de Or. 2, 44: “atque discolor matrona meretrici,” Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 3 et saep.—

(g). With gen.: “quicquam dispar sui atque dissimile,” Cic. de Sen. 21, 78: “sortis,” Sil. 5, 19: “animorum,” id. 8, 570.

43 ĭn -aequālis , e, adj.

I. Uneven (in post-Aug. prose): “loca,” Tac. Agr. 36: “mensae,” i. e. not nicely finished, rough, Mart. 1, 56, 11; cf.: “inaequalia et confragosa (sc loca),” Quint. 8, 5, 29: “inaequales beryllo Virro tenet phialas,” Juv. 5, 38.—

II. Unequal, unlike (poet. and in post - Aug. prose): “portus,” of different sizes, Ov. M. 5, 408; cf.: “triangula inaequalibus lateribus (opp. aequa),” Quint. 1, 10, 41: “siccat inaequales calices conviva,” Hor. S. 2, 6, 68: “auctumni,” changeable, variable in temperature, Ov. M. 1, 117: “vixit inaequalis, clavum ut mutaret in horas,” inconstant, inconsistent, Hor. S. 2, 7 10: “stulti et inaequales,” Sen. Vit. Beat. 12: “tonsor,” that cuts unevenly, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 94: “procellae,” that roughen the sea, id. C. 2, 9, 3.—Comp.: “nihil est ipsa aequalitate inaequalius,” Plin. Ep. 9, 5, 3.— Sup.: “inaequalissimarum rerum sortes,” Suet. Aug. 75. — Adv.: ĭnaequālĭter , unevenly, disproportionately: “ova maturescunt,” Varr. R. R. 3, 9, 8 Bonon. (al. inaequabiliter): “censuram gerere,” Suet. Claud. 15; id. Galb. 9: “findi,” Col. Arbor. 7, 5: “dispergere bracchia,” Cels. 2, 6: “deprimere alios, alios extollere,” Liv. 37, 53, 6.

 

44 ănōmălŏs (-us ), a, on (um), adj., = ἀνώμαλος, in gram.,

I. deviating from the general rule, irregular, anomalous, Diom. p. 314 P.; Prisc. p. 833 P.; Mart. Cap. 3, p. 71 al.

45 impersōnālis (inp- ), e, adj. 2. inpersonalis,

I. impersonal: “verba, in grammar,” Charis. 2 and 3; Diom. 1 et saep.— Adv.: impersōnālĭter , impersonally: “sive impersonaliter dari servus meus stipuletur,” i. e. without naming the person, Dig. 45, 3, 15.—Gramm. t. t., Macr. de Diff. 20, 3.

46 ad-verbĭum , ii, n. verbum, in gram.,

I. an adverb, ἐπίρρημα; acc. to Priscian's expl.: pars orationis indeclinabilis, cujus significatio verbis adicitur, p. 1003 P.; Quint. 1, 5, 48; 50; 9, 3, 53; 11, 3, 87 al.

47 praepŏsĭtĭo , ōnis, f. praepono.

I. A putting or setting before, a preferring, preference, Cic. Fin. 3, 16, 54.—

II. A placing or setting over as commander or president, an appointing to command (postclass.): “aliquem navi,” Dig. 14, 1, 1, § 12.—

III. In gram., a preposition, Cic. Or. 47, 158; cf.: “praeposito in privatur verbum eā vi, quam haberet, si in praepositum non fuisset,” id. Top. 11: “cum praepositione dicitur volgo ornamentum,” Varr. L. L. 6, § 76 Müll.; Quint. 1, 4, 13 et saep.

48 coniūnctiō ōnis, f

com- + IV-, a connecting, uniting, union, agreement: hominum: adfinitatis: vestra equitumque: mecum gratiae.—Marriage, relationship, affinity: sanguinis: fratrum: adfinitatis.—Friendship, intimacy: Caesaris: paterna.—In philos., a connection of ideas.—In grammar, a conjunction.

49 con-vinctĭo , ōnis, f. vincio, gram. t. t.,

I. a connective particle, conjunction: veteres verba modo et nomina et convinctiones tradiderunt ... in convinctionibus complexus eorum esse judicaverunt; quas conjunctiones a plerisque dici scio, sed haec videtur ex συνδέσμῳ magis propria translatio, Quint. 1, 4, 18.

50 cōnĭcĭo (also conjĭcio and cōicio ; cf. Munro ad Lucr. 2, 1061; Laber. ap. Gell. 16, 7, 5), jēci, jectum, 3, v. a.

I. temp. perf. conjexi, Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 99) [jacio].

I. To throw or bring together, to unite, = cogo, colligo.

A. Lit. (very rare): “cum semina rerum coaluerint quae, conjecta repente, etc.,” Lucr. 2, 1061; cf. id. 2, 1073 sq.: “palliolum in collum,” Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 10; id. Capt. 4, 1, 12 (cf. id. ib. 4, 2, 9: “collecto pallio): sarcinas in medium,” Liv. 10, 36, 1 Weissenb. (MSS. in medio); ib. § 13; 31, 27, 7: tecta, quae conjectis celeriter stramentis erant inaedificata, Auct. B. G. 8, 5. —

B. Trop.

1. To throw together in speaking, to dispute, contend, discuss, manage judicially (ante-class.): verba inter sese, to bandy words, Afran. ap. Non. p. 267, 28; “so without verba: noli, mea mater, me praesente cum patre, conicere,” id. ib. p. 267, 30; “p. 268, 3: causam conicere hodie ad te volo (conicere, agere, Non.),” id. ib. p. 267, 32; cf. the law formula: ante meridiem causam coiciunto, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 13, 20; and Gell. 17, 2, 10.—

2. Like the Gr. συμβάλλειν (v. Lidd. and Scott in h. v. III. 2.), to put together logically, connect, unite; hence (causa pro effectu), to draw a conclusion from collected particulars, to conclude, infer, conjecture (not in Quint., who very freq. employed the synon. colligo): “aliquid ex aliquā re,” Lucr. 1, 751; 2, 121; Nep. Eum. 2, 2; id. Timoth. 4, 2: “annos sexaginta natus es aut plus, ut conicio,” Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 11: “quid illud mali est? nequeo satis mirari, neque conicere,” id. Eun. 3, 4, 9: “cito conjeci, Lanuvii te fuisse,” Cic. Att. 14, 21, 1: “de futuris,” Nep. Them. 1, 4: “quam multos esse oporteret, ex ipso navigio,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 28, § 71: “conicito, possisne necne, etc.,” Plaut. Cas. 1, 1, 6: “tu conicito cetera, Quid ego ex hac inopiā capiam,” Ter. Phorm. 1, 3, 15.—

b. In partic., t. t. of the lang. of augury, to prophesy, foretell, divine from omens, signs (a dream, oracle, etc.); to interpret an omen, a dream, an oracle, etc.: “somnium huic,” Plaut. Curc. 2, 2, 3: “qui de matre suaviandā ex oraculo Apollinis tam acute arguteque conjecerit,” Cic. Brut. 14, 53: “male conjecta maleque interpretata falsa sunt, etc.,” id. Div. 1, 52, 119; cf. id. ib. 2, 31, 66: “num igitur quae tempestas impendeat vatis melius coniciet quam gubernator? etc.,” id. ib. 2, 5, 12: “bene qui coniciet, vatem hunc perhibebo optumum (transl. of a Greek verse),” id. ib. 2, 5, 12; cf. conjectura, II., conjector, and conjectrix.—

II. To throw, cast, urge, drive, hurl, put, place, etc., a person or thing with force, quickly, etc., to or towards; and conicere se, to betake, cast, or throw one's self hastily or in flight somewhere (very freq. and class. in prose and poetry).

A. Lit.

(a). With in: “tela in nostros,” Caes. B. G. 1, 26; 1, 46; Nep. Dat. 9, 5: “pila in hostes,” Caes. B. G. 1, 52: aliquem in carcerem, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 7, § 17; id. Tusc. 1, 40, 96; Suet. Caes. 17: “in vincula,” Caes. B. G. 4, 27; Sall. C. 42, 3; Nep. Milt. 7 fin.; id. Paus. 3, 5; id. Pelop. 5, 1; Liv. 29, 9, 8, and id. 19, 2, 4 et saep.: “in catenas,” Caes. B. G. 1, 47 fin.; Liv. 29, 21, 2: “in compedes,” Suet. Vit. 12: “in custodiam,” Nep. Phoc. 3, 4; Gai Inst. 1, 13; Suet. Aug. 27 al.: incolas vivos constrictosque in flammam, Auct. B. Afr. 87; cf.: “te in ignem,” Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 64: “in eculeum,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 5, 13: “hostem in fugam,” Caes. B. G. 4, 12: “exercitum in angustias,” Curt. 5, 3, 21: “navem in portum (vis tempestatis),” Cic. Inv. 2, 32, 98: “serpentes vivas in vasa fictilia,” Nep. Hann. 10, 4: “cultros in guttura velleris atri,” to thrust into, Ov. M. 7, 245; cf.: “ferrum in guttura,” id. ib. 3, 90: “se in signa manipulosque,” Caes. B. G. 6, 40: “se in paludem,” Liv. 1, 12, 10: “se in sacrarium,” Nep. Them. 8, 4: “se in ultimam provinciam Tarsum usque,” Cic. Att. 5, 16, 4: “se in fugam,” id. Cael. 26, 63; so, “se in pedes,” to take to one's heels, Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 13 (cf.: se conferre in pedes, Enn. ap. Non. p. 518, 20, and Plaut. Bacch. 3, 1, 7; and: “quin, pedes, vos in curriculum conicitis?” id. Merc. 5, 2, 91): “se intro,” Lucil. 28, 47; Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 36.—

(b). With dat. (rare): “alii spolia ... Coniciunt igni,” Verg. A. 11, 194: “huic dea unum anguem Conicit,” id. ib. 7, 347: “facem juveni conjecit,” id. ib. 7, 456: “conjectaque vincula collo accipit,” thrown about the neck, Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 83.—

(g). With ad: “animus domicilia mutet ad alias animalium formas conjectus,” removed, transposed, Sen. Ep. 88, 29.—

(d). With acc. alone (mostly poet.): “magnus decursus aquaï Fragmina coniciens silvarum arbustaque tota,” bearing down, prostrating, Lucr. 1, 284: “jaculum,” Verg. A. 9, 698: “tela,” Ov. M. 5, 42: “cultros,” id. ib. 15, 735: “thyrsos,” id. ib. 11, 28: “venabula manibus,” id. ib. 12, 454: “domus inflammata conjectis ignibus,” Cic. Att. 4, 3, 2: “telum inbelle sine ictu,” Verg. A. 2, 544.—(ε) With inter: “jaculum inter ilia,” Ov. M. 8, 412.—

B. Trop., to bring, direct, turn, throw, urge, drive, force something eagerly, quickly to or towards, etc.

(a). With in: “aliquem in morbum ex aegritudine,” Plaut. Poen. prol. 69: “aliquem in laetitiam,” Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 51: “(hostes) in terrorem ac tumultum,” Liv. 34, 28, 3: “in metum,” id. 39, 25, 11: “in periculum,” Suet. Oth. 10: “rem publicam in perturbationes,” Cic. Fam. 12, 1, 1: “aliquem in nuptias,” Ter. And. 3, 4, 23; cf. id. ib. 3, 5, 14; “4, 1, 43: (Catilinam) ex occultis insidiis in apertum latrocinium,” Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1: “aliquem in tricas,” Plaut. Pers. 5, 2, 18; Liv. 36, 12, 4: “se in saginam ad regem aliquem,” Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 99: se mirificam in latebram, to fly to (in disputing), Cic. Div. 2, 20, 46: “se in noctem,” to commit one's self to the night, travel by night, id. Mil. 19, 49: se mente ac voluntate in versum, to devote or apply one's self with zeal to the art of poetry, id. de Or. 3, 50, 194: “oculos in aliquem,” id. Clu. 19, 54; id. Lael. 2, 9; Tac. H. 1, 17: “orationem tam improbe in clarissimos viros,” Cic. Sest. 18, 40: “tantam pecuniam in propylaea,” to throw away, squander, id. Off. 2, 17, 60; cf.: “cum sestertium milies in culinam conjecisset (Apicius),” Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 9: “culpam in unum vigilem,” Liv. 5, 47, 10: “crimina in tuam nimiam diligentiam,” Cic. Mur. 35, 73: “maledicta in ejus vitam,” id. Planc. 12, 31: causas tenues simultatum in gregem locupletium, i. e. to cause, occasion, Auct. B. Alex. 49: “crimen in quae tempora,” Liv. 3, 24, 5: “omen in illam provinciam,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 6, § 18.—

(b). Absol.: “oculos,” Cic. de Or. 2, 55, 225: “petitiones ita conjectae (the fig. taken from aiming at a thing with weapons),” id. Cat. 1, 6, 15: in disputando conjecit illam vocem Cn. Pompeius, omnes oportere senatui dicto audientes esse, threw out or let fall, etc., Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 4, 4.—*

(g). With sub: “id vos sub legis superbissimae vincula conicitis,” Liv. 4, 4, 10.—

2. Of a verbal bringing forward, etc., to urge, press, treat, adduce: rem ubi paciscuntur, in comitio aut in foro causam coiciunto, XII. Tab. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 13, 20: causam coicere ad te volo, Afran. ap. Non. p. 267, 32 (Com. Rel. v. 216 Rib.): “verba inter se acrius,” id. ib. p. 267, 27 (Com. Rel. v. 309 ib.): is cum filio Cojecerat nescio quid de ratiunculā, id. ap. Suet. Vit. Ner. 11 (Com. Rel. v. 191 ib.).—

3. To throw, place, put into, include in, etc.: eum fasciculum, quo illam (epistulam) conjeceram, Cic. Att. 2, 13, 1: “ex illo libello, qui in epistulam conjectus est,” id. ib. 9, 13, 7: “conjeci id (prooemium) in eum librum, quem tibi misi,” id. ib. 16, 6, 4: “pluraque praeterea in eandem epistulam conjeci,” id. ib. 7, 16, 1; cf.: “quod multos dies epistulam in manibus habui... ideo multa conjecta sunt aliud alio tempore,” id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 7, § 23: “legem in decimam tabulam,” id. Leg. 2, 25, 64; id. Caecin. 22, 63.

51 disjunctīvus or dīj- , a, um, adj. id.,

I. placed in opposition, opposed to each other (post-class.).

I. In philos. lang.: “proloquium, i. q. disjunctio (II. A.),” Gell. 5, 11, 9; cf. ib. § 8.—

II. In gram. lang., disjunctive, expressed with disjunctive particles (aut, vel, sive, etc.), Charis. p. 199 P. et saep.; Dig. 35, 1, 78 al.

52 adversātīvus , a, um, adj. id.,

I. adversative; in gram.: conjunctiones adversativae, which have an adversative signif. as opp. to each other, as tamen, quamquam, etsi, etiamsi, etc., Prisc. 1030 P.; while quamquam, etsi, etc., we now designate as concessive in relation to tamen.

53 causālis , e, adj. causa (rare and only late Lat.).

I. Of or pertaining to a cause, causal: “ratio,” Aug. Gen. 7, 23.—Subst.: Causālĭa , a work on the causes of things, Arn. 5, p. 163.—

II. In gram.: conjunctiones. which annex a reason for what precedes (e. g. nam, enim, itaque, etc.), Charis. p. 199 P.; Diom. p. 410 ib.; Prisc. p. 16, p. 1027 ib. —Adv.: causālĭter , causally, Aug. l. l. 5 fin.; 6, 5.

54 illātīvus (inl- ), a, um, adj. id.,

I. inferring, concluding, illative (cf. illatio, II. B.): particulae, Plin. ap. Diom. p. 410 P.— Subst.: illātīvum , an inference, conclusion: universale, particulare, Apul. Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 34, 24.

55 sūb-ĭcĭo (less correctly subjĭcĭo ; post-Aug. sometimes sŭb- ), jēci, jectum, 3, v. a. sub-jacio.

I. Lit., to throw, lay, place, or bring under or near (cf. subdo); in all senses construed with acc. and dat., or with acc. and sub and acc.; not with sub and abl. (v. Madvig. ad Cic. Fin. 2, 15, 48; cf. II. B. 2. infra).

A. In gen.: si parum habet lactis mater, ut subiciat (agnum) sub alterius mammam. Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 20: “manum ventri et sub femina (boum),” Col. 6, 2, 6: nonnulli inter carros rotasque mataras ac tragulas subiciebant, discharged their javelins and darts below, i. e. between the wagons and the wheels, Caes. B. G. 1, 26: “biremes, subjectis scutulis, subduxit,” id. B. C. 3, 40: “ligna et sarmenta circumdare ignemque circum subicere coeperunt,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 27, § 69; cf.: “ignes tectis ac moenibus,” id. Cat. 3, 1, 2: “ignem,” id. Rab. Post. 6, 13; Auct. B. Afr. 87, 1; 91, 3; Ov. M. 1, 229 al.: “faces,” Cic. Mil. 35, 98; Vell. 2, 48, 3; Val. Max. 5, 5, 4: “bracchia pallae,” Ov. M. 3, 167: “eburnea collo Bracchia,” id. Am. 3, 7, 7: “scuto sinistram, Canitiem galeae,” id. Tr. 4, 1, 74: “laxiorem sinum sinistro bracchio,” Quint. 11, 3, 146: “umeros lecto,” Val. Max. 4, 1, 12: “pallium togae,” id. 2, 2, 2: “ova gallinis,” Plin. 18, 26, 62, § 231; 10, 59, 79, § 161: “cum tota se luna sub orbem solis subjecisset,” Cic. Rep. 1, 16: “ossa subjecta corpori,” id. N. D. 2, 55, 139 et saep: “sub aspectum omnium rem subicit,” Auct. Her. 4, 47, 60: “res sub oculos,” Quint. 8, 6, 19: “aliquid oculis,” Cic. Or. 40, 139; Liv. 3, 69; Quint. 2, 18, 2: “oves sub umbriferas rupes,” to place near, close to, Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 11: “castris legiones,” Caes. B. C. 3, 56: “aciem suam castris Scipionis,” id. ib. 3, 37: “se iniquis locis,” id. ib. 3, 85: “terram ferro,” to throw up with the share, to plough up, Cic. Leg. 2, 18, 45 Moser N. cr.: corpora saltu Subiciunt in equos, throw up, i. e. mount, Verg. A. 12, 288: “pavidum regem in equum,” to set, Liv. 31, 37: “me e postremo in tertium locum esse subjectum,” have been brought, Cic. Toga Cand. Fragm. p. 522 Orell.: copias integras vulneratis defessisque subiciebat, i. e. put in the place of, substituted, Auct. B. Alex. 26, 2.—Hence (poet.): se subicere, to mount, grow: “quantum vere novo viridis se subicit alnus,” shoots up, Verg. E. 10, 74: “laurus Parva sub ingenti matris se subicit umbrā,” id. G. 2, 19 Forbig. ad loc.—

B. In partic.

1. To hand to, supply: “cum ei libellum malus poëta de populo subjecisset,” Cic. Arch. 10, 25: “ipse manu subicit gladios ac tela ministrat,” Luc. 7, 574.—

2. To substitute false for true; to forge, counterfeit (syn.: “suppono, substituo): testamenta,” Cic. Phil. 14, 3, 7: “testamentum mariti,” Quint. 9, 2, 73: “locupleti falsum testamentum,” Val. Max. 9, 4, 1: “partum,” Dig. 25, 4, 1 fin.: “falsum aliquid,” Quint. 12, 3, 3: “aes pro auro in pignore dando,” Dig. 13, 7, 36: “fratrem suum,” Just. 1, 9.—

3. To suborn: “subicitur L. Metellus ab inimicis Caesaris, qui hanc rem distrahat,” Caes. B. C. 1, 33: “testes frequenter subici ab adversario solent,” Quint. 5, 7, 12: “suspitione subjecti petitoris non carebit,” id. 4, 2, 96.

II. Trop.

A. In gen.

1. To submit, subject: “ea quae sub sensus subjecta sunt,” Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74: “res, quae subjectae sunt sensibus,” id. Fin. 5, 12, 36; id. Ac. 1, 8, 31: “cogitationi aliquid subicere,” submit, id. Clu. 2, 6; Quint. 5, 12, 13; “ait (Epicurus), eos neque intellegere neque videre, sub hanc vocem honestatis quae sit subicienda sententia,” i. e. what meaning is to be attributed to it, Cic. Fin. 2, 15, 48 B. and K.; Madvig. ad loc.; cf.: “huic verbo (voluptas) omnes qui Latine sciunt duas res subiciunt, laetitiam in animo, commotionem suavem jucunditatis in corpore,” id. ib. 2, 4, 13: “dico eum non intellegere interdum, quid sonet haec vox voluptatis, id est, quae res huic voci subiciatur,” id. ib. 2, 2, 6; cf.: quaeritur, quae res ei (nomini) subicienda sit, Quint. 7, 3, 4.—

2. To substitute: “mutata, in quibus pro verbo proprio subicitur aliud, quod idem significet,” Cic. Or. 27, 92; so Quint. 3, 6, 28: “aliud pro eo, quod neges,” id. 6, 3, 74 et saep.—

B. In partic.

1. Pregn., to place under, to make subject, to subject: “subiciunt se homines imperio alterius et potestati,” i. e. submit, Cic. Off. 2, 6, 22; cf. Caes. B. G. 7, 1: “exteras gentes servitio,” Liv. 26, 49: “Albius et Atrius quibus vos subjecistis,” id. 28, 28, 9: “ut alter alterius imperio subiceretur,” id. 28, 21, 9: “gentem suam dicioni nostrae,” Tac. A. 13, 55; Curt. 8, 1, 37; cf.: “Gallia securibus subjecta,” Caes. B. G. 7, 77: “omnia praeter eam (virtutem) subjecta, sunt sub fortunae dominationem,” Auct. Her. 4, 17, 24: “nos sub eorum potestatem,” id. 2, 31, 50: “matribus familias sub hostilem libidinem subjectis,” id. 4, 8, 12: “sub aspectus omnium rem subjecit,” id. 4, 47, 60; cf.: “deos penatis subjectos esse libidini tribuniciae,” Cic. Dom. 40, 106: “populum senatui,” Val. Max. 8, 9, 1: “si virtus subjecta sub varios incertosque casus famula fortunae est,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 1, 2: “id quod sub eam vim subjectum est,” id. Top. 15, 58: “cujus victus vestitusque necessarius sub praeconem subjectus est,” id. Quint. 15, 49 B. and K.: “bona civium voci praeconis,” id. Off. 2, 23. 83; “for which, simply reliquias spectaculorum,” to expose for sale, Suet. Calig. 38; so, “delatores,” id. Tit. 8: “hiemi navigationem,” to subject, expose, Caes. B. G. 4, 36: “domum periculo,” Quint. 7, 1, 53: “scelus fraudemque nocentis odio civium,” Cic. de Or. 1, 46, 202: “fortunas innocentium fictis auditionibus,” id. Planc. 23, 56: “aliquid calumniae,” Liv. 38, 48.—

2. To subject or subordinate a particular to a general, to range or treat it under, append it to, etc.; in the pass., to be ranged under or comprised in any thing: “quattuor partes, quae subiciuntur sub vocabulum recti,” Auct. Her. 3, 4, 7 B. and K.: “unum quodque genus exemplorum sub singulos artis locos subicere,” id. 4, 2, 3; cf. with dat.: “formarum certus est numerus, quae cuique generi subiciantur,” Cic. Top. 8, 33: “qui vocabulum sive appellationem nomini subjecerunt tamquam speciem ejus,” Quint. 1, 4, 20; cf.: “sub metum subjecta sunt pigritia, pudor, terror, etc.,” Cic. Tusc. 4, 7, 16; 4, 8, 19; Quint. 3, 5, 1: “fas, justum, etc. ... subici possunt honestati,” id. 3, 8, 26: “dicere apte plerique ornatui subiciunt,” id. 1, 5, 1 et saep.—

3. To place under in succession or order, in speaking or writing, i. e. to place after, let follow, affix, annex, append, subjoin (cf.: “addo, adicio): post orationis figuras tertium quendam subjecit locum,” Quint. 9, 1, 36: “longis (litteris) breves subicere,” id. 9, 4, 34: “B litterae absonam et ipsam S subiciendo,” id. 12, 10, 32: “narrationem prooemio,” id. 4, 2, 24; cf. id. 5, 13, 59: “cur sic opinetur, rationem subicit,” adds, subjoins, Cic. Div. 2, 50, 104: “quod subicit, Pompeianos esse a Sullā impulsos, etc.,” id. Sull. 21, 60: “a quibusdam senatoribus subjectum est,” Liv. 29, 15, 1: “subicit Scrofa: De formā culturae hoc dico, etc.,” Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 2: “non exspectare responsum et statim subicere, etc.,” Quint. 9, 2, 15: “edicto subjecisti, quid in utrumque vestrum esset impensum,” Plin. Pan. 20, 5 et saep.: “vix pauca furenti Subicio,” i. e. answer, reply, Verg. A. 3, 314.—

4. To comprehend under, collect or embrace in: “per quam res disperse et diffuse dictae unum sub aspectum subiciuntur,” Cic. Inv. 1, 52, 98.—

5. To bring forward, propose, adduce; to bring to mind, prompt, suggest, etc.: “si meministi id, quod olim dictum est, subice,” Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 40 Ruhnk.; cf.: “cupio mihi ab illo subici, si quid forte praetereo,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25: “subiciens, quid dicerem,” id. Fl. 22, 53: “quae dolor querentibus subicit,” Liv. 3, 48; 45, 18: “nec tibi subiciet carmina serus amor,” Prop. 1, 7, 20: “spes est Peliā subjecta creatis,” Ov. M. 7, 304.—Hence, sub-jectus , a, um, P. a.

A. Of places, lying under or near, bordering upon, neighboring, adjacent: “alter (cingulus terrae) subjectus aquiloni,” Cic. Rep. 6, 20: “Heraclea, quae est subjecta Candaviae,” Caes. B. C. 3, 79: “Ossa,” Ov. M. 1, 155: “rivus castris Scipionis subjectus,” Caes. B. C. 3, 37: “subjectus viae campus,” Liv. 2, 38: Armenia subjecta suo regno (opp. Cappadocia longius remota), Auct. B. Alex. 35, 2; 28, 3: genae deinde ab inferiore parte tutantur subjectae, Cic. N. D. 2, 57, 143.—

B. (Acc. to II. B. 1.) Subjected, subject: “si quidem Ea (natura deorum) subjecta est ei necessitati,” Cic. N. D. 2, 30, 77: “servitio,” Liv. 26, 49, 8: “subjectior in diem et horam Invidiae,” exposed, Hor. S. 2, 6, 47: “ancipiti fortunae,” Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 2: “species, quae sunt generi subjectae,” subordinate, Quint. 5, 10, 57: “tum neque subjectus solito nec blandior esto,” submissive, Ov. A. A. 2, 411; cf.: “parcere subjectis et debellare superbos,” Verg. A. 6, 853.—Subst.: sub-jectus , i, m., an inferior, subject: “(vilicus), qui, quid aut qualiter faciendum sit, ab subjecto discit,” Col. 1, 2, 4; 11, 1, 25: “Mithridates ab omnibus subjectis singula exquirens, etc.,” Plin. 25, 2, 3, § 7.—

C. In the later philos. and gram. lang.: subjec-tum , i, n. (sc. verbum), that which is spoken of, the foundation or subject of a proposition: “omne quicquid dicimus aut subjectum est aut de subjecto aut in subjecto est. Subjectum est prima substantia, quod ipsum nulli accidit alii inseparabiliter, etc.,” Mart. Cap. 4, § 361; App. Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 34, 4 et saep.—* Adv.: subjectē (cf. B. supra), humbly, submissively: “haec quam potest demississime et subjectissime exponit,” Caes. B. C. 1, 84 fin.

56 causālis , e, adj. causa (rare and only late Lat.).

I. Of or pertaining to a cause, causal: “ratio,” Aug. Gen. 7, 23.—Subst.: Causālĭa , a work on the causes of things, Arn. 5, p. 163.—

II. In gram.: conjunctiones. which annex a reason for what precedes (e. g. nam, enim, itaque, etc.), Charis. p. 199 P.; Diom. p. 410 ib.; Prisc. p. 16, p. 1027 ib. —Adv.: causālĭter , causally, Aug. l. l. 5 fin.; 6, 5.

57 interjectĭo , ōnis, f. interjacio,

I. a throwing or placing between, insertion.

I. In gen.: “verborum,” Auct. Her. 1, 6, 9.—

II. In partic.

A. In gram., an interjection, Quint. 1, 4, 19.—

B. In rhet., a parenthesis, an interruption of the principal idea by the insertion of another: “interjectio qua et oratores et historici frequentes utuntur, ut medio sermone aliquem inserant sensum,” Quint. 8, 2, 15.

58 coniūnctiō ōnis, f

com- + IV-, a connecting, uniting, union, agreement: hominum: adfinitatis: vestra equitumque: mecum gratiae.—Marriage, relationship, affinity: sanguinis: fratrum: adfinitatis.—Friendship, intimacy: Caesaris: paterna.—In philos., a connection of ideas.—In grammar, a conjunction.

59 gĕro , gessi, gestum

I. Part. gen. plur. sync. gerentum, Plaut. Truc. 2, 1, 13; imper. ger, like dic, duc, fac, fer, Cat. 27, 2), 3, v. a. root gas-, to come, go; Zend, jah, jahaiti, come; gero (for geso), in caus. sense, to cause to come; cf. Gr. βαστάζω, from βαστος = gestus, to bear about with one, to bear, carry, to wear, have (in the lit. signif. mostly poet., not in Cic., Cæs., Sall., or Quint.; but instead of it ferre, portare, vehere, sustinere, etc.; but in the trop. signif. freq. and class.).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: “(vestem ferinam) qui gessit primus,” Lucr. 5, 1420; so, “vestem,” Ov. M. 11, 276 (with induere vestes), Nep. Dat. 3; cf.: “coronam Olympiacam capite,” Suet. Ner. 25: “ornamenta,” id. Caes. 84: “angues immixtos crinibus,” Ov. M. 4, 792: “clipeum (laeva),” id. ib. 4, 782; cf.: “galeam venatoriam in capite, clavam dextra manu, copulam sinistra,” Nep. Dat. 3: “ramum, jaculum,” Ov. M. 12, 442: “spicea serta,” id. ib. 2, 28: “vincla,” id. ib. 4, 681: “venabula corpore fixa,” id. ib. 9, 206; cf.: “tela (in pectore fixus),” id. ib. 6, 228: “Vulcanum (i. e. ignem) in cornu conclusum,” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 185: “spolia ducis hostium caesi suspensa fabricato ad id apte ferculo gerens,” Liv. 1, 10, 5; cf.: “Horatius trigemina spolia prae se gerens,” id. 1, 26, 2: “onera,” Varr. L. L. 6, § 77 Müll.: uterum or partum gerere, to be pregnant, be with young; so, gerere partum, Plin. 8, 47, 72, § 187: “uterum,” id. 8, 40, 62, § 151: “centum fronte oculos centum cervice gerebat Argus,” Ov. Am. 3, 4, 19: “lumen unum media fronte,” id. M. 13, 773: “cornua fronte,” id. ib. 15, 596: “virginis os habitumque gerens et virginis arma,” Verg. A. 1, 315: “virginis ora,” Ov. M. 5, 553; cf.: “quae modo bracchia gessit, Crura gerit,” id. ib. 5, 455 sq.: “Coae cornua matres Gesserunt tum,” i. e. were turned into cows, id. ib. 7, 364: “principio (morbi) caput incensum fervore gerebant,” Lucr. 6, 1145: “qui umbrata gerunt civili tempora quercu,” Verg. A. 6, 772: “tempora tecta pelle lupi,” Ov. M. 12, 380: “(Hector) squalentem barbam et concretos sanguine crines Vulneraque illa gerens, quae, etc.,” Verg. A. 2, 278: “capella gerat distentius uber,” Hor. S. 1, 1, 110.—

b. Of inanimate things: “semina rerum permixta gerit tellus discretaque tradit,” Lucr. 6, 790; cf.: “(terram) multosque lacus multasque lacunas In gremio gerere et rupes deruptaque saxa,” id. ib. 6, 539; Enn. ap. Non. 66, 26 (Sat. 23, p. 157 Vahl.); and: “quos Oceano propior gerit India lucos,” Verg. G. 2, 122: “speciem ac formam similem gerit ejus imago,” Lucr. 4, 52.—

B. In partic. (very rare).

1. With respect to the term. ad quem, to bear, carry, bring to a place: “(feminae puerique) saxa in muros munientibus gerunt,” Liv. 28, 19, 13: “neque eam voraginem conjectu terrae, cum pro se quisque gereret, expleri potuisse,” id. 7, 6, 2; cf. id. 37, 5, 1. —Absol.: “si non habebis unde irriges, gerito inditoque leniter,” Cato, R. R. 151, 4; Liv. 7, 6, 2 Drak.—Prov.: “non pluris refert, quam si imbrem in cribrum geras,” Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 100.—

2. With the accessory idea of production, to bear, bring forth, produce: “quae (terra) quod gerit fruges, Ceres (appellata est),” Varr. L. L. 5, § 64 Müll.; cf. Tib. 2, 4, 56: “violam nullo terra serente gerit,” Ov. Tr. 3, 12, 6: “arbores (Oete),” id. M. 9, 230: “malos (platani),” Verg. G. 2, 70: frondes (silva), Ov. M. 11, 615: “terra viros urbesque gerit silvasque ferasque Fluminaque et Nymphas et cetera numina ruris,” Ov. M. 2, 16.

II. Trop.

A. In gen., to bear, have, entertain, cherish: vos etenim juvenes animum geritis muliebrem, illa virago viri, Poët. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 18, 61; cf.: “fortem animum gerere,” Sall. J. 107, 1: “parem animum,” id. ib. 54, 1 Kritz.: “animum invictum advorsum divitias,” id. ib. 43, 5: “animum super fortunam,” id. ib. 64, 2: “mixtum gaudio ac metu animum,” Liv. 32, 11, 5; cf. also Verg. A. 9, 311; and v. infra B. 3.: aeque inimicitiam atque amicitiam in frontem promptam gero, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 8, 6 (Trag. v. 8 Vahl.): “personam,” to support a character, play a part, Cic. Off. 1, 32, 115; cf.: “est igitur proprium munus magistratus, intelligere, se gerere personam civitatis debereque ejus dignitatem et decus sustinere,” id. ib. 1, 34, 132; Aug. Doctr. Christ. 4, 29 init.; “id. Civ. Dei, 1, 21 al.: mores, quos ante gerebant, Nunc quoque habent,” Ov. M. 7, 655: “et nos aliquod nomenque decusque Gessimus,” Verg. A. 2, 89: “seu tu querelas sive geris jocos Seu rixam et insanos amores Seu facilem, pia testa (i. e. amphora), somnum,” Hor. C. 3, 21, 2: “in dextris vestris jam libertatem, opem ... geritis,” Curt. 4, 14 fin.: “plumbeas iras,” Plaut. Poen. 3, 6, 18: “iras,” Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 30: M. Catonem illum Sapientem cum multis graves inimicitias gessisse accepimus propter Hispanorum injurias, Cic. Div. ap. Caecil. 20, 66: “veteres inimicitias cum Caesare,” Caes. B. C. 1, 3, 4: “muliebres inimicitias cum aliqua,” Cic. Cael. 14, 32: “inimicitias hominum more,” id. Deiot. 11, 30: simultatem cum aliquo pro re publica, Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 14, 13, A, 3; cf. Suet. Vesp. 6; and Verg. A. 12, 48: “de amicitia gerenda praeclarissime scripti libri,” Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 5: “amicitiam,” Nep. Dat. 10 fin.: “praecipuum in Romanos gerebant odium,” Liv. 28, 22, 2: “cum fortuna mutabilem gerentes fidem,” id. 8, 24, 6: “utrique imperii cupiditatem insatiabilem gerebant,” Just. 17, 1 fin. —Absol.: “ad ea rex, aliter atque animo gerebat, placide respondit,” Sall. J. 72, 1.—

B. In partic.

1. Gerere se aliquo modo, to bear, deport, behave, or conduct one's self, to act in any manner: “in maximis rebus quonam modo gererem me adversus Caesarem, usus tuo consilio sum,” Cic. Fam. 11, 27, 5; cf. id. Off. 1, 28, 98: “ut, quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,” id. ib. 1, 26, 90; so, “se liberius (servi),” id. Rep. 1, 43: “se inconsultius,” Liv. 41, 10, 5: “se valde honeste,” Cic. Att. 6, 1, 13: “se perdite,” id. ib. 9, 2, A, 2: “se turpissime (illa pars animi),” id. Tusc. 2, 21, 48: “se turpiter in legatione,” Plin. Ep. 2, 12, 4: “sic in provincia nos gerimus, quod ad abstinentiam attinet, ut, etc.,” Cic. Att. 5, 17, 2: “sic me in hoc magistratu geram, ut, etc.,” id. Agr. 1, 8, 26; cf.: “nunc ita nos gerimus, ut, etc.,” id. ib. 2, 22, 3: “uti sese victus gereret, exploratum misit,” Sall. J. 54, 2: “se medium gerere,” to remain neutral, Liv. 2, 27, 3.—

b. In a like sense also post-class.: gerere aliquem, to behave or conduct one's self as any one (like agere aliquem): “nec heredem regni sed regem gerebat,” Just. 32, 3, 1; Plin. Pan. 44, 2: “tu civem patremque geras,” Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 293: “aedilem,” App. M. 1, p. 113: “captivum,” Sen. Troad. 714.—

c. Gerere se et aliquem, to treat one's self and another in any manner: “interim Romae gaudium ingens ortum cognitis Metelli rebus, ut seque et exercitum more majorum gereret,” Sall. J. 55, 1: “meque vosque in omnibus rebus juxta geram,” id. ib. 85, 47.—

d. Pro aliquo se gerere, to assume to be: “querentes, quosdam non sui generis pro colonis se gerere,” Liv. 32, 2, 6: “eum, qui sit census, ita se jam tum gessisse pro cive,” Cic. Arch. 5, 11 dub.—

2. Gerere prae se aliquid (for the usual prae se ferre), to show, exhibit, manifest: “affectionis ratio perspicuam solet prae se gerere conjecturam, ut amor, iracundia, molestia, etc.,” Cic. Inv. 2, 9, 30; cf.: “prae se quandam gerere utilitatem,” id. ib. 2, 52, 157: animum altum et erectum prae se gerebat, Auct. B. Afr. 10 fin.; Aug. de Lib. Arbit. 3, 21, 61 al.; “so gerere alone: ita tum mos erat, in adversis voltum secundae fortunae gerere, moderari animo in secundis,” to assume, Liv. 42, 63, 11.—

3. With the accessory idea of activity or exertion, to sustain the charge of any undertaking or business, to administer, manage, regulate, rule, govern, conduct, carry on, wage, transact, accomplish, perform (cf.: facio, ago).—In pass. also in gen., to happen, take place, be done (hence, res gesta, a deed, and res gestae, events, occurrences, acts, exploits; v. the foll.): tertium gradum agendi esse dicunt, ubi quid faciant; “in eo propter similitudinem agendi et faciundi et gerundi quidam error his, qui putant esse unum. Potest enim aliquid facere et non agere, ut poëta facit fabulam et non agit: contra actor agit et non facit. ... Contra imperator quod dicitur res gerere, in eo neque facit neque agit, sed gerit, id est sustinet, translatum ab his qui onera gerunt, quod hi sustinent,” Varr. L. L. 6, § 77 Müll.: “omnia nostra, quoad eris Romae, ita gerito, regito, gubernato, ut nihil a me exspectes,” Cic. Att. 16, 2, 2: “gerere et administrare rem publicam,” id. Fin. 3, 20, 68; cf. id. Rep. 2, 1 and 12: “rem publicam,” id. ib. 1, 7; 1, 8; id. Fam. 2, 7, 3 et saep.: “magistratum,” id. Sest. 37, 79; cf. “potestatem,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 55, § 138: “consulatum,” id. Agr. 1, 8, 25; id. Sest. 16, 37: “duumviratum,” id. ib. 8, 19: “tutelam alicujus,” Dig. 23, 2, 68; 27, 1, 22 al.: multi suam rem bene gessere et publicam patria procul, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6, 1 (Trag. v. 295 Vahl.); so, “rem, of private affairs,” Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 34; Cic. de Sen. 7, 22 al.: “aliquid per aes et libram gerere,” to transact by coin and balance, Gai. Inst. 3, 173; cf. Weissenb. ad Liv. 6, 14.—Of war: etsi res bene gesta est, Enn. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 42, 168 (Ann. v. 512 Vahl.): vi geritur res, id. ap. Gell. 20, 10 (Ann. v. 272 ib.); cf.: “gladiis geri res coepta est,” Liv. 28, 2, 6: “ubi res ferro geratur,” id. 10, 39, 12: qui rem cum Achivis gesserunt statim, Enn. ap. Non. 393, 14 (Trag. v. 39 Vahl.); cf. Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 84: “Alexander ... passurus gestis aequanda pericula rebus,” exploits, Juv. 14, 314: “miranda quidem, sed nuper gesta referemus,” id. 15, 28.—Of public affairs, affairs of government: “magnae res temporibus illis a fortissimis viris summo imperio praeditis, dictatoribus atque consulibus, belli domique gerebantur,” Cic. Rep. 2, 32 fin.; 2, 24: “a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit,” id. de Sen. 6, 15; cf. § 17: quid quod homines infima fortuna, nulla spe rerum gerendarum (public business), opifices denique, delectantur historia? maximeque eos videre possumus res gestas (public events or occurrences) audire et legere velle, qui a spe gerendi absunt, confecti senectute, id. Fin. 5, 19, 52: “sin per se populus interfecit aut ejecit tyrannum, est moderatior, quoad sentit et sapit et sua re gesta laetatur,” their deed, id. Rep. 1, 42: “ut pleraque senatus auctoritate gererentur,” id. ib. 2, 32; cf. id. ib. 1, 27: “haec dum Romae geruntur,” id. Quint. 6, 28: “ut iis, qui audiunt, tum geri illa fierique videantur,” id. de Or. 2, 59, 241: “susceptum negotium,” id. Fam. 13, 5, 1; cf.: “si ipse negotium meum gererem, nihil gererem, nisi consilio tuo,” id. Att. 13, 3, 1: “negotium bene, male, etc.,” id. Rosc. Com. 11, 32; id. Cat. 2, 10, 21; Caes. B. G. 3, 18, 5 et saep.; cf.: “quid negotii geritur?” Cic. Quint. 13, 42: annos multos bellum gerentes summum summā industriā, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 Vahl.); cf.: “bello illo maximo, quod Athenienses et Lacedaemonii summa inter se contentione gesserunt,” Cic. Rep. 1, 16; so, “bella,” id. ib. 5, 2: pacem an bellum gerens, v. Andrews and Stoddard's Gram. § 323, 1 (2); Sall. J. 46 fin.: “bella multa felicissime,” Cic. Rep. 2, 9: “bellum cum aliquo,” id. Sest. 2, 4; id. Div. 1, 46, 103; Caes. B. G. 1, 1, 4 et saep.: “bello gesto,” Liv. 5, 43, 1: mea mater de ea re gessit morem morigerae mihi, performed my will, i. e. complied with my wishes, gratified, humored me, Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 87; cf.: “geram tibi morem et ea quae vis, ut potero, explicabo,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 17: morem alicui (in aliqua re), Enn. ap. Non. 342, 24 (Trag. v. 241 Vahl.): “sine me in hac re gerere mihi morem,” Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 74; Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 44; id. Men. 5, 2, 37; id. Mil. 2, 1, 58; Cic. Rep. 3, 5; id. N. D. 2, 1, 3; Ov. Am. 2, 2, 13 et saep.; also without dat., Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 36; Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 77.—Pass.: “ut utrique a me mos gestus esse videatur,” Cic. Att. 2, 16, 3; Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 69; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 108; id. Ad. 2, 2, 6; Nep. Them. 7, 3 al.—With a play upon this meaning and that in II. A.: magna, inquit, bella gessi: “magnis imperiis et provinciis praefui. Gere igitur animum laude dignum,” Cic. Par. 5, 2, 37.—Absol.: “cum superiores alii fuissent in disputationibus perpoliti, quorum res gestae nullae invenirentur, alii in gerendo probabiles, in disserendo rudes,” Cic. Rep. 1, 8; cf. “the passage,” id. Fin. 5, 19, 52 supra: “Armeniam deinde ingressus prima parte introitus prospere gessit,” Vell. 2, 102, 2 (where others unnecessarily insert rem), Liv. 25, 22, 1; cf. “also: sive caesi ab Romanis forent Bastarnae ... sive prospere gessissent,” id. 40, 58 fin.: “cum Persis et Philippus qui cogitavit, et Alexander, qui gessit, hanc bellandi causam inferebat, etc.,” Cic. Rep. 3, 9.—

4. Of time, to pass, spend (mostly post-Aug.; not in Cic.): ut (Tullia) cum aliquo adolescente primario conjuncta aetatem gereret, Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 3; cf.: “pubertatis ac primae adolescentiae tempus,” Suet. Dom. 1: “vitam,” Petr. 63; Val. Fl. 6, 695: “annum gerens aetatis sexagesimum et nonum,” Suet. Vesp. 24.—Hence, gĕrens , entis, P. a. (acc. to II. B. 3.), managing, conducting, etc.; with gen.: “rei male gerentes,” Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 43: “sui negotii bene gerens,” Cic. Quint. 19, 62.

60 gĕrundĭum , ii, n. id., in gram.,

I. a gerund, Diom. p. 350 P.; Prisc. p. 808 ib. al.; also called gĕrundīvus mŏdus , Serv. p. 1788 P.

61 flexĭo , ōnis, f. flecto,

I. a bending, swaying, turning; a bend, turn, curve (rare but class.).

I. Lit.: “trunco toto se ipse moderans et virili laterum flexione,” Cic. Or. 18, 59; id. de Or. 3, 59, 220.—

II. Trop.

A. In gen.: “quae deverticula flexionesque quaesisti!” i. e. turnings, windings, Cic. Pis. 22, 53.—

B. In partic., of the voice, a modulation, inflection, change: “est in dicendo etiam quidam cantus obscurior ... quem significat Demosthenes et Aeschines, cum alter alteri obicit vocis flexiones,” Cic. Or. 18, 57: “delicatiores in cantu,” id. de Or. 3, 25, 98: “ut cervices oculosque pariter cum modorum flexionibus torquent,” id. Leg. 2, 15, 39.

62 flexūra , ae, f. flexus, from flecto,

I. a bending, winding, turning (rare; not in Cic.).

I. Lit.: “lateris,” Lucr. 4, 336: “angustiae flexuraeque vicorum,” Suet. Ner. 38.—

B. Trop.: “virtus recta est: flexuram non recipit,” Sen. Ep. 71, 19.—

II. Transf., in gram., inflection, declension of a word, Varr. L. L. 10, § 28 Müll.

63 flexus , ūs, m. flecto,

I. a bending, turning, winding (class.; in sing. and plur.).

I. Lit.: “aures duros et quasi corneolos habent introitus, multisque cum flexibus,” Cic. N. D. 2, 57, 144; cf. Quint. 6, 13, 9: “ut qui cursu parum valent, flexu eludunt,” id. 9, 2, 78: “cum venissem ad pontem, in quo flexus est ad iter Arpinas,” Cic. Att. 16, 13, a, 1; cf.: “in aliquo flexu viae,” Liv. 22, 12, 7: “implicatae flexibus vallium viae,” id. 32, 4, 4: “Rhenus modico flexu in occidentem versus,” Tac. G. 1: “flexu Armeniam petivit,” id. A. 12, 12: “alio flexu reduci ad viam,” Quint. 2, 17, 29: “(quo pacto sol) Brumales adeat flexus,” Lucr. 5, 616: “brumales,” id. 5, 640: “metae,” the turn round the goal, Pers. 3, 63: “labyrinthei,” the mazes, Cat. 64, 114: “capilli dociles et centum flexibus apti,” Ov. Am. 1, 14, 13: in litore flexus Mecybernaeus, the bay or gulf, Mela, 2, 3 init.; cf. id. 3, 1.—

II. Trop.

A. In gen., a turning, transition into another state, political change: “id enim est caput civilis prudentiae, videre itinera flexusque rerum publicarum,” Cic. Rep. 2, 25, 46: “in hoc flexu quasi aetatis fama adolescentis paululum haesit ad metas (the figure taken from the turning of the racers on reaching the goal),” id. Cael. 31, 75; cf.: “si infinitus forensium rerum labor decursu honorum et jam aetatis flexu constitisset, i. e. senectus,” id. de Or. 1, 1, 1: “flexu auctumni (= post medium tempus auctumni, trop. from turning the meta in the Circus),” Tac. H. 5, 23; v. Orell. ad h. 1.—

B. In partic. (post-Aug.).

1. An artful turning, winding, shifting: “inde recta fere est actio, hinc mille flexus et artes desiderantur,” Quint. 5, 13, 2: “qui haec recta tantum, et in nullos flexus recedentia tractaverit,” id. 10, 5, 12. —

2. Of the voice, inflection, modulation, variation: “citharoedi simul et sono vocis et plurimis flexibus serviunt,” Quint. 1, 12, 3: “quid quoque flexu dicendum,” id. 1, 8, 1: “qui flexus deceat miserationem,” id. 1, 11, 12; 1, 8, 3.—

3. In gram., inflection, variation, derivation (in Varro flexura, v. h. v.): quid vero? quae tota positionis ejusdem in diversos flexus eunt? cum Alba faciat Albanos et Albenses; “volo, volui et volavi,” Quint. 1, 6, 15.

64 dēclīnātĭo , ōnis, f. id.,

I. a bending from a thing, a bending aside; an oblique inclination or direction (good prose).

I. Lit.: “lanceam exigua corporis declinatione vitare,” Curt. 9, 7 fin.; cf.: “quot ego tuas petitiones parva quadam declinatione effugi,” Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15: “declinare dixit (Epicurus) atomum perpaulum, et ipsa declinatio ad libidinem fingitur, etc.,” id. Fin. 1, 6, 19; so of the oblique motion of atoms, id. Fat. 10, 22; 22, 47.—

B. Like the Gr. κλίμα, the supposed slope of the earth towards the poles, a region of the earth or sky, a climate: “declinatio mundi,” Col. 1 prooem. § 22; so, “mundi,” id. 3, 1, 3; cf.: “positio caeli et declinatio,” id. 1, 6, 18; “so correspond. with regio caeli,” Col. 4, 24, 2; cf. “also caeli,” the altitude of the pole, Vitr. 9, 7, 1.—

II. Trop.

A. In gen., a turning away from any thing; an avoiding, avoidance: ut bona natura appetimus, sic a malis natura declinamus; “quae declinatio, si cum ratione fiet, cautio appelletur,” Cic. Tusc. 4, 6, 13; cf. “so opp. appetitio,” id. N. D. 3, 13, 33; and in plur. Gell. 14, 1, 23: “laboris, periculi,” Cic. Clu. 53 fin.—

B. t. t.

1. Of rhetor. lang., a short digression: “declinatio brevis a proposito, non ut superior illa digressio,” Cic. de Or. 3, 53 fin.; id. Part. 15; cf. Quint. 9, 1, 32 and 34.—

2. Of gramm. lang.: variation, inflection.

(a). In the older grammarians, every change of form which a word undergoes; as declension, strictly so called, conjugation, comparison, derivation, etc., Varr. L. L. 8, § 2 sq.; 10, § 11 sq.; Cic. de Or. 3, 54; cf. “also of declension in its stricter sense,” Quint. 1, 4, 29; 1, 5, 63; “of conjugation,” id. 1, 4, 13; “of derivation,” id. 8, 3, 32; 2, 15, 4.—

(b). Among the later grammarians, of declension, properly so called, as distinguished from conjugatio, comparatio, derivatio, etc. So, Donatus: in declinatione compositivorum nominum, p. 174 P. (p. 13 Lind.).

 

65 inclīnātĭo , ōnis, f. id.,

I. a leaning, bending, inclining to one side (class., esp. in the trop. signif.).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: “(corporis) ingressus, cursus, accubitio, inclinatio, sessio, etc.,” Cic. N. D. 1, 34, 94: “corporis,” Quint. 1, 11, 16: “fortis ac virilis laterum,” id. ib. 18: “incumbentis in mulierculam,” id. 11, 3, 90: “alternā egerunt scobem,” Plin. 16, 43, 83, § 227: “merso navigio inclinatione lateris unius,” id. 8, 51, 77, § 208.— In plur.: “variis trepidantium inclinationibus,” Tac. H. 2, 35; Plin. 37, 10, 58, § 160.—

B. In partic.: caeli, a transl. of the Gr. κλίμα, the inclination or slope of the earth from the equator to the pole, a parallel of latitude, clime, Vitr. 1, 1; Gell. 14, 1, 8; “for which, mundi,” Vitr. 6, 1.—

II. Trop., an inclination, tendency.

A. In gen.: “ad meliorem spem,” Cic. Sest. 31, 67: “crudelitas est inclinatio animi ad asperiora,” Sen. Clem. 2, 4 med.: “alii (loci communes) ad totius causae inclinationem (faciunt),” Quint. 5, 13, 57.—

B. In partic., inclination, bias, favor: “voluntatis,” Cic. de Or. 2, 29, 129; cf. “voluntatum,” id. Mur. 26, 53: “judicum ad aliquem,” Quint. 6, 1, 20: “principum inclinatio in hos, offensio in illos,” Tac. A. 4, 20: “utendum ea inclinatione Caesar ratus,” id. ib. 1, 28: “senatus,” id. ib. 2, 38: “animorum,” Liv. 44, 31, 1: “in aliquem,” Tac. H. 2, 92 —

C. Transf.

1. (Qs., a leaning or bending out of its former position; hence.) An alteration, change: “communium temporum,” Cic. Balb. 26, 58: “an ignoratis, populi Romani vectigalia perlevi saepe momento fortunae inclinatione temporis pendere?” id. Agr. 2, 29, 80; cf. id. Phil. 5, 10, 26: “hoc amplius Theophrastus (scripsit), quae essent in re publica rerum inclinationes et momenta temporum,” id. Fin. 5, 4, 11: “inclinationes temporum atque momenta,” id. Fam. 6, 10, 5; cf. id. Planc. 39, 94.—

2. Rhet. t. t.: vocis, the play of the voice, its elevation and depression in impassioned speech, Cic. Brut. 43, 158; plur., Quint. 11, 3, 168. —

3. In the old gram. lang., the formation or derivation of a word, Varr. L. L. 9, § 1 Müll.

66 inflexĭo , ōnis, f. inflecto,

I. a bending.

I. Prop.: “quasi helicis inflexio,” Cic. Univ. 9, 27: “dextra inflexio Bospori,” Amm. 22, 8, 14: “laterum inflexione forti ac virili,” a vigorous and manly attitude, Cic. de Or. 3, 59, 229.—

II. Transf., an inflection, modification: in adverbio temporum significationes non de ejusdem soni inflexione nascuntur, Macr. de Diff. c. 19, § 4.

67 cāsŭālis , e, adj. casus.

I. Casual, fortuitous (post-class. and very rare): “condicio,” depending upon chance, Cod. Just. 6, 51, 1, § 7.—Adv.: cāsŭālĭter , accidentally, Sid. Ep. 9, 11; Fulg. Myth. 1, 5.—

II. In gram., relating to or declined with cases: “Casuale, ut ab equo: equum,” Varr. L. L. 8, § 52, p. 116 Bip.; cf. id. ib. 10, § “18, p. 164 Bip.: formae,” Prisc. p. 672 P. al.

68 flexĭo , ōnis, f. flecto,

I. a bending, swaying, turning; a bend, turn, curve (rare but class.).

I. Lit.: “trunco toto se ipse moderans et virili laterum flexione,” Cic. Or. 18, 59; id. de Or. 3, 59, 220.—

II. Trop.

A. In gen.: “quae deverticula flexionesque quaesisti!” i. e. turnings, windings, Cic. Pis. 22, 53.—

B. In partic., of the voice, a modulation, inflection, change: “est in dicendo etiam quidam cantus obscurior ... quem significat Demosthenes et Aeschines, cum alter alteri obicit vocis flexiones,” Cic. Or. 18, 57: “delicatiores in cantu,” id. de Or. 3, 25, 98: “ut cervices oculosque pariter cum modorum flexionibus torquent,” id. Leg. 2, 15, 39.

 

69 ordo , ĭnis, m. from root or-; Sanscr. ar-, to go, strive upward; cf. orior, through an adj. stem ordo-; v. Corss. Krit. Beitr. p. 108,

I. a regular row, line, or series, methodical arrangement, order (class.; syn.: series, tenor).

I. In gen.: “ordinem sic definiunt compositionem rerum aptis et accommodatis locis,” Cic. Off. 1, 40, 142: “vis ordinis et collocationis,” id. ib. 1, 40, 142: “arbores in ordinem satae,” i. e. planted in a quincunx, Varr. R. R. 1, 7; cf. Cic. Caecil. 8, 22; id. Sen. 17, 59.—

B. Esp., right order, regular succession: “fatum appello ordinem seriemque causarum,” Cic. Div. 1, 55, 125: “nihil esse pulchrius in omni ratione vitae dispositione atque ordine,” Col. 12, 2: “adhibere modum quendam et ordinem rebus,” Cic. Off. 1, 5, 17: “mox referam me ad ordinem,” will soon bring myself to order, return to order, id. Ac. 2, 20, 67: “res in ordinem redigere,” to reduce to order, Auct. Her. 3, 9, 16; so, “in ordinem adducere,” Cic. Univ. 3: “ordinem conservare,” id. Rosc. Com. 2, 6: “eundem tenere,” to preserve, id. Phil. 5, 13, 35: “sequi,” id. Brut. 69, 244: “immutare,” to change, id. Or. 63, 214: “perturbare,” to disturb, id. Brut. 62, 223: cogere or redigere in ordinem, to reduce to order, to humble, degrade: “decemviri querentes, se in ordinem cogi,” Liv. 3, 51; 3, 35; Plin. Ep. 1, 23, 1; Quint. 1, 4, 3; so, “in ordinem redactus,” Suet. Vesp. 15; cf. “trop.: gula reprimenda et quasi in ordinem redigenda est,” Plin. Ep. 2, 6, 5.—

C. Adverb. expressions.

1. Ordine, in ordinem, per ordinem, in ordine, ex ordine, in order, in turn: “Hegioni rem enarrato omnem ordine,” Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 53; Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 17; Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 28: “interrogare,” Cic. Part. 1, 2: “tabulae in ordinem confectae,” id. Rosc. Com. 2, 6: “ordine cuncta exposuit,” Liv. 3, 50, 4; 30, 15, 1: “sortiti nocte singuli per ordinem,” Quint. 4, 2, 72: “hos Corydon, illos referebat in ordine Thyrsis,” Verg. E. 7, 20; id. A. 8, 629: “ut quisque aetate et honore antecedebat, ita sententiam dixit ex ordine,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 64, § 143: “ordine se vocante,” when his turn came, Macr. S. 2, 2, § 12: “in ordine vicis,” Vulg. Luc. 1, 8.—

2. Ordine, regularly, properly, appropriately: “omnia ut quidque Egisti ordine scio,” Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 15: “rem demonstravi ordine,” id. Mil. 3, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 3, 17 Brix ad loc.: “an id recte, ordine, e re publicā factum esse defendes?” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 194: “si hoc recte atque ordine factum videtur,” id. Quint. 7, 28.—

3. Ex ordine, in succession, without intermission: “vendit Italiae possessiones ex ordine omnes,” Cic. Agr. 1, 2, 4: “septem illum totos perhibent ex ordine menses Flevisse,” Verg. G. 4, 507; cf. id. A. 5, 773.—

4. Extra ordinem.

a. Out of course, in an unusual or extraordinary manner: “extra ordinem decernere provinciam alicui,” Cic. Prov. Cons. 8, 19: “crimina probantur,” in an illegal manner, Dig. 48, 1, 8.—

b. Extraordinarily, i. e. uncommonly, eminently, especially: “ad eam spem, quam extra ordinem de te ipso habemus, accedunt tua praecipua,” Cic. Fam. 6, 5, 3.—

II. Transf. concr.

A. In gen.

1. Tres ordines lapidum, three courses of stones, Vulg. 3 Reg. 6, 36.—In building, a row, course, or layer of stones, etc.: “obstructis in speciem portis singulis ordinibus caespitum,” Caes. B. G. 5, 51: “alius insuper ordo adicitur,” id. ib. 7, 23: tot premit ordinibus caput, tiers or layers of ornaments, Juv. 6, 502. —

2. A row of benches or seats: “terno consurgunt ordine remi,” in three rows of oar-banks, Verg. A. 5, 120: “sex ordinum navem invenit Xenagoras,” Plin. 7, 56, 57, § 208.—In the theatre, a row of seats: post senatores ex vetere instituto quatuordecim graduum ordines equestri ordini assignati fuere, Suet. Aug. 44: “sedisti in quatuordecim ordinibus,” Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 44.—

3. A train of servants or attendants: “comitum longissimus ordo,” Juv. 3, 284.—

B. In milit. lang.

1. A line or rank of soldiers in battle array: “auxilia regis nullo ordine iter fecerant,” Caes. B. C. 2, 26: “ne quisquam ordine egrederetur,” Sall. J. 45, 2: “nullo ordine commutato,” id. ib. 101, 2: “sine signis, sine ordinibus,” id. ib. 97, 5; so, “signa atque ordines observare,” to keep the ranks, remain in line, id. ib. 51, 1: “conturbare,” id. ib. 50, 4: “restituere,” id. ib. 51, 3; Liv. 2, 50; 8, 8.—

2. A band, troop, company of soldiers: “viri fortissimi atque honestissimi, qui ordines duxerunt,” who have led companies, have been officers, Cic. Phil. 1, 8, 20: “L. Pupius primipili centurio, qui hunc eundem ordinem in exercitu Pompeii antea duxerat,” Caes. B. C. 1, 13. —Hence,

3. A captaincy, a command: ordinem alicui adimere, Tab. Heracl. ap. Mazoch. p. 423, n. 47; cf. “on the contrary: alicui assignare,” Liv. 42, 34: “DARE,” Inscr. Orell. 3456: “centuriones ad superiores ordines transducere,” Caes. B. G. 6, 40; cf. id. ib. 5, 4, 4.—

(b). Ordines, chieftains, captains: “tribunis militum primisque ordinibus convocatis,” the captains of the first companies, Caes. B. G. 6, 7 fin.; Liv. 30, 4, 1.—

C. In a polit. respect, an order, i. e. a rank, class, degree of citizens: “et meus med ordo inrideat,” Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 55.—In the time of Cicero there were three principal classes, ordo senatorius, equester, and plebeius: “Fidiculanius cujus erat ordinis? senatoril,” Cic. Clu. 37, 104; id. Fl. 18, 43: “proximus est huic dignitati equester ordo,” Cic. Dom. 28, 74; Suet. Aug. 41: “inferiores loco, auctoritate, ordine,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 48, § 127: ordo amplissimus, i. e. the Senate: “quem absentem in amplissimum ordinem cooptarunt,” id. Cael. 2, 5; “also termed SPLENDIDISSIMVS ORDO,” Inscr. Orell. 1180; 1181; and simply ordo, the order, for the Senate: “ordo Mutinensis,” Tac. H. 2, 52; Inscr. Grut. 425, 1: “trecentos ex dediticiis electos utriusque ordinis,” i. e. of the two upper classes, Suet. Aug. 15.—

2. In gen., a class, rank, station, condition: “mearum me rerum aequom'st novisse ordinem,” Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 50: “publicanorum,” Cic. Fam. 13, 9, 2: “aratorum, pecuariorum, mercatorum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 6, § 17: “homo ornatissimus loco, ordine, nomine,” id. ib. 2, 1, 48, § “127: libertini,” Suet. Gram. 18.—So in the inscrr.: SACERDOTVM, HARVSPICVM, etc., Grut. 320, 12; 304, 7; 302, 2 et saep.; so, “grammatici alios auctores in ordinem redigerunt, alios omnino exemerant numero,” recognized among, placed in the rank of, Quint. 1, 4, 3.—

(b). Esp. (eccl. Lat.), an order in the church, an ecclesiastical rank or office: “ordines sacerdotum et Levitarum,” Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 30: “secundum ordinem Melchisedek,” id. Psa. 109, 5.

70 prīmus , a, um,

I. adj. sup. [obsol. prep. pri (prei); whence also prior, priscus; cf.: privus, privo, etc., and v. pro], the first, first (properly only when three or more are referred to. The first, as opp. to the second, is prior; “but primus is rarely used for prior,” Cic. Sest. 19, 44 al.).

I. In gen.: “qui primus vulnus dicitur obligavisse,” Cic. N. D. 3, 22, 57: “primus sentio mala nostra: primus rescisco omnia: Primus porro obnuntio,” Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 7: “verum primum: verum igitur et extremum,” Cic. Off. 3, 6, 27: “primae litterae,” id. Att. 9, 6, 5: “primus inter homines nobilissimos,” id. Sest. 3, 6: “primi ex omnibus philosophis,” id. Fin. 4, 7, 17: “primus Graeciae in Thraciam introiit,” Nep. Alcib. 7, 4: “primus de mille fuisses,” Ov. H. 17, 105: “in primis,” among the first, in the foremost ranks, Nep. Paus. 5, 3: “in primis stetit,” id. Epam. 10, 3: “in primis pugnantes,” Sall. C. 60, 6: leonem primus, aut in primis ferire, id. J. 6, 1: utque pedum primis infans vestigia plantis institerat (= ut primum, etc., poet.), Verg. A. 11, 573: “primus post eos quos poëtae tradiderunt movisse aliqua circa rhetoricen Empedocles dicitur (= secundus or proximus ab iis),” Quint. 3, 1, 8.—

II. In partic.

A. In time or place, first, fore, foremost, the first part; sometimes to be translated, the end, extremity, etc.: “in primā provinciā,” at the entrance of the province, Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 2: “digitus,” the tip of the finger, Cat. 2, 3: “dentes,” the front teeth, Plin. 19, 2, 11, § 35: “ranis prima lingua cohaeret,” the end of the tongue, id. 11, 37, 65, § 172: “primā statim nocte,” at the beginning of the night, Col. 10, 190: “sol,” i. e. the rising sun, Verg. A. 6, 255: “luna,” i. e. the new moon, Plin. 2, 13, 10, § 56.—With quisque, the first possible, the very first: “primo quoque tempore,” at the very first opportunity, Cic. Fam. 13, 57, 1: “primo quoque die,” id. Phil. 8, 11, 33: “me tibi primum quidque concedente,” id. Ac. 2, 16, 49: “fluit voluptas et prima quaeque avolat,” id. Fin. 2, 32, 106.—Subst.: prīma , ōrum, n., the first part, the beginning: “quod bellum, si prima satis prospera fuissent,” Liv. 8, 3.—Of the first principles or elements of things, Lucr. 4, 186: “prima consiliorum (for prima consilia),” Tac. H. 2, 11: a primo, from the beginning, at first: “multum improbiores sunt quam a primo credidi,” Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 139; Ter. Phorm. 4, 2, 14; 4, 3, 37: “in illā pro Ctesiphonte oratione submissius a primo: deinde pressius,” Cic. Or. 8, 26: “suam vim retinere a primo ad extremum,” id. Fin. 4, 13, 32: “hoc a primo cogitavit,” id. Att. 8, 11, 2; id. Phil. 2, 30, 75 Halm ad loc.: “id a primo rectissime dicitur,” id. Fin. 3, 9, 32 Madv. ad loc.: in primo, in front, before, in the beginning, first: “equites in primo late ire jubet,” in the van, Sall. J. 68, 4: “qui numerus in primo viget, jacet in extremo,” Cic. Or. 64, 215. —

B. First in rank or station, chief, principal, most excellent, eminent, distinguished, noble (cf.: “princeps, primores): evocat ad se Massiliensium quindecim primos,” Caes. B. C. 1, 35: “sui municipii facile primus,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 15: “homo,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 17, § 37: “primis urbis placuisse,” Hor. Ep. 1, 20, 23: “juvenum primi,” Verg. A. 9, 785: “est genus hominum, qui esse primos se omnium rerum volunt Nec sunt,” Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 17: “quia sum apud te primus,” I am the first in your favor, id. ib. 1, 2, 10: “primus humani generis,” Sil. 17, 255: “urbem Italiae primam,” Petr. 116: “praedium,” Cato, R. R. 1: “suavia prima habere,” to give the first place to, think the most of, Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 9: “otium atque divitiae, quae prima mortales putant,” Sall. C. 36, 4: “cura,” a chief part, Plin. 5, 25, 21, § 88.—Also, most conspicuous, chief, in a bad sense: “peccatores, quorum primus ego sum,” Vulg. 1 Tim. 1, 15: “primas partes, or primas agere,” to play the first part, to occupy the first rank, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27: “primas in causis agebat Hortensius,” Cic. Brut. 90, 308; 47: primas dare, to give the first place, ascribe the greatest importance to a thing: “actioni primas dedisse Demosthenes dicitur, cum rogaretur, quid in dicendo esset primum: huic secundas, huic tertias,” Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 213: primas deferre, to transfer the first or principal part: “amoris erga me tibi primas defero,” i. e. I assign to you the first rank among those who love me, id. Att. 1, 17, 5: primas concedere, to yield the first place: “si Allienus tibi primas in dicendo partes concesserit,” id. Div. in Caecil. 15, 49: “primas tenere,” to play the first part, be the best, id. Brut. 95, 327: cum primis, and in primis (also written in one word, impri-mis ), with or among the first, chiefly, especially, principally, particularly: “homo domi suae cum primis locuples,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 69: “in primis lautus eques,” Nep. Att. 13, 1: “oppidum in primis Siciliae clarum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 35, § 86: “homo in primis improbissimus,” id. ib. 2, 3, 27, § “68: vir magnus in primis,” id. N. D. 1, 43, 120: “in primis hoc a se animadversum esse dicebat,” id. de Or. 3, 5, 17: “in primis nobis sermo de te fuit,” id. Att. 5, 1, 3: “in primis ... dein,” first, in the first place, Sall. J. 26, 3. —Hence, adv., primo and primum; also, ante- and post-class. and very rare, prime and primiter (the form primo is usually limited to that which is strictly first in time; primum in enumerations of contemporary facts, things, or arguments, where the order is at the speaker's choice; cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 920 sq.).

A. prīmō , at first, at the beginning, first, firstly.

1. In gen.: “aedes primo ruere rebamur,” Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 42: “neque credebam primo mihimet Sosiae,” id. ib. 2, 1, 50; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 9, § 26: “primo non accredidit,” Nep. Dat. 3, 4: “Themistocles solus primo profectus est,” id. Them. 6, 5: “contemptus est primo a tyrannis,” id. Thras. 2, 2; id. Ham. 2, 2.—

2. With dein, deinde, inde, post, postea, mox, denique, nunc: “primo Stoicorum more agamus, deinde nostro instituto vagabimur,” Cic. Tusc. 3, 6, 13: “primo pecuniae, dein imperii cupido crevit,” Sall. C. 10, 3: “primo ... deinde ... tum ... tum,” Cic. Fin. 1, 16, 50: “primo ... deinde,” Liv. 1, 27; Curt. 3, 12, 6; 4, 16, 21; 9, 10, 11: “primo abstinentiā utendum: deinde danda, etc.,” Cels. 5, 26, 34: “primo ... inde, ... hinc,” Liv. 30, 11, 6: “haec primo paulatim crescere: post, etc.,” Sall. C. 10, 6: “dissuadente primo Vercingetorige, post concedente,” Caes. B. G. 7, 15: “primo ... postea ... postremo, etc.,” Liv. 26, 39: “primo ... mox,” id. 1, 50: “primo ... mox deinde,” Just. 1, 3: “primo negitare, denique saepius fatigatus, etc.,” Sall. J. 111, 2: “neque illi credebam primo, nunc vero palam est,” Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 91.—

3. (Mostly post-Aug. for primum.) With iterum, rursus, secundo: “primo ... iterum,” Liv. 2, 51: “primo ... rursus,” Suet. Aug. 17: “primo ... secundo,” Phaedr. 4, 10, 16.—

B. prīmum , at first, first, in the first place, in the beginning (class.).

1. In enumerations, with a foll. deinde, tum: “Caesar primum suo, deinde omnium e conspectu remotis equis,” Caes. B. G. 1, 25: “primum ... deinde ... deinde,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 58, § 143: “primum ... deinde ... tum ... postremo,” id. N. D. 2, 1, 3: “primum ... deinde ... praeterea ... postremo,” id. Div. 2, 56, 116: “primum ... tum ... deinde ... post ... tum ... deinde ....,” id. Fin. 5, 23, 65; id. Font. 14, 31; cf.: “primum ... secundo loco ... deinde ... tum,” id. Leg. 1, 13, 35; id. Inv. 2, 27, 79; Curt. 3, 6, 16; 8, 10, 9; Liv. 1, 28; Nep. Them. 2, 3; id. Epam. 1, 3: “primum ... subinde,” Hor. Ep. 1, 8, 15: “primum ... mox,” id. ib. 2, 2, 93.—

2. Without other adverbs.

(a). In gen.: “quaerenda pecunia primum est,” Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 53: “te Quicumque primum Produxit,” id. C. 2, 13, 2; id. S. 2, 3, 41.—

(b). Strengthened with omnium, first of all, Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 13: “primum omnium ego ipse vigilo,” Cic. Cat. 2, 9, 19.—

3. With ut, ubi, simulac, cum.

(a). Ut primum, ubi primum, simul ac primum, cum primum, as soon as ever, as soon as: “ut primum potestas data est augendae dignitatis tuae, etc.,” Cic. Fam. 10, 13, 1: “ubi primum potuit, istum reliquit,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 20, § 48: “simul ac primum niti possunt, etc.,” id. N. D. 2, 48, 124: “tum affuerat, cum primum dati sunt judices,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 23, § 57.—

(b). Nunc primum, now first, now for the first time (cf.: nunc demum, now at last): “post illa nunc primum audio, Quid illo sit factum,” Ter. And. 5, 4, 33.—

(g). With dum (also by Plaut. joined in one word, pri-mumdum ), in the first place, first (anteclass.): “primum dum, si falso insimulas, etc. Iterum si id verum est, etc.,” Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 26: “omnium primumdum haed aedes jam face occlusae sicut,” id. Most. 2, 1, 53; 1, 2, 39; id. Capt. 1, 2, 57: “primum dum omnium male dictitatur tibi vulgo in sermonibus,” id. Trin. 1, 2, 61.—

(d). With adv. or other expression of time, for the first time: “hodie primum ire in ganeum,” Plaut. As. 5, 2, 37: “quo die primum convocati su mus,” Cic. Phil. 5, 11, 30.—*

C. prīmē , es pecially: fabula prime proba, Naev. ap. Charis. p. 188 P.; cf. Prisc. p. 603 P.—

D. prīmĭter , at first, first of all (ante- and post-class.): eripis primiter dapes, Pompon. ap. Non. 154, 26; Inscr. (of the beginning of the third century of Christ) Lab. Epigr. Lat. Scop. in Egitto.

71 sĕcundus , a, um, adj. sequor,

I. following.

A. (Acc. to sequor, I. B. 2.)

1. Prop., the following in time or order, the next to the first, the second (cf.: alter, proximus); absol.: si te secundo lumine hic offendero, the next morning, Enn. ap. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1: de tribus unum esset optandum...optimum est facere; secundum, nec facere nec pati; “miserrimum digladiari semper, etc.,” the next best, Cic. Rep. 3, 14, 23; cf.: “id secundum erat de tribus,” id. Or. 15, 50: “aliquem obligare secundo sacramento, priore amisso, etc.,” id. Off. 1, 11, 36; cf.: “prioribus equitum partibus secundis additis,” id. Rep. 2, 20, 36: “Roma condita est secundo anno Olympiadis septimae,” id. ib. 2, 10, 18: “Olympias secunda et sexagesima,” id. ib. 2, 15, 28: “oriens incendium belli Punici secundi,” id. ib. 1, 1, 1: aliquem secundum heredem instituere, the second or substituted heir, if the first-named die or refuse the inheritance, id. Fam. 13, 61; so, “heres,” Hor. S. 2, 5, 48; Inscr. Orell. 3416: “mensa,” the second course, dessert, Cic. Att. 14, 6, 2; 14, 21, 4; Cels. 1, 2 fin.; Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120; 19, 8, 53, § 167; Verg. G. 2, 101; Hor. S. 2, 2, 121: “Germania,” Lower Germany, Amm. 15, 8, 19.—Subst.: sĕcundae , ārum, f. (sc. membranae), the after-birth, secundines: “partus,” Cels. 7, 29 fin.: “non magis pertinere quam secundas ad editum infantem,” Sen. Ep. 92, 34; Col. 7, 7, 4; Plin. 27, 4, 13, § 30; 30, 14, 43, § 123: “secundae partūs,” id. 9, 13, 15, § 41; 20, 6, 23, § 51; 20, 11, 44, § 115.—

2. Trop.

a. Following, next, second in rank, value, etc.; with ad: “quorum ordo proxime accedit, ut secundus sit ad regium principatum,” Cic. Fin. 3, 16, 52.—With ab: “potentiā secundus a rege,” Hirt. B. Alex. 66; “with which cf.: secundus a Romulo conditor urbis Romanae,” Liv. 7, 1 fin.; and: “Ajax, heros ab Achille secundus,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 193: “qui honos secundus a rege erat,” Just. 18, 4, 5.—Absol.: nil majus generatur ipso (Jove), Nec viget quicquam simile aut secundum, Hor. C. 1, 12, 18: “tu (Juppiter) secundo Caesare regnes,” id. ib. 1, 12, 51; corresp. to maxime: “maxime vellem...secundo autem loco, etc.,” Cic. Phil. 8, 10, 31; cf.: “me maxime consolatur spes, etc....facile secundo loco me consolatur recordatio, etc.,” id. Fam. 1, 6, 1 sq.: “cotes Creticae diu maximam laudem habuere, secundam Laconicae,” Plin. 36, 22, 47, § 164.—With dat.: “nulli Campanorum secundus vinctus ad mortem rapior,” Liv. 23, 10, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.: “regio spatio locorum nulli earum gentium secunda,” Curt. 5, 10, 3; Vell. 2, 76, 1: “secundus sibi, non par,” Just. 11, 12, 14: “secunda nobilitas Falerno agro,” id. 14, 6, 8, § 62: “bonitas amomo pallido,” id. 12, 13, 28, § 48.—With abl., Hirt. B. Alex. 66; cf. supra.—

b. With the prevailing idea of subjection or inferiority, secondary, subordinate, inferior; absol.: “secundae sortis ingenium,” only of the second grade, Sen. Ep. 52, 3: “moneri velle ac posse secunda virtus est,” id. Ben. 5, 25, 4; cf.: “(servi) quasi secundum hominum genus sunt,” Flor. 3, 20, 1: “vivit siliquis et pane secundo (i. e. secundario),” Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 123 (cf.: “secundarius panis,” Plin. 18, 10, 20, § 89; Suet. Aug. 76): “tenue argentum venaeque secundae,” Juv. 9, 31: “haec fuit altera persona Thebis, sed tamen secunda ita, ut proxima esset Epaminondae,” Nep. Pel. 4, 3. —With abl.: “haud ulli veterum virtute secundus,” inferior, Verg. A. 11, 441.—With inf.: “nec vertere cuiquam Frena secundus Halys,” Stat. Th. 2, 574.—Esp., in phrase partes secundae, second parts, inferior parts: “in actoribus Graecis, ille qui est secundarum aut tertiarum partium,” Cic. Div. in Caecil. 15, 48: “ut credas partis mimum tractare secundas,” Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 14.—With ab: “hic erit a mensis fine secunda dies,” the last day but one of the month, Ov. F. 1, 710. —As subst.: sĕcundae , ārum, f. (sc. partes), the second or inferior parts: “Spinther secundarum tertiarum Pamphilus,” Plin. 7, 12, 10, § 54; Inscr. Orell. 2644: “Q. Arrius, qui fuit M. Crassi quasi secundarum,” Cic. Brut. 69, 242; so, “secundas sortiri,” Sen. Ben. 2, 29, 3: “ferre,” Hor. S. 1, 9, 46: “deferre alicui,” Quint. 10, 1, 53: “agere,” Sen. Ira, 3, 8, 6.—

B. (Acc. to sequor, II.)

1. Prop., naut. t. t., of currents of water, etc., favorable, fair (as following the course of the vessel): “secundo flumine ad Lutetiam iter facere coepit,” i. e. down the stream, Caes. B. G. 7, 58; so, “Tiberi,” Liv. 5, 46: “amni,” Verg. G. 3, 447: “fluvio,” id. A. 7, 494: “aqua,” Liv. 21, 28; cf.: “totā rate in secundam aquam labente,” with the current, id. 21, 47: “et ventum et aestum uno tempore nactus secundum,” Caes. B. G. 4, 23 fin.; so, “aestu,” Liv. 23, 41: “mari,” id. 29, 7; and, poet.: “(Neptunus) curru secundo,” speeding along, Verg. A. 1, 156: “secundo amne,” Curt. 4, 7, 9: “navigatio,” Tac. A. 2, 8.—Esp., of winds: “in portum vento secundo, velo passo pervenit,” Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 45; cf.: “cum videam navem secundis ventis cursum tenentem suum,” Cic. Planc. 39, 94; so, “ventus,” Caes. B. G. 4, 23 fin.; Hor. C. 2, 10, 23; id. Ep. 2, 1, 102; cf. “aquilo,” id. ib. 2, 2, 201.—Sup.: “cum secundissimo vento cursum teneret,” Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 83.—Of sails (trop.): “des ingenio vela secunda meo,” Ov. F. 3, 790.—

2. Transf., with, according to any thing: austri anniversarii secundo sole flant, i. e. according to the course of the sun, Nigid. ap. Gell. 2, 22, 31: squama secunda (opp. adversa), as we say, with the grain, i. e. so as to offer no resistance to the hand when it is passed from the head to the tail, id. ap. Macr. S. 2, 12.—

3. Trop., favorable, propitious, fortunate (opp. adversus); absol.: “secundo populo aliquid facere,” with the consent of the people, Cic. Tusc. 2, 1, 4; so, “concio,” id. Agr. 2, 37, 101; cf.: “voluntas concionis,” id. Att. 1, 19, 4: “admurmurationes cuncti senatūs,” id. Q. Fr. 2, 1, 3: rumor, Enn. ap. Non. 385, 17 (Ann. v. 260 Vahl.); Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 9: “clamor,” Verg. A. 5, 491: “aures,” Liv. 6, 40; 33, 46; 42, 28: “praesentibus ac secundis diis,” id. 7, 26; so, “dis auspicibus et Junone secundā,” Verg. A. 4, 45; and: “secundo Marte ruat,” id. ib. 10, 21: “adi pede sacra secundo,” id. ib. 8, 302; “10, 255: auspicia,” Cic. Div. 1, 15, 27; cf. avis, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 82 Vahl.); and in poet. hypallage: “haruspex,” Verg. A. 11, 739: scitus, secunda loquens in tempore, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4, 3 (Ann. v. 251 Vahl.): res (opp. adversae), Cic. Off. 1, 26, 90; “so,” id. Lael. 5, 17; 6, 22; id. Att. 4, 2, 1; Hor. S. 2, 8, 74; cf. “fortunae (opp. adversae),” Cic. Sull. 23, 66; “and tempora (opp. adversi casus),” Auct. Her. 4, 17, 24; so, res, Enn. ap. Fest. p. 257 Müll. (Ann. v. 357 Vahl.); Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 1; Cic. N. D. 3, 36, 88 (with prosperitates); Verg. A. 10, 502; Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 30: fortunae, Cato ap. Fest. s. v. parsi, p. 242 Müll.; Plaut. Stich. 2, 1, 28: “proelia,” Caes. B. G. 3, 1: “motus Galliae,” successful, id. ib. 7, 59; and: “belli exitus,” Hor. C. 4, 14, 38: “consilium,” Caes. B. C. 3, 42: “labores,” Hor. C. 4, 4, 45.—Comp.: “reliqua militia secundiore famā fuit,” Suet. Caes. 2.—Sup.: “secundissima proelia,” Caes. B. G. 7, 62.— With dat.: “secunda (sc. verba) irae,” i. e. increasing, promoting it, Liv. 2, 38.—Comp.: “secundiore equitum proelio nostris,” Caes. B. G. 2, 9.—Sup.: “tres leges secundissimas plebei, adversas nobilitati tulit,” Liv. 8, 12: omnia secundissima nobis, adversissima illis accidisse videntur, Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 8, B.—As subst.: sĕcunda , ōrum, n., favorable circumstances, good fortune: “sperat infestis, metuit secundis Alteram sortem,” Hor. C. 2, 10, 13: “age, me in tuis secundis respice,” Ter. And. 5, 6, 11: “omnium secundorum adversorumque causes in deos vertere,” Liv. 28, 11, 1: “in secundis sapere et consulere,” id. 30, 42, 16: “nimius homo inter secunda,” Tac. H. 2, 59; 1, 10; Curt. 4, 6, 31: “nemo confidat nimium secundis,” Sen. Thyest. 615: “poscunt fidem secunda,” id. Agam. 934: “secunda non habent unquam modum,” id. Oedip. 694.

72 tertĭus , a, um,

I. num. ord. adj. [ter], the third.

I. Adj.: “vos duo eritis, atque amica tua erit tecum tertia,” Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 66: “tres video sententias ferri: unam, etc. ... alteram, etc. ... tertiam ut, etc.,” Cic. Lael. 16, 56; cf. Caes. B. G. 1, 1; Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 26: “sic disserunt: si quod sit in obscenitate flagitium, id aut in re esse aut in verbo: nihil esse tertium,” Cic. Fam. 9, 22, 1; cf. id. Phil. 2, 13, 31: “annus,” id. Rep. 2, 37, 62: “tertio illo anno,” id. ib. 3, 32, 44: “mancipia venibant Saturnalibus tertiis,” i.e. on the third day of the Saturnalia, id. Att. 5, 20, 5: “ab Jove tertius Ajax,” the third in descent, greatgrandson of Jupiter, Ov. M. 13, 28: “per tertia numina juro,” i.e. by the infernal gods, id. Tr. 2, 53: “regna,” the infernal regions, id. F. 4, 584: “tertius e nobis,” i.e. one of us three, id. M. 14, 237: “tertios creari (censores),” Liv. 6, 27, 5: “tertius dies est,” it is two days since, Plin. Ep. 4, 27, 1: “syllaba ab eā tertia,” Quint. 1, 5, 30: “diebus tertiis,” every three days, Gell. 9, 4, 7. —

II. Substt.

A. tertĭae , ārum, f. (sc. partes).

1. A third part: “miscentur argento tertiae aeris Cyprii,” Plin. 33, 9, 46, § 131; 34, 5, 11, § 20: “cum ad tertias subsederit coctura,” Col. 12, 20, 4; 12, 35; Plin. 21, 18, 71, § 119: “duae tertiae partes,” two thirds, Col. 5, 2, 11.—*

2. The third part in a play: “Spinther secundarum, tertiarumque Pamphilus,” Plin. 7, 12, 10, § 54. —

B. Tertĭus , ii, m., and Tertĭa , ae, f., proper names. The latter in a sarcastic pun: Tertiā deductā (after a third was deducted, or after Tertia was seduced), Cic. ap. Macr. S. 2, 2; Suet. Caes. 50.—Adv.

A. tertĭō .

1. For the third time: “non hercle veniam tertio,” Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 24: “ille iterum, ille tertio pecuniam dedit,” Cic. Deiot. 5, 14: “sanguis mittendus est iterum tertioque,” Cels. 4, 4, fin.: “cui ter proditae patriae: semel cum, etc. ... iterum cum, etc. ... tertio hodie, etc.,” Liv. 23, 9, 11; tertio consules esse, Plin. Pan. 60, 5; cf. Gell. 10, 1.—*

2. In the third place, thirdly: “haec spectans, etc. ... simul, ut, etc. ... tertio, ut, etc.,” Caes. B. C. 3, 43.—

3. Three times (post-class.): “parietes tertio obducere,” Pall. 1, 11, 2; Treb. Gall. 17. —

B. tertĭum , for the third time: “nemo est quin saepe jactans Venerium jaciat aliquando, non numquam etiam iterum ac tertium,” Cic. Div. 2, 59, 121: veniunt iterum atque tertium, Cato ap. Charis. p. 196 P.: “idque iterum tertiumque,” Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 139: “consules creati Q. Fabius Vibulanus tertium et L. Cornelius Maluginensis,” Liv. 3, 22, 1; 6, 27, 2: “mori consulem tertium oportuit,” id. 3, 67, 3; Front. Aquaed. 10; cf. Gell. 10, 1.

73 quartus , a, um, num. adj. for quatertus from quattuor, kindr. with Gr. τέτϝαρτος and Sanscr. caturtha, the fourth,

I. the fourth: “perfidia, et peculatus ex urbe et avaritiā si exsulant, quarta invidia, quinta ambitio,” Plaut. Pers. 4, 4, 7: “pars copiarum,” Caes. B. G. 1, 12: “quartus ab Arcesilā,” the fourth from Arcesilas, Cic. Ac. 2, 6: “pater, i. e. abavus,” Verg. A. 10, 619: “quartus decimus,” the fourteenth, Tac. A. 13, 15: die quarto, on the fourth day, four days ago: nuper die quarto, ut recordor, Cn. Matius ap. Gell. 10, 24, 10.—In the future, four days hence, in the ante-class. form, die quarte (al. quarti): die quarte moriar fame, Pompon. ap. Gell. 10, 24, 5.—

B. Subst.

1. quarta , ae, f. (sc. pars), a fourth part, a quarter, esp. of an estate, Quint. 8, 5, 19; so Dig. 5, 2, 8; 5, 4, 3.—

2. quartum , i, n., in econom. lang., the fourth grain: “nam frumenta majore parte Italiae quando cum quarto responderint vix meminisse possumus,” i. e. yielded a harvest of four for one, Col. 3, 3, 4.—

C. Advv.

1. quartum , for the fourth time (class.): Quintus pater quartum fit consul, Enn. ap. Gell. 10, 1, 6 (Ann. v. 293 Vahl.): “eo quartum consule,” Cic. Sen. 4, 10; v. infra: “T. Quinctio quartum consule,” Liv. 3, 67.—

2. quartō , for the fourth time, the fourth time: “ter conata loqui, ter destitit, ausaque quarto,” Ov. F. 2, 823: “quarto Excudit amplexus,” id. M. 9, 51: Caesar dictator tertio, designatus quarto, Auct. B. Hisp. 2 init.; cf.: quarto vel quinto, four or five times, Eutr. 7, 18: aliud est quarto praetorem fieri, et quartum, quod quarto locum assignificat ac tres ante factos, quartum tempus assignificat et ter ante factum. Igitur Ennius recte, qui scripsit: Quintus pater quartum fit consul, Varr. ap. Gell. 10, 1, 6.

74 quintus (old form quinctus , Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 123), a, um, num. adj. quinque,

I. the fifth: “quarta invidia, quinta ambitio,” Plaut. Pers. 4, 4, 8: “locus,” Cic. Inv. 1, 53, 102; 1, 55, 107: “natura,” id. Tusc. 1, 17, 41: “quinta pars,” quintessence, essence, Hor. C. 1, 13, 16: “quinto mense, quinto die,” Liv. 31, 7.— Advv.

A. quintum , for the fifth time: “declarati consules Q. Fabius Maximus quintum, Q. Fabius Flaccus quartum,” Liv. 27, 6; 6, 42; Vell. 1, 14, 6. —

B. quintō , for the fifth time: “eodem anno lectisternium Romae, quinto post conditam Urbem, habitum est,” Liv. 8, 25.

75 conjŭgātĭo , ōnis, f. conjugo (except twice in Cic. Top. only post-class.),

I. a combining, connecting; hence, prop., a mingling, mixture: “mellis et fellis,” App. Flor. 4, n. 18, p. 359, 29: “corporum,” carnal intercourse, coition, Arn. 2, 54: “uxoria,” id. 5, 171: “ursi velut humanis conjugationibus copulantur,” Sol. 26, 3.—

II. Esp., t. t.

A. In rhet., the etymological relationship of words, Gr. συζυγία, Cic. Top. 3, 12; 9, 38.—

B. In later gram., conjugation; earlier called declinatio, q. v.; Mart. Cap. 3, § 311; Commian. ap. Charis. p. 153 P.; Diom. p. 337 ib.; Prisc. p. 836 et saep.—

C. In logic, a syllogism: “propositionum,” App. Dogm. Plat. p. 35.

76 ordo , ĭnis, m. from root or-; Sanscr. ar-, to go, strive upward; cf. orior, through an adj. stem ordo-; v. Corss. Krit. Beitr. p. 108,

I. a regular row, line, or series, methodical arrangement, order (class.; syn.: series, tenor).

I. In gen.: “ordinem sic definiunt compositionem rerum aptis et accommodatis locis,” Cic. Off. 1, 40, 142: “vis ordinis et collocationis,” id. ib. 1, 40, 142: “arbores in ordinem satae,” i. e. planted in a quincunx, Varr. R. R. 1, 7; cf. Cic. Caecil. 8, 22; id. Sen. 17, 59.—

B. Esp., right order, regular succession: “fatum appello ordinem seriemque causarum,” Cic. Div. 1, 55, 125: “nihil esse pulchrius in omni ratione vitae dispositione atque ordine,” Col. 12, 2: “adhibere modum quendam et ordinem rebus,” Cic. Off. 1, 5, 17: “mox referam me ad ordinem,” will soon bring myself to order, return to order, id. Ac. 2, 20, 67: “res in ordinem redigere,” to reduce to order, Auct. Her. 3, 9, 16; so, “in ordinem adducere,” Cic. Univ. 3: “ordinem conservare,” id. Rosc. Com. 2, 6: “eundem tenere,” to preserve, id. Phil. 5, 13, 35: “sequi,” id. Brut. 69, 244: “immutare,” to change, id. Or. 63, 214: “perturbare,” to disturb, id. Brut. 62, 223: cogere or redigere in ordinem, to reduce to order, to humble, degrade: “decemviri querentes, se in ordinem cogi,” Liv. 3, 51; 3, 35; Plin. Ep. 1, 23, 1; Quint. 1, 4, 3; so, “in ordinem redactus,” Suet. Vesp. 15; cf. “trop.: gula reprimenda et quasi in ordinem redigenda est,” Plin. Ep. 2, 6, 5.—

C. Adverb. expressions.

1. Ordine, in ordinem, per ordinem, in ordine, ex ordine, in order, in turn: “Hegioni rem enarrato omnem ordine,” Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 53; Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 17; Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 28: “interrogare,” Cic. Part. 1, 2: “tabulae in ordinem confectae,” id. Rosc. Com. 2, 6: “ordine cuncta exposuit,” Liv. 3, 50, 4; 30, 15, 1: “sortiti nocte singuli per ordinem,” Quint. 4, 2, 72: “hos Corydon, illos referebat in ordine Thyrsis,” Verg. E. 7, 20; id. A. 8, 629: “ut quisque aetate et honore antecedebat, ita sententiam dixit ex ordine,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 64, § 143: “ordine se vocante,” when his turn came, Macr. S. 2, 2, § 12: “in ordine vicis,” Vulg. Luc. 1, 8.—

2. Ordine, regularly, properly, appropriately: “omnia ut quidque Egisti ordine scio,” Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 15: “rem demonstravi ordine,” id. Mil. 3, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 3, 17 Brix ad loc.: “an id recte, ordine, e re publicā factum esse defendes?” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 194: “si hoc recte atque ordine factum videtur,” id. Quint. 7, 28.—

3. Ex ordine, in succession, without intermission: “vendit Italiae possessiones ex ordine omnes,” Cic. Agr. 1, 2, 4: “septem illum totos perhibent ex ordine menses Flevisse,” Verg. G. 4, 507; cf. id. A. 5, 773.—

4. Extra ordinem.

a. Out of course, in an unusual or extraordinary manner: “extra ordinem decernere provinciam alicui,” Cic. Prov. Cons. 8, 19: “crimina probantur,” in an illegal manner, Dig. 48, 1, 8.—

b. Extraordinarily, i. e. uncommonly, eminently, especially: “ad eam spem, quam extra ordinem de te ipso habemus, accedunt tua praecipua,” Cic. Fam. 6, 5, 3.—

II. Transf. concr.

A. In gen.

1. Tres ordines lapidum, three courses of stones, Vulg. 3 Reg. 6, 36.—In building, a row, course, or layer of stones, etc.: “obstructis in speciem portis singulis ordinibus caespitum,” Caes. B. G. 5, 51: “alius insuper ordo adicitur,” id. ib. 7, 23: tot premit ordinibus caput, tiers or layers of ornaments, Juv. 6, 502. —

2. A row of benches or seats: “terno consurgunt ordine remi,” in three rows of oar-banks, Verg. A. 5, 120: “sex ordinum navem invenit Xenagoras,” Plin. 7, 56, 57, § 208.—In the theatre, a row of seats: post senatores ex vetere instituto quatuordecim graduum ordines equestri ordini assignati fuere, Suet. Aug. 44: “sedisti in quatuordecim ordinibus,” Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 44.—

3. A train of servants or attendants: “comitum longissimus ordo,” Juv. 3, 284.—

B. In milit. lang.

1. A line or rank of soldiers in battle array: “auxilia regis nullo ordine iter fecerant,” Caes. B. C. 2, 26: “ne quisquam ordine egrederetur,” Sall. J. 45, 2: “nullo ordine commutato,” id. ib. 101, 2: “sine signis, sine ordinibus,” id. ib. 97, 5; so, “signa atque ordines observare,” to keep the ranks, remain in line, id. ib. 51, 1: “conturbare,” id. ib. 50, 4: “restituere,” id. ib. 51, 3; Liv. 2, 50; 8, 8.—

2. A band, troop, company of soldiers: “viri fortissimi atque honestissimi, qui ordines duxerunt,” who have led companies, have been officers, Cic. Phil. 1, 8, 20: “L. Pupius primipili centurio, qui hunc eundem ordinem in exercitu Pompeii antea duxerat,” Caes. B. C. 1, 13. —Hence,

3. A captaincy, a command: ordinem alicui adimere, Tab. Heracl. ap. Mazoch. p. 423, n. 47; cf. “on the contrary: alicui assignare,” Liv. 42, 34: “DARE,” Inscr. Orell. 3456: “centuriones ad superiores ordines transducere,” Caes. B. G. 6, 40; cf. id. ib. 5, 4, 4.—

(b). Ordines, chieftains, captains: “tribunis militum primisque ordinibus convocatis,” the captains of the first companies, Caes. B. G. 6, 7 fin.; Liv. 30, 4, 1.—

C. In a polit. respect, an order, i. e. a rank, class, degree of citizens: “et meus med ordo inrideat,” Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 55.—In the time of Cicero there were three principal classes, ordo senatorius, equester, and plebeius: “Fidiculanius cujus erat ordinis? senatoril,” Cic. Clu. 37, 104; id. Fl. 18, 43: “proximus est huic dignitati equester ordo,” Cic. Dom. 28, 74; Suet. Aug. 41: “inferiores loco, auctoritate, ordine,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 48, § 127: ordo amplissimus, i. e. the Senate: “quem absentem in amplissimum ordinem cooptarunt,” id. Cael. 2, 5; “also termed SPLENDIDISSIMVS ORDO,” Inscr. Orell. 1180; 1181; and simply ordo, the order, for the Senate: “ordo Mutinensis,” Tac. H. 2, 52; Inscr. Grut. 425, 1: “trecentos ex dediticiis electos utriusque ordinis,” i. e. of the two upper classes, Suet. Aug. 15.—

2. In gen., a class, rank, station, condition: “mearum me rerum aequom'st novisse ordinem,” Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 50: “publicanorum,” Cic. Fam. 13, 9, 2: “aratorum, pecuariorum, mercatorum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 6, § 17: “homo ornatissimus loco, ordine, nomine,” id. ib. 2, 1, 48, § “127: libertini,” Suet. Gram. 18.—So in the inscrr.: SACERDOTVM, HARVSPICVM, etc., Grut. 320, 12; 304, 7; 302, 2 et saep.; so, “grammatici alios auctores in ordinem redigerunt, alios omnino exemerant numero,” recognized among, placed in the rank of, Quint. 1, 4, 3.—

(b). Esp. (eccl. Lat.), an order in the church, an ecclesiastical rank or office: “ordines sacerdotum et Levitarum,” Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 30: “secundum ordinem Melchisedek,” id. Psa. 109, 5.

 

77 prīmus , a, um,

I. adj. sup. [obsol. prep. pri (prei); whence also prior, priscus; cf.: privus, privo, etc., and v. pro], the first, first (properly only when three or more are referred to. The first, as opp. to the second, is prior; “but primus is rarely used for prior,” Cic. Sest. 19, 44 al.).

I. In gen.: “qui primus vulnus dicitur obligavisse,” Cic. N. D. 3, 22, 57: “primus sentio mala nostra: primus rescisco omnia: Primus porro obnuntio,” Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 7: “verum primum: verum igitur et extremum,” Cic. Off. 3, 6, 27: “primae litterae,” id. Att. 9, 6, 5: “primus inter homines nobilissimos,” id. Sest. 3, 6: “primi ex omnibus philosophis,” id. Fin. 4, 7, 17: “primus Graeciae in Thraciam introiit,” Nep. Alcib. 7, 4: “primus de mille fuisses,” Ov. H. 17, 105: “in primis,” among the first, in the foremost ranks, Nep. Paus. 5, 3: “in primis stetit,” id. Epam. 10, 3: “in primis pugnantes,” Sall. C. 60, 6: leonem primus, aut in primis ferire, id. J. 6, 1: utque pedum primis infans vestigia plantis institerat (= ut primum, etc., poet.), Verg. A. 11, 573: “primus post eos quos poëtae tradiderunt movisse aliqua circa rhetoricen Empedocles dicitur (= secundus or proximus ab iis),” Quint. 3, 1, 8.—

II. In partic.

A. In time or place, first, fore, foremost, the first part; sometimes to be translated, the end, extremity, etc.: “in primā provinciā,” at the entrance of the province, Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 2: “digitus,” the tip of the finger, Cat. 2, 3: “dentes,” the front teeth, Plin. 19, 2, 11, § 35: “ranis prima lingua cohaeret,” the end of the tongue, id. 11, 37, 65, § 172: “primā statim nocte,” at the beginning of the night, Col. 10, 190: “sol,” i. e. the rising sun, Verg. A. 6, 255: “luna,” i. e. the new moon, Plin. 2, 13, 10, § 56.—With quisque, the first possible, the very first: “primo quoque tempore,” at the very first opportunity, Cic. Fam. 13, 57, 1: “primo quoque die,” id. Phil. 8, 11, 33: “me tibi primum quidque concedente,” id. Ac. 2, 16, 49: “fluit voluptas et prima quaeque avolat,” id. Fin. 2, 32, 106.—Subst.: prīma , ōrum, n., the first part, the beginning: “quod bellum, si prima satis prospera fuissent,” Liv. 8, 3.—Of the first principles or elements of things, Lucr. 4, 186: “prima consiliorum (for prima consilia),” Tac. H. 2, 11: a primo, from the beginning, at first: “multum improbiores sunt quam a primo credidi,” Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 139; Ter. Phorm. 4, 2, 14; 4, 3, 37: “in illā pro Ctesiphonte oratione submissius a primo: deinde pressius,” Cic. Or. 8, 26: “suam vim retinere a primo ad extremum,” id. Fin. 4, 13, 32: “hoc a primo cogitavit,” id. Att. 8, 11, 2; id. Phil. 2, 30, 75 Halm ad loc.: “id a primo rectissime dicitur,” id. Fin. 3, 9, 32 Madv. ad loc.: in primo, in front, before, in the beginning, first: “equites in primo late ire jubet,” in the van, Sall. J. 68, 4: “qui numerus in primo viget, jacet in extremo,” Cic. Or. 64, 215. —

B. First in rank or station, chief, principal, most excellent, eminent, distinguished, noble (cf.: “princeps, primores): evocat ad se Massiliensium quindecim primos,” Caes. B. C. 1, 35: “sui municipii facile primus,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 15: “homo,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 17, § 37: “primis urbis placuisse,” Hor. Ep. 1, 20, 23: “juvenum primi,” Verg. A. 9, 785: “est genus hominum, qui esse primos se omnium rerum volunt Nec sunt,” Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 17: “quia sum apud te primus,” I am the first in your favor, id. ib. 1, 2, 10: “primus humani generis,” Sil. 17, 255: “urbem Italiae primam,” Petr. 116: “praedium,” Cato, R. R. 1: “suavia prima habere,” to give the first place to, think the most of, Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 9: “otium atque divitiae, quae prima mortales putant,” Sall. C. 36, 4: “cura,” a chief part, Plin. 5, 25, 21, § 88.—Also, most conspicuous, chief, in a bad sense: “peccatores, quorum primus ego sum,” Vulg. 1 Tim. 1, 15: “primas partes, or primas agere,” to play the first part, to occupy the first rank, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27: “primas in causis agebat Hortensius,” Cic. Brut. 90, 308; 47: primas dare, to give the first place, ascribe the greatest importance to a thing: “actioni primas dedisse Demosthenes dicitur, cum rogaretur, quid in dicendo esset primum: huic secundas, huic tertias,” Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 213: primas deferre, to transfer the first or principal part: “amoris erga me tibi primas defero,” i. e. I assign to you the first rank among those who love me, id. Att. 1, 17, 5: primas concedere, to yield the first place: “si Allienus tibi primas in dicendo partes concesserit,” id. Div. in Caecil. 15, 49: “primas tenere,” to play the first part, be the best, id. Brut. 95, 327: cum primis, and in primis (also written in one word, impri-mis ), with or among the first, chiefly, especially, principally, particularly: “homo domi suae cum primis locuples,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 69: “in primis lautus eques,” Nep. Att. 13, 1: “oppidum in primis Siciliae clarum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 35, § 86: “homo in primis improbissimus,” id. ib. 2, 3, 27, § “68: vir magnus in primis,” id. N. D. 1, 43, 120: “in primis hoc a se animadversum esse dicebat,” id. de Or. 3, 5, 17: “in primis nobis sermo de te fuit,” id. Att. 5, 1, 3: “in primis ... dein,” first, in the first place, Sall. J. 26, 3. —Hence, adv., primo and primum; also, ante- and post-class. and very rare, prime and primiter (the form primo is usually limited to that which is strictly first in time; primum in enumerations of contemporary facts, things, or arguments, where the order is at the speaker's choice; cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 920 sq.).

A. prīmō , at first, at the beginning, first, firstly.

1. In gen.: “aedes primo ruere rebamur,” Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 42: “neque credebam primo mihimet Sosiae,” id. ib. 2, 1, 50; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 9, § 26: “primo non accredidit,” Nep. Dat. 3, 4: “Themistocles solus primo profectus est,” id. Them. 6, 5: “contemptus est primo a tyrannis,” id. Thras. 2, 2; id. Ham. 2, 2.—

2. With dein, deinde, inde, post, postea, mox, denique, nunc: “primo Stoicorum more agamus, deinde nostro instituto vagabimur,” Cic. Tusc. 3, 6, 13: “primo pecuniae, dein imperii cupido crevit,” Sall. C. 10, 3: “primo ... deinde ... tum ... tum,” Cic. Fin. 1, 16, 50: “primo ... deinde,” Liv. 1, 27; Curt. 3, 12, 6; 4, 16, 21; 9, 10, 11: “primo abstinentiā utendum: deinde danda, etc.,” Cels. 5, 26, 34: “primo ... inde, ... hinc,” Liv. 30, 11, 6: “haec primo paulatim crescere: post, etc.,” Sall. C. 10, 6: “dissuadente primo Vercingetorige, post concedente,” Caes. B. G. 7, 15: “primo ... postea ... postremo, etc.,” Liv. 26, 39: “primo ... mox,” id. 1, 50: “primo ... mox deinde,” Just. 1, 3: “primo negitare, denique saepius fatigatus, etc.,” Sall. J. 111, 2: “neque illi credebam primo, nunc vero palam est,” Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 91.—

3. (Mostly post-Aug. for primum.) With iterum, rursus, secundo: “primo ... iterum,” Liv. 2, 51: “primo ... rursus,” Suet. Aug. 17: “primo ... secundo,” Phaedr. 4, 10, 16.—

B. prīmum , at first, first, in the first place, in the beginning (class.).

1. In enumerations, with a foll. deinde, tum: “Caesar primum suo, deinde omnium e conspectu remotis equis,” Caes. B. G. 1, 25: “primum ... deinde ... deinde,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 58, § 143: “primum ... deinde ... tum ... postremo,” id. N. D. 2, 1, 3: “primum ... deinde ... praeterea ... postremo,” id. Div. 2, 56, 116: “primum ... tum ... deinde ... post ... tum ... deinde ....,” id. Fin. 5, 23, 65; id. Font. 14, 31; cf.: “primum ... secundo loco ... deinde ... tum,” id. Leg. 1, 13, 35; id. Inv. 2, 27, 79; Curt. 3, 6, 16; 8, 10, 9; Liv. 1, 28; Nep. Them. 2, 3; id. Epam. 1, 3: “primum ... subinde,” Hor. Ep. 1, 8, 15: “primum ... mox,” id. ib. 2, 2, 93.—

2. Without other adverbs.

(a). In gen.: “quaerenda pecunia primum est,” Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 53: “te Quicumque primum Produxit,” id. C. 2, 13, 2; id. S. 2, 3, 41.—

(b). Strengthened with omnium, first of all, Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 13: “primum omnium ego ipse vigilo,” Cic. Cat. 2, 9, 19.—

3. With ut, ubi, simulac, cum.

(a). Ut primum, ubi primum, simul ac primum, cum primum, as soon as ever, as soon as: “ut primum potestas data est augendae dignitatis tuae, etc.,” Cic. Fam. 10, 13, 1: “ubi primum potuit, istum reliquit,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 20, § 48: “simul ac primum niti possunt, etc.,” id. N. D. 2, 48, 124: “tum affuerat, cum primum dati sunt judices,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 23, § 57.—

(b). Nunc primum, now first, now for the first time (cf.: nunc demum, now at last): “post illa nunc primum audio, Quid illo sit factum,” Ter. And. 5, 4, 33.—

(g). With dum (also by Plaut. joined in one word, pri-mumdum ), in the first place, first (anteclass.): “primum dum, si falso insimulas, etc. Iterum si id verum est, etc.,” Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 26: “omnium primumdum haed aedes jam face occlusae sicut,” id. Most. 2, 1, 53; 1, 2, 39; id. Capt. 1, 2, 57: “primum dum omnium male dictitatur tibi vulgo in sermonibus,” id. Trin. 1, 2, 61.—

(d). With adv. or other expression of time, for the first time: “hodie primum ire in ganeum,” Plaut. As. 5, 2, 37: “quo die primum convocati su mus,” Cic. Phil. 5, 11, 30.—*

C. prīmē , es pecially: fabula prime proba, Naev. ap. Charis. p. 188 P.; cf. Prisc. p. 603 P.—

D. prīmĭter , at first, first of all (ante- and post-class.): eripis primiter dapes, Pompon. ap. Non. 154, 26; Inscr. (of the beginning of the third century of Christ) Lab. Epigr. Lat. Scop. in Egitto.

78 sĕcundus , a, um, adj. sequor,

I. following.

A. (Acc. to sequor, I. B. 2.)

1. Prop., the following in time or order, the next to the first, the second (cf.: alter, proximus); absol.: si te secundo lumine hic offendero, the next morning, Enn. ap. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1: de tribus unum esset optandum...optimum est facere; secundum, nec facere nec pati; “miserrimum digladiari semper, etc.,” the next best, Cic. Rep. 3, 14, 23; cf.: “id secundum erat de tribus,” id. Or. 15, 50: “aliquem obligare secundo sacramento, priore amisso, etc.,” id. Off. 1, 11, 36; cf.: “prioribus equitum partibus secundis additis,” id. Rep. 2, 20, 36: “Roma condita est secundo anno Olympiadis septimae,” id. ib. 2, 10, 18: “Olympias secunda et sexagesima,” id. ib. 2, 15, 28: “oriens incendium belli Punici secundi,” id. ib. 1, 1, 1: aliquem secundum heredem instituere, the second or substituted heir, if the first-named die or refuse the inheritance, id. Fam. 13, 61; so, “heres,” Hor. S. 2, 5, 48; Inscr. Orell. 3416: “mensa,” the second course, dessert, Cic. Att. 14, 6, 2; 14, 21, 4; Cels. 1, 2 fin.; Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120; 19, 8, 53, § 167; Verg. G. 2, 101; Hor. S. 2, 2, 121: “Germania,” Lower Germany, Amm. 15, 8, 19.—Subst.: sĕcundae , ārum, f. (sc. membranae), the after-birth, secundines: “partus,” Cels. 7, 29 fin.: “non magis pertinere quam secundas ad editum infantem,” Sen. Ep. 92, 34; Col. 7, 7, 4; Plin. 27, 4, 13, § 30; 30, 14, 43, § 123: “secundae partūs,” id. 9, 13, 15, § 41; 20, 6, 23, § 51; 20, 11, 44, § 115.—

2. Trop.

a. Following, next, second in rank, value, etc.; with ad: “quorum ordo proxime accedit, ut secundus sit ad regium principatum,” Cic. Fin. 3, 16, 52.—With ab: “potentiā secundus a rege,” Hirt. B. Alex. 66; “with which cf.: secundus a Romulo conditor urbis Romanae,” Liv. 7, 1 fin.; and: “Ajax, heros ab Achille secundus,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 193: “qui honos secundus a rege erat,” Just. 18, 4, 5.—Absol.: nil majus generatur ipso (Jove), Nec viget quicquam simile aut secundum, Hor. C. 1, 12, 18: “tu (Juppiter) secundo Caesare regnes,” id. ib. 1, 12, 51; corresp. to maxime: “maxime vellem...secundo autem loco, etc.,” Cic. Phil. 8, 10, 31; cf.: “me maxime consolatur spes, etc....facile secundo loco me consolatur recordatio, etc.,” id. Fam. 1, 6, 1 sq.: “cotes Creticae diu maximam laudem habuere, secundam Laconicae,” Plin. 36, 22, 47, § 164.—With dat.: “nulli Campanorum secundus vinctus ad mortem rapior,” Liv. 23, 10, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.: “regio spatio locorum nulli earum gentium secunda,” Curt. 5, 10, 3; Vell. 2, 76, 1: “secundus sibi, non par,” Just. 11, 12, 14: “secunda nobilitas Falerno agro,” id. 14, 6, 8, § 62: “bonitas amomo pallido,” id. 12, 13, 28, § 48.—With abl., Hirt. B. Alex. 66; cf. supra.—

b. With the prevailing idea of subjection or inferiority, secondary, subordinate, inferior; absol.: “secundae sortis ingenium,” only of the second grade, Sen. Ep. 52, 3: “moneri velle ac posse secunda virtus est,” id. Ben. 5, 25, 4; cf.: “(servi) quasi secundum hominum genus sunt,” Flor. 3, 20, 1: “vivit siliquis et pane secundo (i. e. secundario),” Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 123 (cf.: “secundarius panis,” Plin. 18, 10, 20, § 89; Suet. Aug. 76): “tenue argentum venaeque secundae,” Juv. 9, 31: “haec fuit altera persona Thebis, sed tamen secunda ita, ut proxima esset Epaminondae,” Nep. Pel. 4, 3. —With abl.: “haud ulli veterum virtute secundus,” inferior, Verg. A. 11, 441.—With inf.: “nec vertere cuiquam Frena secundus Halys,” Stat. Th. 2, 574.—Esp., in phrase partes secundae, second parts, inferior parts: “in actoribus Graecis, ille qui est secundarum aut tertiarum partium,” Cic. Div. in Caecil. 15, 48: “ut credas partis mimum tractare secundas,” Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 14.—With ab: “hic erit a mensis fine secunda dies,” the last day but one of the month, Ov. F. 1, 710. —As subst.: sĕcundae , ārum, f. (sc. partes), the second or inferior parts: “Spinther secundarum tertiarum Pamphilus,” Plin. 7, 12, 10, § 54; Inscr. Orell. 2644: “Q. Arrius, qui fuit M. Crassi quasi secundarum,” Cic. Brut. 69, 242; so, “secundas sortiri,” Sen. Ben. 2, 29, 3: “ferre,” Hor. S. 1, 9, 46: “deferre alicui,” Quint. 10, 1, 53: “agere,” Sen. Ira, 3, 8, 6.—

B. (Acc. to sequor, II.)

1. Prop., naut. t. t., of currents of water, etc., favorable, fair (as following the course of the vessel): “secundo flumine ad Lutetiam iter facere coepit,” i. e. down the stream, Caes. B. G. 7, 58; so, “Tiberi,” Liv. 5, 46: “amni,” Verg. G. 3, 447: “fluvio,” id. A. 7, 494: “aqua,” Liv. 21, 28; cf.: “totā rate in secundam aquam labente,” with the current, id. 21, 47: “et ventum et aestum uno tempore nactus secundum,” Caes. B. G. 4, 23 fin.; so, “aestu,” Liv. 23, 41: “mari,” id. 29, 7; and, poet.: “(Neptunus) curru secundo,” speeding along, Verg. A. 1, 156: “secundo amne,” Curt. 4, 7, 9: “navigatio,” Tac. A. 2, 8.—Esp., of winds: “in portum vento secundo, velo passo pervenit,” Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 45; cf.: “cum videam navem secundis ventis cursum tenentem suum,” Cic. Planc. 39, 94; so, “ventus,” Caes. B. G. 4, 23 fin.; Hor. C. 2, 10, 23; id. Ep. 2, 1, 102; cf. “aquilo,” id. ib. 2, 2, 201.—Sup.: “cum secundissimo vento cursum teneret,” Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 83.—Of sails (trop.): “des ingenio vela secunda meo,” Ov. F. 3, 790.—

2. Transf., with, according to any thing: austri anniversarii secundo sole flant, i. e. according to the course of the sun, Nigid. ap. Gell. 2, 22, 31: squama secunda (opp. adversa), as we say, with the grain, i. e. so as to offer no resistance to the hand when it is passed from the head to the tail, id. ap. Macr. S. 2, 12.—

3. Trop., favorable, propitious, fortunate (opp. adversus); absol.: “secundo populo aliquid facere,” with the consent of the people, Cic. Tusc. 2, 1, 4; so, “concio,” id. Agr. 2, 37, 101; cf.: “voluntas concionis,” id. Att. 1, 19, 4: “admurmurationes cuncti senatūs,” id. Q. Fr. 2, 1, 3: rumor, Enn. ap. Non. 385, 17 (Ann. v. 260 Vahl.); Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 9: “clamor,” Verg. A. 5, 491: “aures,” Liv. 6, 40; 33, 46; 42, 28: “praesentibus ac secundis diis,” id. 7, 26; so, “dis auspicibus et Junone secundā,” Verg. A. 4, 45; and: “secundo Marte ruat,” id. ib. 10, 21: “adi pede sacra secundo,” id. ib. 8, 302; “10, 255: auspicia,” Cic. Div. 1, 15, 27; cf. avis, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 82 Vahl.); and in poet. hypallage: “haruspex,” Verg. A. 11, 739: scitus, secunda loquens in tempore, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4, 3 (Ann. v. 251 Vahl.): res (opp. adversae), Cic. Off. 1, 26, 90; “so,” id. Lael. 5, 17; 6, 22; id. Att. 4, 2, 1; Hor. S. 2, 8, 74; cf. “fortunae (opp. adversae),” Cic. Sull. 23, 66; “and tempora (opp. adversi casus),” Auct. Her. 4, 17, 24; so, res, Enn. ap. Fest. p. 257 Müll. (Ann. v. 357 Vahl.); Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 1; Cic. N. D. 3, 36, 88 (with prosperitates); Verg. A. 10, 502; Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 30: fortunae, Cato ap. Fest. s. v. parsi, p. 242 Müll.; Plaut. Stich. 2, 1, 28: “proelia,” Caes. B. G. 3, 1: “motus Galliae,” successful, id. ib. 7, 59; and: “belli exitus,” Hor. C. 4, 14, 38: “consilium,” Caes. B. C. 3, 42: “labores,” Hor. C. 4, 4, 45.—Comp.: “reliqua militia secundiore famā fuit,” Suet. Caes. 2.—Sup.: “secundissima proelia,” Caes. B. G. 7, 62.— With dat.: “secunda (sc. verba) irae,” i. e. increasing, promoting it, Liv. 2, 38.—Comp.: “secundiore equitum proelio nostris,” Caes. B. G. 2, 9.—Sup.: “tres leges secundissimas plebei, adversas nobilitati tulit,” Liv. 8, 12: omnia secundissima nobis, adversissima illis accidisse videntur, Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 8, B.—As subst.: sĕcunda , ōrum, n., favorable circumstances, good fortune: “sperat infestis, metuit secundis Alteram sortem,” Hor. C. 2, 10, 13: “age, me in tuis secundis respice,” Ter. And. 5, 6, 11: “omnium secundorum adversorumque causes in deos vertere,” Liv. 28, 11, 1: “in secundis sapere et consulere,” id. 30, 42, 16: “nimius homo inter secunda,” Tac. H. 2, 59; 1, 10; Curt. 4, 6, 31: “nemo confidat nimium secundis,” Sen. Thyest. 615: “poscunt fidem secunda,” id. Agam. 934: “secunda non habent unquam modum,” id. Oedip. 694.

 

79 tertĭus , a, um,

I. num. ord. adj. [ter], the third.

I. Adj.: “vos duo eritis, atque amica tua erit tecum tertia,” Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 66: “tres video sententias ferri: unam, etc. ... alteram, etc. ... tertiam ut, etc.,” Cic. Lael. 16, 56; cf. Caes. B. G. 1, 1; Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 26: “sic disserunt: si quod sit in obscenitate flagitium, id aut in re esse aut in verbo: nihil esse tertium,” Cic. Fam. 9, 22, 1; cf. id. Phil. 2, 13, 31: “annus,” id. Rep. 2, 37, 62: “tertio illo anno,” id. ib. 3, 32, 44: “mancipia venibant Saturnalibus tertiis,” i.e. on the third day of the Saturnalia, id. Att. 5, 20, 5: “ab Jove tertius Ajax,” the third in descent, greatgrandson of Jupiter, Ov. M. 13, 28: “per tertia numina juro,” i.e. by the infernal gods, id. Tr. 2, 53: “regna,” the infernal regions, id. F. 4, 584: “tertius e nobis,” i.e. one of us three, id. M. 14, 237: “tertios creari (censores),” Liv. 6, 27, 5: “tertius dies est,” it is two days since, Plin. Ep. 4, 27, 1: “syllaba ab eā tertia,” Quint. 1, 5, 30: “diebus tertiis,” every three days, Gell. 9, 4, 7. —

II. Substt.

A. tertĭae , ārum, f. (sc. partes).

1. A third part: “miscentur argento tertiae aeris Cyprii,” Plin. 33, 9, 46, § 131; 34, 5, 11, § 20: “cum ad tertias subsederit coctura,” Col. 12, 20, 4; 12, 35; Plin. 21, 18, 71, § 119: “duae tertiae partes,” two thirds, Col. 5, 2, 11.—*

2. The third part in a play: “Spinther secundarum, tertiarumque Pamphilus,” Plin. 7, 12, 10, § 54. —

B. Tertĭus , ii, m., and Tertĭa , ae, f., proper names. The latter in a sarcastic pun: Tertiā deductā (after a third was deducted, or after Tertia was seduced), Cic. ap. Macr. S. 2, 2; Suet. Caes. 50.—Adv.

A. tertĭō .

1. For the third time: “non hercle veniam tertio,” Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 24: “ille iterum, ille tertio pecuniam dedit,” Cic. Deiot. 5, 14: “sanguis mittendus est iterum tertioque,” Cels. 4, 4, fin.: “cui ter proditae patriae: semel cum, etc. ... iterum cum, etc. ... tertio hodie, etc.,” Liv. 23, 9, 11; tertio consules esse, Plin. Pan. 60, 5; cf. Gell. 10, 1.—*

2. In the third place, thirdly: “haec spectans, etc. ... simul, ut, etc. ... tertio, ut, etc.,” Caes. B. C. 3, 43.—

3. Three times (post-class.): “parietes tertio obducere,” Pall. 1, 11, 2; Treb. Gall. 17. —

B. tertĭum , for the third time: “nemo est quin saepe jactans Venerium jaciat aliquando, non numquam etiam iterum ac tertium,” Cic. Div. 2, 59, 121: veniunt iterum atque tertium, Cato ap. Charis. p. 196 P.: “idque iterum tertiumque,” Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 139: “consules creati Q. Fabius Vibulanus tertium et L. Cornelius Maluginensis,” Liv. 3, 22, 1; 6, 27, 2: “mori consulem tertium oportuit,” id. 3, 67, 3; Front. Aquaed. 10; cf. Gell. 10, 1.

80 quartus , a, um, num. adj. for quatertus from quattuor, kindr. with Gr. τέτϝαρτος and Sanscr. caturtha, the fourth,

I. the fourth: “perfidia, et peculatus ex urbe et avaritiā si exsulant, quarta invidia, quinta ambitio,” Plaut. Pers. 4, 4, 7: “pars copiarum,” Caes. B. G. 1, 12: “quartus ab Arcesilā,” the fourth from Arcesilas, Cic. Ac. 2, 6: “pater, i. e. abavus,” Verg. A. 10, 619: “quartus decimus,” the fourteenth, Tac. A. 13, 15: die quarto, on the fourth day, four days ago: nuper die quarto, ut recordor, Cn. Matius ap. Gell. 10, 24, 10.—In the future, four days hence, in the ante-class. form, die quarte (al. quarti): die quarte moriar fame, Pompon. ap. Gell. 10, 24, 5.—

B. Subst.

1. quarta , ae, f. (sc. pars), a fourth part, a quarter, esp. of an estate, Quint. 8, 5, 19; so Dig. 5, 2, 8; 5, 4, 3.—

2. quartum , i, n., in econom. lang., the fourth grain: “nam frumenta majore parte Italiae quando cum quarto responderint vix meminisse possumus,” i. e. yielded a harvest of four for one, Col. 3, 3, 4.—

C. Advv.

1. quartum , for the fourth time (class.): Quintus pater quartum fit consul, Enn. ap. Gell. 10, 1, 6 (Ann. v. 293 Vahl.): “eo quartum consule,” Cic. Sen. 4, 10; v. infra: “T. Quinctio quartum consule,” Liv. 3, 67.—

2. quartō , for the fourth time, the fourth time: “ter conata loqui, ter destitit, ausaque quarto,” Ov. F. 2, 823: “quarto Excudit amplexus,” id. M. 9, 51: Caesar dictator tertio, designatus quarto, Auct. B. Hisp. 2 init.; cf.: quarto vel quinto, four or five times, Eutr. 7, 18: aliud est quarto praetorem fieri, et quartum, quod quarto locum assignificat ac tres ante factos, quartum tempus assignificat et ter ante factum. Igitur Ennius recte, qui scripsit: Quintus pater quartum fit consul, Varr. ap. Gell. 10, 1, 6

81 pĕriphrăsis , is, f., = περίφρασις,

I. a circumlocution, periphrase (post-Aug.), Suet. Gram. 4; Quint. 8, 3, 53; Gell. 3, 1, 6 (pure Lat.: circuitus eloquendi, ambitus verborum, circumlocutio).

82 in-dēclīnābĭlis , e, adj.,

I. inflexible, unchangeable, only in a trop. sense (postAug.).

I. In gen., of things: “virtus animum rectum et indeclinabilem praestat,” Sen. Ep. 66: “justitia,” id. ib. 74: “series re rum,” Gell. 6, 2.—Of persons: “judex,” Amm. 25, 4; id. 18, 1.—

II. In gram.: nomen, indeclinable, Diom. pp. 288, 289 P. — Hence, indēclīnābĭlĭter , adv., unchangeably, Aug. Civ. Dei, 9, 22 fin.

83 stĕrĭlis , e

I. acc. sing. fem sterilam sterilem, Fest. p. 316 Müll.; neutr. plur. sterila, Lucr. 2, 845; abl. sterile, Apic. 7, 1, § 258), adj. Gr. στερεός, hard; στερίφη, στεῖρα, barren; Sanscr. starī, vacca sterilis, unfruitful, barren, sterile, of plants and animals (class. and very freq.; “syn infecundus): steriles nascuntur avenae,” Verg. E. 5, 37; so, “ulvae,” Ov. M. 4, 299: “herba,” id. Am. 3, 7, 31; Curt. 4, 1, 21: “platani,” Verg. G. 2, 70: “agri,” id. ib. 1, 84; id. A. 3, 141: “tellus,” Ov. M. 8, 789: “palus,” Hor. A. P. 65: “harena,” Verg. G. 1, 70: “humus,” Prop. 3, 2 (2, 11), 2; Curt. 7, 5, 34: “solum,” id. 3, 4, 3: “steriles nimium crasso sunt semine,” Lucr. 4, 1240; Cat. 67, 26: “galli Tanagric' ad partus sunt steriliores,” Varr. R. R. 3, 9, 6: “vacca,” Verg. A. 6, 251: “multae (mulie res),” Lucr. 4, 1251: “viri,” i. e. eunuchs, Cat. 63, 69; Plin. 24, 10, 47, § 78; Mart. 9, 9, 8: “ova,” Plin. 10, 60, 80, § 166.—

B. Transf. (mostly poet. and in post-Aug. prose; not in Cic.).

1. Of things, causing unfruitfulness or sterility: “rubigo,” Hor. C. 3, 23, 6: “frigus,” Luc. 4, 108: “hiems,” Mart. 8, 68, 10: “serere pampinariis sterile est,” produces sterility, Plin. 17, 21, 35, § 157.—

2. In gen., barren, bare, empty: “manus,” Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 3: “sterilis amator a datis,” bare of gifts, id. ib. 2, 1, 30: “amicus,” Juv. 12, 97; Mart. 10, 18, 3: “epistulae,” Plin. Ep. 5, 2, 2: “saeculum,” id. ib. 5, 17, 6: “civitas ad aquas,” App. M. 1, p. 106 fin.: “vadum,” Sen. Thyest. 173: “corpora sonitu (with jejuna succo),” that yield no sound, Lucr. 2, 845: “prospectus,” without human beings, Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 15: “domus,” without children, Prop. 4 (5), 11, 62. “nummi,” that do not bear interest, Dig. 22, 1, 7.—With gen.: “sterilis laurus baccarum,” Plin. 15, 30, 39, § 130: “lapides plumbi,” id. 33, 7, 40, § 119.—

II. Trop., unproductive, unprofitable, fruitless, useless, vain: “Februarius,” Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 12, 2: “quod monumentum, quod immo temporis punctum, aut beneficio sterile, aut vacuum laude?” Plin. Pan. 56, 2: “ne sit sterile et effetum (saeculum),” id. Ep. 5, 17, 6: “fama (with cassa),” Stat. Th. 6, 70: “labor,” Mart. 10, 58, 8: “pax,” Tac. A. 1, 17: “amor,” i. e. unreturned, unrequited, Ov. M. 1, 496; Stat. S. 3, 4, 42: “cathedrae,” unprofitable, Mart. 1, 76, 14; Juv. 7, 203: “litus sterili versamus aratro,” id. 7, 49.—With gen., destitute, deprived of, unacquainted with: “urbes talium studiorum fuere steriles,” Vell. 1, 18 fin.: “non adeo virtutum sterile saeculum,” Tac. H. 1, 3: “heu steriles veri!” Pers. 5, 75.

84 cāsus (Ciceronis temporibus paulumque infra s geminabatur: cassus , etc., Quint. 1, 7, 20; cf.: causa, Juppiter al.; in inscr. also KASVS), ūs (dat. casu, Nep. Alcib. 6, 4), m. cado.

I. Lit., a falling (acc. to cado, I. A. and C.).

A. A falling down, etc.: “stillicidi,” Lucr. 1, 313: “geli,” id. 5, 205: “nivis,” Liv. 21, 35, 6: “fulminum,” Plin. 2, 50, 51, § 135; Ov. M. 8, 259: “celsae graviore casu Decidunt turres,” Hor. C. 2, 10, 10.—In plur., Lucr. 2, 231.—

B. A fall, an overthrow, a throwing down: “occumbunt multi letum praecipe casu,” Enn. Ann. 391 Vahl.: eoque ictu me ad casum dari, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 44: “casus, quo (infantes) in terram toties deferuntur,” Quint. 1, 12, 10; Lucr. 5, 1333: “vehiculi,” Plin. 28, 2, 4, § 21 al.—In plur.: cum loci Inciperent casus, i. e. the fall, destruction (by an earthquake), Ov. M. 8, 714.—

II. Trop.

A. Of time, the end: “extremae sub casum hiemis,” Verg. G. 1, 340.—

B. A moral fall, a false step, an error, fall: “multas vias adulescentiae lubricas ostendit (natura), quibus illa insistere, aut ingredi sine casu aliquo ac prolapsione vix posset,” Cic. Cael. 17, 41.—So of a political fall, Cic. Sest. 67, 140.—

2. Esp., a fall or change from a higher to a lower condition: “secum reputans quam gravis casus in servitium ex regno foret,” Sall. J. 62, 9.—

C. That which turns out or happens unexpectedly, an occurrence, event, accident, chance, misfortune, emergency (this most freq. in sing. and plur.): “quid est enim aliud fors, quid fortuna, quid casus, quid eventus, nisi cum sic aliquid cecidit, sic evenit, ut vel non cadere atque evenire, vel aliter cadere atque evenire potuerit? etc.,” Cic. Div. 2, 6, 15: quis iste tantus casus? unde tam felix concursus atomorum? cf. id. N. D. 1, 32, 90: “novi casus temporum,” id. Imp. Pomp. 20, 60: “quod consilium etsi in ejusmodi casu reprehendendum non est, tamen incommode accidit,” such an emergency, Caes. B. G. 5, 33: “quod in ejusmodi casu accidit, periti ignaris parebant,” Curt. 4, 3, 18; 10, 5, 8; Quint. 6, 2, 34; Tac. A. 2, 47; Liv. 24, 2, 11; 38, 8, 5: potest igitur veritatem casus imitari, Cic. Div. 2, 21, 49: “quis tantam Rutulis laudem, casusne deusne, Attulerit,” Verg. A. 12, 321: “sive illud deorum munus sive casus fuit,” Curt. 4, 7, 13: “quae casus obtulerat, in sapientiam vertenda ratus,” Tac. A. 1, 29: “ut quemque casus armaverat,” Sall. C. 56, 3: “si quos locus aut casus conjunxerat,” id. J. 97 fin.: “in aleam tanti casus se regnumque dare,” Liv. 42, 50, 2: “ludibrium casūs,” id. 30, 30, 5: “casum potius quam consilium sequatur,” Quint. 7, prooem. § 3: “ parata ad omnes casus eloquentia,” id. 10, 1, 2: “bellorum,” Tac. A. 1, 61: “satis jam eventuum, satis casuum,” id. ib. 2, 26: “adversi, secundi,” Nep. Dat. 5, 4; cf. Suet. Caes. 25; id. Oth. 9: “magnus,” Caes. B. G. 6, 30; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 18, 3: “mirificus,” Cic. Fam. 7, 5, 2: “mirabiles,” Nep. Timol. 5, 1: “rariores,” Cic. Off. 2, 6, 19: “dubii,” Cat. 64, 216; Hor. S. 2, 2, 108: “varii,” Verg. A. 1, 204: “subiti repentinique,” Suet. Aug. 73.—Hence, in abl.: casu , adverbially, by chance, casually, by accident, accidentally: “quod si haec habent aliquam talem necessitatem, quid est tandem, quod casu fieri aut forte fortunā putemus?” Cic. Div. 2, 7, 18: “id evenit non temere nec casu,” id. N. D. 2, 2, 6: “sive casu sive consilio deorum,” Caes. B. G. 1, 12; cf. Suet. Claud. 13: “necessitate an casu,” Quint. 3, 6, 26: “casu an persuasu et inductu,” id. 5, 10, 69: “casu an manibus impeditus,” Tac. A. 1, 13: “accidit casu ut legati, etc.,” Nep. Hann. 12, 1; cf. Hor. S. 1, 6, 53; 1, 9, 36; id. Ep. 1, 19, 18; Ov. M. 5, 118; 6, 359; 7, 84 et saep.—Hence, also,

b. A chance, an occasion, opportunity for something (esp. freq. in Sall. and Tac.): “aetas illa multo pluris quam nostra casus mortis habet,” Cic. Sen. 19, 67; cf.: “mortis durae casus,” Verg. A. 10, 791: “aut vi aut dolis sese casum victoriae inventurum,” Sall. J. 25, 9: “praeclari facinoris casum dare,” id. ib. 56, 4; so, “si casus daretur,” Tac. A. 1, 13; 11, 9: “invadendae Armeniae,” id. ib. 12, 50: “pugnae,” id. ib. 12, 28: “bene gerendae rei,” id. ib. 13, 36: “casum adferre,” Quint. 8, 4, 17.— Since the idea of suddenness, unexpectedness, easily passes into that of hostility, adverseness (cf. accido, 4.), casus signifies,

2. Esp., an adverse event, a misfortune, mishap, calamity, = συμφορά: “meum illum casum tam horribilem, tam gravem, tam repentinum,” Cic. Sest. 24, 53; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2; Caes. B. G. 7, 1, 4: “dolens civitatis casum,” Sall. C. 40, 2; cf. id. J. 14, 22; 23, 2; Liv. 37, 17, 7; 23, 22, 3; Cat. 28, 11.—Of disease: “si alius casus lecto te adfixit,” Hor. S. 1, 1, 81; Ov. M. 4, 142; 14, 473; 15, 494: “res minime in hujusmodi casu noxia,” in the earthquake, Sen. Q. N. 6, 21, 2; id. Cons. ad Marc. 5, 3: “urbis Trojanae,” overthrow, Verg. A. 1, 623.—Hence,

b. Euphemist. for death: “Saturnini atque Gracchorum casus,” Caes. B. C. 1, 7: “sui quemque casus per quinquennium absumpsissent,” Liv. 23, 22, 3; Sall. J. 73, 1; Hor. S. 2, 5, 49; Suet. Aug. 65; cf. id. Caes. 89; id. Calig. 10.—

D. In gram. t. t., a case in the inflection of words: “propter eorum qui dicunt, sunt declinati casus, uti is qui de altero diceret, distinguere posset, quom vocaret, etc.,” Varr. L. L. 8, § 16 Müll.: casus dicimus... et vocabulorum formas, Paul. ex Fest. p. 58, 11 ib.: “ea (verba) sic et casibus et temporibus et genere et numero conservemus, ut, etc.,” Cic. de Or. 3, 11, 40: “barbari casus... casus rectus,” id. Or. 48, 160; Quint. 1, 5, 61: “obliqui,” id. 1, 6, 22: “nominativo, dativo, ablativo,” id. 7, 9, 13: “genitivo,” id. 1, 5, 62: Latinus, sextus, i. e. the ablative, Varr. ap. Diom. p. 277 P.: “conversi, i. e. obliqui,” Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64: interrogandi (i. e. genetivus), Nigid. ap. Gell. 13, 26 Hertz: “vocandi,” id. ib.: “septimus,” Quint. 1, 4, 26.

85 nōmĭnātīvus , a, um, adj. id.,

I. of or belonging to naming, nominative; in gram.: “casus nominativus,” the nominative case, Varr. L. L. 10, § 23 Müll.; Quint. 1, 7, 3; 7, 9, 13; 8, 3, 46 et saep.

 

86 rĕgo , xi, ctum, 3, v. a. Sanscr. arg-, argami, to obtain; Gr. ὀρέγω reach after; cf. Sanscr. rāgan; Goth. reiks, king; Germ. Reich and Recht,

I. to keep straight or from going wrong, to lead straight; to guide, conduct, direct (freq. and class.; syn.: guberno, moderor).

I. Lit.: “deus est, qui regit et moderatur et movet id corpus, cui praepositus est,” Cic. Rep. 6, 24, 26: “manus una (navem) regit,” Lucr. 4, 903: “onera navium velis,” Caes. B. G. 3, 13: “arte ratem,” Ov. Tr. 1, 4, 12; cf. “clavum,” Verg. A. 10, 218: “te ventorum regat pater,” Hor. C. 1, 3, 3: “vela,” Prop. 2, 28 (3, 24), 24: “coërcet et regit beluam,” Cic. Rep. 2, 40, 67: “equum,” Liv. 35, 11: “equos,” Ov. A. A. 3, 556; id. Ib. 474; cf. “quadrupedes,” id. M. 2, 86: “spumantia ora (equi),” id. ib. 8, 34: “frena,” id. P. 4, 12, 24: “equi impotentes regendi,” Liv. 35, 11; Ov. Tr. 1, 3, 28; Curt. 4, 15, 28: “currus,” Ov. A. A. 1, 4; Curt. 8, 14, 7: taurus ex grege, quem prope litora regebat, Sall. H. Fragm. ap. Prisc. p. 715 P.; Quint. 1, 1, 27: “rege tela per auras,” Verg. A. 9, 409: “tela per viscera Caesaris,” Luc. 7, 350; cf.: “missum jaculum,” Ov. M. 7, 684: “sagittas nusquam,” Luc. 7, 515: “regens tenui vestigia filo,” Cat. 64, 113; cf.: “Daedalium iter lino duce,” Prop. 2, 14 (3, 6), 8: “caeca filo vestigia,” Verg. A. 6, 30: “diverso flamina tractu,” Ov. M. 1, 59: “gressus,” Vulg. Judic. 16, 26.—

B. In partic., jurid. t. t.: “regere fines,” to draw the boundaries, mark out the limits, Cic. Leg. 1, 21, 55; id. Top. 10, 43; id. Mur. 9, 22; Tib. 1, 3, 44; cf. Dig. 10, 1, and Cod. Just. 3, 39 tit. Finium regundorum.—

II. Trop., to guide, lead, conduct, manage, direct.

A. In gen.: “Deus qui omnem hunc mundum regit,” Cic. Rep. 6, 13, 13: “domum,” id. ib. 1, 39, 61: “rem consilio,” Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 13: “belli fera munera Mavors regit,” Lucr. 1, 33; cf. “bella,” Caes. B. G. 6, 17; Sil. 7, 47: “omnia nostra ita gerito, regito, gubernato, ut, etc.,” Cic. Att. 16, 2, 2: “alicujus animum atque ingenium,” Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 90; cf.: “animi motus (with moderari cupiditates),” Cic. Part. Or. 22, 76: “mores,” Ov. M. 15, 834: “animos dictis,” Verg. A. 1, 153: “animum,” Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 62: “ut me ipse regam,” id. ib. 1, 1, 27: “consilia senatus,” Quint. 12, 1, 26: “valetudines principis,” Tac. A. 6, 50; cf.: “valetudinem arbitratu suo,” Suet. Tib. 68 al.: “neque regerentur magis quam regerent casus,” Sall. J. 1, 5; cf.: “jam regi leges, non regere,” Liv. 10, 13: “utroque vorsum rectum est ingenium meum,” Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 6: “vellem suscepisses juvenem regendum,” Cic. Att. 10, 6, 2; cf. Suet. Tib. 50; id. Claud. 9: “Silvanum specie obsequii regebat,” Tac. H. 3, 50: “nemo regere potest, nisi qui et regi,” Sen. Ira, 2, 15 fin.; Quint. 12, 10, 69.—

B. Transf.

1. To sway, control, rule, govern, have the supremacy over any thing: “quare qui convenit polliceri operam suam rei publicae, cum rem publicam regere nesciant?” Cic. Rep. 1, 6, 11; so, “rem publicam,” id. ib. 1, 26, 41; “1, 27, 43: in iis civitatibus quae ab optimis reguntur,” id. ib. 1, 34 fin.; “2, 9, 15: illa civitas optimatium arbitrio regi dicitur,” id. ib. 1, 26, 42; cf.: “Massilienses per delectos et principes cives summā justitiā reguntur,” id. ib. 1, 27, 43: “Frisios,” Tac. A. 4, 72: “populos imperio,” Verg. A. 6, 851: “imperiis Italiam,” id. ib. 4, 230: “legiones,” Tac. A. 15, 7; cf. “cohortes,” id. H. 4, 12: “exercitum,” Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 2; id. Pan. 9, 2: “domum,” Vulg. 1 Tim. 5, 4: “diva, quae regis Antium,” Hor. C. 1, 35, 1: “Diana, quae silentium regis,” id. Epod. 5, 51.—Transf., of abstract objects: “animi partes consilio,” Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 60: “ut unius potestate regatur salus et aequabilitas et otium civium,” id. ib. 2, 23, 43: “rex ille (Tarquinius) neque suos mores regere poterat neque suorum libidines,” id. ib. 2, 25, 46.— Absol.: “Tiberio regente,” Tac. A. 4, 33; 13, 3: “stare rempublicam nisi uno regente non posse,” Quint. 3, 8, 47: “quo regente,” Verg. Cul. 333; Just. 1, 9, 23: “Clemens ambitioso imperio regebat,” i. e. used his authority to court popular favor, Tac. H. 2, 12.—

2. To guide into the right way one who has erred; to set right, correct: non multa peccas, sed si peccas, te regere possum, old poet ap. Cic. Mur. 29, 60 (with corrigere and inflectere): “errantem regere,” Caes. B. C. 3, 57: “rogo, domine, consilio me regas, etc.,” Plin. Ep. 10, 19 (30), 1; cf.: alicujus dubitationem, id. ib 10, 118 (119), 3.— Hence,

I. P. a. as subst.: rĕgens , entis, m., a governor, prince, ruler, regent: “contemptus regentium,” Tac. A. 12, 54: “in obsequium regentis,” id. Or. 41: clementia regentis, Sen. Clem. 1, 22, 3: “vita regentis,” Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 301: “excogitare nemo quicquam poterit, quod magis decorum regenti sit quam clementia,” Sen. Clem. 1, 19, 1; id. Ep. 59, 7: “in vulgus manant exempla regentum (= -tium),” Claud. Laud. Stil. 1, 168.—

II. rectus , a, um, P. a., led straight along, drawn in a straight line (horizontal or vertical), straight, upright, ὀρθός.

A. Lit., of horizontal direction: “pars Remorum recta est (opp. refracta),” Lucr. 4, 439: “sed nil omnino rectā regione viaï declinare,” id. 2, 249 Munro: “rectā regione iter instituere,” Liv. 21, 31: “India, rectā regione spatiosa,” Curt. 8, 9, 2; cf. id. 7, 9, 2: “ad nostras aedes hic quidem habet rectam viam,” Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 26: “via,” id. Cas. 5, 2, 7; id. Poen. 3, 3, 79; id. Ps. 4, 7, 37; Ter. And. 3, 4, 21; id. Phorm. 2, 1, 80; Mart. 8, 75, 2; cf. “platea,” Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 58; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 35; 43: “porta,” Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 60: “ostium,” id. Mil. 2, 3, 58: “ostia viarum (opp. iter flexum),” Lucr. 4, 93: “cursus hinc in Africam,” Liv. 26, 43: “saxa quae rectis lineis suos ordines servant,” Caes. B. G. 7, 23 fin.: “recto flumine,” Verg. A. 8, 57: “recto ad Iberum itinere,” Caes. B. C. 1, 69; Liv. 22, 9: “ne qua forent pedibus vestigia rectis,” Verg. A. 8, 209: “recto grassetur limite miles,” Ov. Tr. 2, 477: “velut rectae acies concurrissent,” in a straight line, line of battle, Liv. 34, 28; so, “acies,” id. 35, 28: “qui (quincunx), in quamcumque partem spectaveris, rectus est,” Quint. 8, 3, 9: “hic vos aliud nihil orat, nisi ut rectis oculis hanc urbem sibi intueri liceat,” Cic. Rab. Post. 17, 48: “adversus adparatus terribilium rectos oculos tenet,” Sen. Const. 5, 5: “rectis oculis gladios micantes videre,” id. Ep. 76, 33; 104, 24: “oculi,” Suet. Aug. 16; cf. “acies,” Ov. M. 2, 776: “lumen,” Luc. 9, 638: “vultus,” Stat. Th. 10, 542.—Of vertical direction: “ut hae (partes) rursum rectis lineis in caelestem locum subvolent,” in perpendicular lines, Cic. Tusc. 1, 17, 40: “saxa,” perpendicular, steep, Liv. 21, 36 (just before: pleraque Alpium arrectiora sunt); cf.: “rectae prope rupes,” id. 38, 20: “truncus,” Ov. M. 7, 640: “ita jacere talum, ut rectus assistat: qui ita talus erit jactus ut cadet rectus,” Cic. Fin. 3, 16, 53: “caput rectum et secundum naturam (opp. dejectum, supinum), in latus inclinatum,” Quint. 11, 3, 69: “homines,” straight, erect, Cat. 10, 20; so, “Quintia,” id. 86, 1: “puella,” Hor. S. 1, 2, 123: “senectus,” Juv. 3, 26: “iterque Non agit in rectum, sed in orbem curvat eundem,” does not shape his course directly forward, Ov. M. 2, 715: “vidit ut hostiles in rectum exire cohortes,” Luc. 7, 327. — Comp.: “crus Rectius,” Hor. S. 1, 2, 82: “rectior coma,” smoother, straighter, Sen. Ep. 95, 24: “longā trabe rectior exstet,” Ov. M. 3, 78: “crura,” Pall. 7, 7. — Sup.: “rectissima linea,” Quint. 3, 6, 83: “via,” id. 12, 2, 27. —

B. Trop.

1. In gen., right, correct, proper, appropriate, befitting; opp. to what is false or improper: vobis mentes rectae quae stare solebant, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 6, 16 (Ann. v. 208 Vahl.): “ut rectā viā rem narret ordine omnem,” Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 28 (just before: aperte, ita ut res sese habet, narrato); cf. id. And. 2, 6, 11: De. Estne hoc, ut dico? Li. Rectam instas viam: Ea res est, you're on the right way, Plaut. As. 1, 1, 39: in rectam redire semitam, cf. id. Cas. 2, 3, 33: “rectā viā depelli,” Quint. 2, 7, 29; 10, 1, 29; cf. Sen. Ep. 94, 54; Quint. 2, 6, 2; “so post-class.: de viā rectā declinare,” Gell. 1, 3, 15: a rectā viā avertere, Aug. Civ Dei, 12, 17, 2: ad rectum iter retrahere, Hier. in Osee, 2, 8 sq.; id. in Mich. 3, 5: “recta consilia dare,” Ter. And. 2, 1, 9: “quae sint in artibus recta ac prava dijudicare,” Cic. de Or. 3, 50, 195; cf.: “quae sunt recta et simplicia laudantur,” id. Off. 1, 36, 130; Quint. 9, 3, 3: “sermo rectus et secundum naturam enunciatus,” id. 2, 5, 11; cf.: “(oratio) recta an ordine permutato,” id. 1, 13, 5; 9, 4, 27: “per Marathonis propugnatores recto sono juravit (opp. flexus vocis),” id. 11, 3, 168 Spald.; cf. id. 11, 3, 64: “recto ac justo proelio dimicare,” Liv. 35, 4 fin.: “rectarum cenarum consuetudo,” a regular, formal supper, Suet. Dom. 7; so, “cena,” Mart. 2, 69, 7; 7, 20, 2; also absol.: “recta,” Suet. Aug. 74; Mart. 8, 50, 10: “domus recta est (with contenta decore simplici),” Sen. Ep. 100, 6: “nominibus rectis expendere nummos,” i. e. on good securities, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 105: ut natura dedit, sic omnis recta figura, correct, beautiful, Prop. 2, 18, 25 (3, 11, 3): “absque te esset, ego illum haberem rectum ad ingenium bonum,” suitable, qualified, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 8.— Subst.: rectum , i, n.: “rectum est etiam in illis contentionibus gravitatem retinere,” Cic. Off. 1, 38, 137: “quid verum, quid falsum, quid rectum in oratione pravumve,” id. Ac. 1, 5, 19: “aliter, quam est rectum verumque dicere,” Quint. 6, 3, 89: “cum sit rectum, Nocere facile est, etc.,” id. 8, 5, 6; “so (opp. durum et incomptum),” id. 8, 6, 65; (opp. vitiosum) id. 1, 5, 29: “mutare aliquid a recto,” id. 2, 13, 11: “recta et vera loquere,” i. e. sincerely, openly, Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 7: “qui haec recta tantum et in nullos flexus recedentia copiose tractaverit,” Quint. 10, 5, 12: “ea plerumque recta sunt,” id. 9, 2, 5; cf. id. 9, 2, 45.—Comp.: “rectior divisio,” Quint. 7, 2, 39: “si quid novisti rectius istis,” Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 67; Cic. Rep. 1, 40, 62.—Sup.: “rectissima ratio,” Quint. 2, 13, 3.—

2. In partic.

a. Morally right, correct, lawful, just, virtuous, noble, good (opp. pravus); as subst.: rectum , i, n., that which is right, good, virtuous; uprightness, rectitude, virtue (very freq.): “honesta res dividitur in rectum et laudabile. Rectum est, quod cum virtute et officio fit,” Auct. Her. 3, 2, 3: illud rectum, quod κατόρθωμα dicebat, Cic. Fin. 4, 6, 15: “nec quicquam nisi honestum et rectum ab altero postulare,” id. Lael. 22, 82; “so with honestum,” id. ib. 21, 76; id. Fin. 1, 7, 25; id. Off. 1, 24, 82; id. Fam. 5, 19, 1 al.: “(opp. pravum) neque id Putabit, pravum an rectum siet, quod petet,” Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 76; id. Phorm. 5, 2, 6; Cic. Ac. 2, 11, 33; id. Or. 14, 45; id. Lig. 9, 30; Quint. 1, 3, 12; 2, 4, 20 et saep.; cf.: “recta consilia (opp. prava),” Liv. 1, 27: “in rectis (opp. in pravitatibus),” Cic. Leg. 1, 11, 31: “curvo dignoscere rectum,” Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 44: “mens sibi conscia recti,” Verg. A. 1, 604: “fidem rectumque colebat,” Ov. M. 1, 90: “recta ingenia (opp. perversa),” Plin. Ep. 4, 7, 3 et saep.: “in omni vitā suā quemque a rectā conscientiā traversum unguem non oportet discedere,” Cic. Att. 13, 20, 4: “animus secundis Temporibus dubiisque rectus,” Hor. C. 4, 9, 36: “natura,” id. S. 1, 6, 66: “ex consularibus, unus L. Caesar firmus est et rectus,” Cic. Fam. 12, 5, 2: “judex,” Quint. 4, 1, 13; cf. “auditor,” Plin. Ep. 2, 19, 6: “vir rectus et sanctus,” id. ib. 2, 11, 5; cf. id. ib. 7, 31, 1: “beatus judicii rectus,” Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 2.— Rectum est, with subjective-clause: “rectum est gravitatem retinere,” Cic. Off. 1, 38 fin.; so id. ib. 3, 11, 47; id. Mur. 2, 3; id. Att. 6, 9, 4.—

b. In gram.: rectus casus, the nominative case (because not inflected; “opp. obliqui casus),” Varr. L. L. 1 sq.; Quint. 1, 4, 13; 1, 5, 61; Gell. 13, 12, 4 et saep.—Hence the adverbs,

A. rectā,

B. rectō,

C. rectē.

A. rectā (sc. viā). straightway, straightforwards, right on, directly (freq. and class.): “hic ad me rectā habet rectam viam,” Plaut. Mil. 2, 6, 11; id. Ps. 4, 7, 37: “jam ad regem rectā me ducam,” id. Am. 4, 3, 8; 5, 1, 63; id. Capt. 3, 5, 93; id. Cas. prol. 43; id. Mil. 2, 5, 50; id. Merc. 5, 2, 92; id. Ps. 4, 2, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 13; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 7: “tu rus hinc ibis? ... rectā,” id. Ad. 3, 3, 79; id. Hec. 3, 3, 12; id. Phorm. 1, 2, 62; 5, 6, 19: “Marius ab subselliis in rostra rectā,” Cic. Off. 3, 20, 80; id. Att. 5, 14, 2; 6, 8, 1; 16, 10, 1; id. Fam. 9, 19, 1; Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 61, § 160; id. Cat. 1, 9, 23; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Auct. B. Afr. 18; 40; Auct. B. Hisp. 3; Plin. 2, 47, 46, § 121 al.: tendimus hinc rectā Beneventum. Hor. S. 1, 5, 71. —

B. rectō , straightforwards, directly (perh. only in the two foll. passages): “appellationes, quae recto ad principem factae sunt,” Dig. 49, 1, 21; Inscr. Grut. 611, 13.—

C. rectē .

1. Lit., in a straight line (horizontal or perpendicular), straightly, perpendicularly, uprightly, ὀρθῶς (very rare): “vitem bene enodatam deligato recte, flexuosa uti ne siet,” Cato, R. R. 33, 4: “sive aliae (atomi) declinabunt, aliae suo nutu recte ferentur ... quae (atomi) recte, quae oblique ferantur,” Cic. Fin. 1, 6, 20: “satyri, cum quadrupedes, tum recte currentes, humanā effigie,” Plin. 7, 2, 2, § 24.—

2. Trop., rightly, correctly, properly, duly, suitably, well, advantageously, accurately (very freq. in all periods and styles): “recta et vera loquere, sed neque vere neque recte adhuc Fecisti umquam,” Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 7; cf. Cic. Lael. 2, 8: “fecisti edepol et recte et bene,” Plaut. Capt. 5, 4, 20: si facias recte aut commode, id. Cas. 2, 3, 42; “so with commode,” Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 100: “recte et sapienter facit,” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 133; cf. id. ib. 3, 4, 12: “recte atque ordine factum,” Cic. Quint. 7, 28: “recte atque ordine facere,” id. Phil. 3, 15, 38; Sall. C. 51, 4; Liv. 24, 31; 28, 39; 30, 17 et saep.; “v. Brisson. Form. II. p. 197: recte ac merito miseriā commoveri,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 67, § 172: “recte atque in loco constare,” id. Mur. 12, 26: “recte factum,” Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 52: “seu recte seu pervorse facta sunt,” id. Trin. 1, 2, 146: “seu recte seu perperam facere,” Cic. Quint. 8, 31; so (opp. perperam) Sall. J. 31, 27; Liv. 29, 17: “recte dictum (opp. absurde),” Plaut. Capt. 1, 1, 4: “recte concludere (opp. vitiose),” Cic. Ac. 2, 30, 98: “recte factum (opp. turpiter),” Caes. B. G. 7, 80 et saep.: “recte rationem tenes,” Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 47: “hercle quin tu recte dicis,” id. Men. 2, 3, 74; id. Merc. 2, 3, 77; 5, 4, 47: recte auguraris de me, Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 16, 1: “non recte judicas de Catone,” Cic. Lael. 2, 9; cf.: “rectissime quidem judicas,” id. Rep. 3, 32, 44: “tum demum sciam Recta monuisse, si tu recte caveris,” Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 71 sq.: “monere,” id. Bacch. 2, 3, 96; id. Ps. 4, 4, 12; id. Pers. 4, 4, 53; id. Rud. 3, 5, 49; cf.: “admonere recte,” id. Men. 5, 9, 33: “suis amicis recte res suas narrare,” properly, openly, id. Poen. 5, 6, 2: “hic (Epicurus) circumitione quādam deos tollens recte non dubitat divinationem tollere,” consistently, logically, Cic. Div. 2, 17, 40: “aliquem asservare recte, ne aufugiat,” duly, carefully, Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 11: “alicui recte dare epistulam,” correctly, id. Ps. 4, 2, 33: “cum fuit cui recte ad te litteras darem,” safely, Cic. Att. 4, 1, 1; id. Fam. 1, 7, 1; so, “sed habebat ducem Gabinium, quicum quidvis rectissime facere posset,” id. Phil. 2, 19, 49; cf.: “alicui suam salutem recte committere,” Caes. B. G. 7, 6 fin.; id. B. C. 1, 74: “si recte ambulaverit is, qui hanc epistulam tulit,” goes as he ought, Cic. Att. 9, 4, 3: tabernaculum recte captum, i. e. in the prescribed manner (opp. vitio captum), id. Div. 2, 35, 75; Liv. 4, 7; cf.: “ludi recte facti,” id. 36, 2: “ver sacrum non esse recte factum,” id. 34, 44: procedere recte, well, rightly, Enn. ap. Acron. ad Hor. S. 1, 2, 37 (Ann. v. 454 Vahl.): Pi. Recte valet? Ch. Vivit recte et valet, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 11, and 14: “valere,” id. Merc. 2, 3, 53: “apud matrem recte est,” i. e. she is quite well, Cic. Att. 1, 7 init.; so, “recte esse,” id. ib. 14, 16, 4 (with belle); Hor. S. 2, 3, 162 Orell.; cf.: Tullia nostra recte valet ... Praeterea rectissime sunt apud te omnia, Dolab. ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 9, 1: “recte sit oculis tuis,” Gell. 13, 30, 11: “olivetum recte putare,” properly, advantageously, Cato, R. R. 44: “solet illa recte sub manus succedere,” well, Plaut. Pers. 4, 1, 2: “recte cavere,” to look out well, take good care, id. Bacch. 3, 6, 15; id. Ep. 2, 2, 107; id. Most. 3, 3, 23; id. Men. 2, 2, 72; cf.: recte sibi videre, to look out well for one's self, Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 12 Ruhnk.: “deos volo consilia vostra recte vortere,” well, happily, Plaut. Trin. 5, 2, 31; so, “vortere,” id. Aul. 2, 2, 41: recte vendere, well, i. e. dearly, at a high price (opp. male), Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 98, § 227: “alicui nec recte dicere, i. e. male, injuriose,” Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 11; id. Most. 1, 3, 83; id. Poen. 3, 1, 13; cf.: “nec recte loqui alicui,” id. Bacch. 4, 4, 83: “nec recte dicere in aliquem,” id. As. 1, 3, 3; “and simply nec recte dicere,” id. Ps. 4, 6, 23.— Comp.: “ad omnia alia aetate sapimus rectius,” Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 46: “hic tibi erit rectius,” Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 31: “rectius bella gerere,” Liv. 3, 2 fin.: “non possidentem multa vocaveris Recte beatum, rectius occupet Nomen beati, qui, etc.,” Hor. C. 4, 9, 46.—Sup., Cic. Rep. 3, 32, 44; v. supra. —

b. With adjj., right, well, properly, very, much, to strengthen the idea (ante-class.): illasce oves, quā de re agitur, sanas recte esse, uti pecus ovillum, quod recte sanum est, etc., an ancient formula in Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6: “locus recte ferax,” Cato, R. R. 44: “salvus sum recte,” Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 34: “morata recte,” id. Aul. 2, 2, 62: “oneratus recte,” id. Bacch. 2, 3, 115: “non recte vinctus est,” Ter. And. 5, 4, 52.—

c. Ellipt., esp. in answers, in colloquial lang., well, quite well, right, excellently: Thr. Primum aedis expugnabo. Gn. Recte. Thr. Virginem eripiam. Gn. Probe. Thr. Male mulcabo ipsam. Gn. Pulchre, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 3: quid vos? quo pacto hic? satin recte? (sc. est, agitur, valetis, etc.), quite well? id. And. 4, 5, 9; cf.: Le. Satin' salve? dic mihi. Ca. Recte, Plaut. Trin. 5, 2, 54; and: De. Quid fit? quid agitur? Sy. Recte. De. Optime'st, Ter. Ad. 5, 5, 3; Quint. 6, 3, 84.—

B. So, in colloquial lang., freq. like benigne and the Gr. καλῶς, or κάλλιστα ἔχει, as a courteously evasive answer, all's well, it's all right, there's nothing the matter; or, in politely declining an offer, nothing is wanting, no I thank you: De. Unde incedis? quid festinas, gnate mi? Ch. Recte pater, Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 33; cf.: So. Quid es tam tristis? Pa. Recte mater, Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 20; and: Ch. Quid tu istic? Syr. Recte equidem, id. Heaut. 3, 2, 7: Mi. Quid est? Aes. Nihil, recte, perge, id. Ad. 4, 5, 19: “rogo numquid velit? Recte inquit,” i. e. no, nothing, id. Eun. 2, 3, 51; so, “in an exclamation: clamabit, pulchre! bene! recte!” Hor. A. P. 4, 28.

87 gĕnĕtīvus (not gĕnĭtīvus ; cf. Lachm. ad Lucr. II. p. 15 sq.), a, um, adj. genitus, from gigno,

I. of or belonging to generation or birth.

I. In gen. (rare; not in Cic.): Apollinis Genetivi ara, the generator, fertilizer, Cato ap. Macr. S. 3, 6; “for which: Phoebi Genitoris ad aras,” Val. Fl. 5, 404: “forma prior rediit genetivaque rursus imago,” native, original nature, Ov. M. 3, 331: “dispersis per pectus genetivis notis,” birth-marks, Suet. Aug. 80: nomina, i. e. belonging to a family or gens, Ov. P. 3, 2, 107.—

II. In partic., in gram., genetivus (genit-) casus, the genitive case (in Varr. L. L. called patricius casus): si ut Maecenas Suffenas. Asprenas dicerentur, genetivo casu non e littera, sed tis syllaba terminarentur, Quint. 1, 5, 62; 1, 6, 14; Suet. Aug. 87 et saep.; and with equal frequency subst.: gĕnĕtīvus , i, m., the genitive, Quint. 1, 5, 63; 1, 6, 14; Gell. 4, 16, 3 et saep.

88 (genitīvus) see genetivus.

89 vŏco , āvi, ātum

I. inf. vocarier, Plaut. Capt. 5, 4, 27), 1, v. a. and n. Sanscr. vak-, to say; Gr. root ϝεπ:, in ἔπος, word; εἶπον, said, to call; to call upon, summon, invoke; to call together, convoke, etc. (cf.: appello, compello).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: (patrem) blandā voce vocabam, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 20, 40 (Ann. v. 51 Vahl.): “quis vocat? quis nominat me?” Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 25: He. Vin' vocem huc ad te (patrem)? Ly. Voca, id. Capt. 2, 2, 110: “Trebonius magnam jumentorum atque hominum multitudinem ex omni provinciā vocat,” Caes. B. C. 2, 1: “Dumnorigem ad se vocat,” id. B. G. 1, 20: “populum Romanum ad arma,” id. B. C. 1, 7: “milites ad concilium classico ad tribunos,” Liv. 5, 47, 7: “aliquem in contionem,” Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 144; “for which, contionem,” Tac. A. 1, 29: “concilium,” Verg. A. 10, 2; 6, 433; Ov. M. 1, 167: “patribus vocatis,” Verg. A. 5, 758: “ipse vocat pugnas,” id. ib. 7, 614: “fertur haec moriens pueris dixisse vocatis,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 170.— With dat. (post-Aug. and rare): “populumque ac senatum auxilio vocare,” Tac. A. 4, 67 fin.; 12, 45.—Absol.: “in senatum vocare (sc. patres),” Liv. 23, 32, 3; 36, 21, 7.—Impers.: “in contionem vocari placuit,” Liv. 24, 28, 1: “cum in senatum vocari jussissent,” id. 2, 55, 10.—Poet.: “tum cornix plenā pluviam vocat improba voce,” i. e. announces, Verg. G. 1, 388; so, “ventos aurasque,” Lucr. 5, 1086: “voce vocans Hecaten caeloque Ereboque potentem,” invoking, Verg. A. 6, 247: “patrios Voce deos,” id. A. 4, 680; 12, 638; Tib. 2, 1, 83; Just. 38, 7, 8: “ventis vocatis,” Verg. A. 3, 253: “numina magna,” id. ib. 3, 264; “12, 181: auxilio deos,” id. ib. 5, 686: “divos in vota,” id. ib. 5, 234; “7, 471: vos (deos) in verba,” as witnesses, Ov. F. 5, 527: “quem vocet divum populus,” Hor. C. 1, 2, 25; cf. id. ib. 1, 14, 10; 1, 30, 2; 3, 22, 3; id. Epod. 5, 5: “votis imbrem,” to call down, Verg. G. 1, 157.—Poet. with inf.: “hic (Charon) levare functum Pauperem laboribus Vocatus atque non vocatus audit,” Hor. C. 2, 18, 40.—

B. In partic.

1. To cite, summon into court, before a magistrate (syn. cito): “in jus vocas: sequitur,” Cic. Quint. 19, 61: tribuni etiam consulem in rostra vocari jusserunt, Varr. ap. Gell. 13, 12, 6.—

2. To bid, invite one as a guest, to dinner, etc. (syn. invito): Pa. Solus cenabo domi? Ge. Non enim solus: “me vocato,” Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 20: “si quis esum me vocat,” id. ib. 1, 3, 28: “aliquem ad cenam,” Ter. And. 2, 6, 22; Cic. Att. 6, 3, 9: “vulgo ad prandium,” id. Mur. 34, 72: “domum suam istum non fere quisquam vocabat,” id. Rosc. Am. 18, 52: “nos parasiti, quos numquam quisquam neque vocat neque invocat,” Plaut. Capt. 1, 1, 7: “convivam,” id. As. 4, 1, 23: “spatium apparandis nuptiis, vocandi, sacrificandi dabitur paululum,” Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 21: Ge. Cenabis apud me. Ep. Vocata est opera nunc quidem, i. e. I have been already invited, I have an engagement, Plaut. Stich. 3, 2, 18; so, “too, bene vocas! verum vocata res est,” id. Curc. 4, 4, 7: bene vocas; “tum gratia'st,” id. Men. 2, 3, 36 Brix ad loc.—

3. In gen., to call, invite, exhort, summon, urge, stimulate, etc.: “quod me ad vitam vocas,” Cic. Att. 3, 7, 2: “haec nisi vides expediri, quam in spem me vocas?” id. ib. 3, 15, 6: quarum rerum spe ad laudem me vocasti, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 7, 2.—

b. Of inanimate or abstract subjects, to invite, call, summon, incite, arouse: quo cujusque cibus vocat atque invitat aventes, Lucr. 5, 524: “lenis crepitans vocat Auster in altum,” Verg. A. 3, 70; cf.: “quāque vo. cant fluctus,” Ov. R. Am. 532: “Carthaginienses fessos nox imberque ad necessariam quietem vocabat,” Liv. 28, 15, 12: “me ad studium (feriae),” Phaedr. 3, prol. 9: “quocumque vocasset defectionis ab Romanis spes,” Liv. 24, 36, 9; cf.: arrogantiā offensas vo care, to provoke or excite hostility, Tac. H. 4, 80.—Pass.: “cum ipso anni tempore ad gerendum bellum vocaretur,” Caes. B. G. 7, 32. —Poet., with inf.: “sedare sitim fluvii fontesque vocabant,” Lucr. 5, 945.—

4. To challenge: “centuriones ... nutu vocibusque hostes, si introire vellent, vocare coeperunt,” Caes. B. G. 5, 43: “cum hinc Aetoli, haud dubie hostes, vocarent ad bellum,” Liv. 34, 43, 5: “vocare hostem et vulnera mereri,” Tac. G. 14; Verg. G. 3, 194; 4, 76; id. A. 11, 375; 11, 442; Sil. 14, 199; Stat. Th. 6, 747; cf. Verg. A. 6, 172; 4, 223 Heyne ad loc.—

5. To call by name, to name, denominate (freq. and class.; syn. nomino): certabant urbem Romam Remoramne vocarent, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48. 107 (Ann. v. 85 Vahl.): quem Graeci vocant Aërem, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 65 Müll. (Epicharm. v. 8 Vahl.): “cum penes unum est omnium summa rerum, regen illum unum vocamus,” Cic. Rep. 1, 26, 42: comprehensio, quam κατάληψιν illi vocant, id. Ac. 2, 6, 17: “urbem ex Antiochi patris nomine Antiochiam vocavit,” Just. 15, 4, 8: “ad Spelaeum, quod vocant, biduum moratus,” Liv. 45, 33, 8: “me miserum vocares,” Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 92: “non possidentem multa vocaveris Recte beatum,” id. C. 4, 9, 45.— With de, to call after, to name after: “lapis, quem Magneta vocant patrio de nomine Graeci,” Lucr. 6, 908: “patrioque vocant de nomine mensem,” Ov. F. 3, 77.—Pass.: “ego vocor Lyconides,” Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 49: De. Quī vocare? Ge. Geta, Ter. Ad. 5, 6, 3: “jam lepidus vocor,” id. ib. 5, 7, 13; id. Eun. 2, 2, 33: “a se visum esse in eo colle Romulum, qui nunc Quirinalis vocatur ... se deum esse et Quirinum vocari,” Cic. Rep. 2, 10, 20: “syllaba longa brevi subjecta vocatur iambus,” Hor. A. P. 251: “patiens vocari Caesaris ultor,” id. C. 1, 2, 43: “sive tu Lucina probas vocari,” id. C. S. 15.—With de, to be named for, etc.: “Taurini vocantur de fluvio qui propter fuit,” Cat. Orig. 3, fr. 1: “ludi, qui de nomine Augusti fastis additi, Augustales vocarentur,” Tac. A. 1, 15.—

6. In eccl. Lat., to call to a knowledge of the gospel, Vulg. 1 Cor. 1, 2; id. Gal. 1, 6; id. 1 Thess. 2, 12.—

II. Transf., to call, i. e. to bring, draw, put, set, place in some position or condition: “ne me apud milites in invidiam voces,” Cic. Phil. 2, 24, 59: “aliquem in odium aut invidiam,” id. Off. 1, 25, 86: “cujusdam familia in suspitionem est vocata conjurationis,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 10: “aliquem in luctum,” id. Att. 3, 7, 2: “in partem (hereditatis) mulieres vocatae sunt,” succeeded to a share, id. Caecin. 4, 12; so, “aliquem in partem curarum,” Tac. A. 1, 11: “in portionem muneris,” Just. 5, 2, 9: “me ad Democritum vocas,” to refer, Cic. Ac. 2, 18, 56.—With inanimate or abstract objects: “ex eā die ad hanc diem quae fecisti, in judicium voco,” I call to account, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 12, § 34; so, “aliquid in judicium,” id. de Or. 1, 57, 241; id. Balb. 28, 64 al.: “singula verba sub judicium,” Ov. P. 1, 5, 20: “ad calculos vocare amicitiam,” Cic. Lael. 16, 58; Liv. 5, 4, 7; Plin. Pan. 38, 3: “nulla fere potest res in dicendi disceptationem aut controversium vocari, quae, etc.,” Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 291: “aliquid in dubium,” id. Inv. 2, 28, 84: “templa deorum immortalium, tecta urbis, vitam omnium civium, Italiam denique totam ad exitium et vastitatem vocas,” bring to destruction, reduce to ruin, destroy, id. Cat. 1, 5, 12.

90 do , dĕdi, dătum, dăre (also in a longer form, dănunt = dant, Pac., Naev., and Caecil. ap. Non. 97, 14 sq.; Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 48; id. Ps. 3, 1, 1 et saep.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 68, 12 Müll.—

I. Subj.: “duim = dem,” Plaut. Aul. 4, 6, 6; Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 38: “duis,” Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 81; id. Men. 2, 1, 42: “duas = des,” id. Merc. 2, 3, 67; id. Rud. 5, 3, 12; an old formula in Liv. 10, 19: “duit,” Plaut. As. 2, 4, 54; id. Aul. 1, 1, 23; an old formula in Liv. 22, 10 init.: “duint,” Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 126; id. Ps. 4, 1, 25; id. Trin. 2, 4, 35; Ter. And. 4, 1, 43; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 34 al.—Imper.: DVITOR, XII. Tab. ap. Plin. 21, 3, 5 ex conject.—Inf.: DASI = dari, acc. to Paul. ex Fest. p. 68, 13 Müll.: “dane = dasne,” Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 22.—The pres. pass., first pers., dor, does not occur), v. a. Sanscr. dā, da-dā-mi, give; Gr. δί-δω-μι, δωτήρ, δόσις; cf.: dos, donum, damnum, to give; and hence, with the greatest variety of application, passing over into the senses of its compounds, derivatives, and synonyms (edere, tradere, dedere; reddere, donare, largiri, concedere, exhibere, porrigere, praestare, impertire, suppeditare, ministrare, subministrare, praebere, tribuere, offerre, etc.), as, to give away, grant, concede, allow, permit; give up, yield, resign; bestow, present, confer, furnish, afford; offer, etc. (very freq.).

I. In gen.: “eam carnem victoribus danunt, Naev. ap. Non. l. l.: ea dona, quae illic Amphitruoni sunt data,” Plaut. Am. prol. 138; cf.: “patera, quae dono mi illic data'st,” id. ib. 1, 3, 36: “dandis recipiendisque meritis,” Cic. Lael. 8; cf.: “ut par sit ratio acceptorum et datorum,” id. ib. 16, 58: ut obsides accipere non dare consuerint, Caes. B. G. 1, 4 fin.: “obsides,” id. ib. 1, 19, 1; “1, 31, 7 et saep.: patriam (sc. mundum) dii nobis communem secum dederunt,” Cic. Rep. 1, 13: “hominibus animus datus est ex illis sempiternis ignibus,” id. ib. 6, 15; cf. ib. 6, 17: “ea dant magistratus magis, quae etiamsi nolint, danda sint,” id. ib. 1, 31; cf. “imperia,” id. ib. 1, 44: “centuria, ad summum usum urbis fabris tignariis data,” id. ib. 2, 22: “Lycurgus agros locupletium plebi, ut servitio, colendos dedit,” id. ib. 3, 9 fin.: “ei filiam suam in matrimonium dat,” Caes. B. G. 1, 3, 5: “litteras ad te numquam habui cui darem, quin dederim,” Cic. Fam. 12, 19: litteras (ad aliquem), to write to one, saep.; cf. id. Att. 5, 11; “and in the same signif.: aliquid ad aliquem,” id. ib. 10, 8 fin.: “litteras alicui, said of the writer,” to give one a letter to deliver, id. ib. 5, 15 fin.; “of the bearer, rarely,” to deliver a letter to one, id. ib. 5, 4 init.: colloquium dare, to join in a conference, converse (poet.), Lucr. 4, 598 (Lachm.; “al. videmus): colloquiumque sua fretus ab urbe dedit,” parley, challenge, Prop. 5, 10, 32: “dare poenas,” to give satisfaction, to suffer punishment, Sall. C. 18: “alicui poenas dare,” to make atonement to any one; to suffer for any thing, Ov. M. 6, 544; Sall. C. 51, 31; “v. poena: decus sibi datum esse justitia regis existimabant,” Cic. Rep. 1, 41: “quoniam me quodammodo invitas et tui spem das,” id. ib. 1, 10: “dabant hae feriae tibi opportunam sane facultatem ad explicandas tuas litteras,” id. ib. 1, 9; cf.: “ansas alicui ad reprehendendum,” id. Lael. 16, 59: “multas causas suspicionum offensionumque,” id. ib. 24: “facultatem per provinciam itineris faciundi,” Caes. B. G. 1, 7, 5; “for which: iter alicui per provinciam,” id. ib. 1, 8, 3; Liv. 8, 5; 21, 20 al.: “modicam libertatem populo,” Cic. Rep. 2, 31: “consilium,” id. Lael. 13: “praecepta,” id. ib. 4 fin.: “tempus alicui, ut, etc.,” id. Rep. 1, 3: “inter se fidem et jusjurandum,” Caes. B. G. 1, 3 fin.: “operam,” to bestow labor and pains on any thing, Cic. de Or. 1, 55: “operam virtuti,” id. Lael. 22, 84; “also: operam, ne,” id. ib. 21, 78: “veniam amicitiae,” id. ib. 17: “vela (ventis),” to set sail, id. de Or. 2, 44, 187: “dextra vela dare,” to steer towards the right, Ov. 3, 640: “me librum L. Cossinio ad te perferendum dedisse,” Cic. Att. 2, 1: “sin homo amens diripiendam urbem daturus est,” id. Fam. 14, 14 et saep.: ita dat se res, so it is circumstanced, so it is, Poëta ap. Cic. N. D. 2, 26; cf.: “prout tempus ac res se daret,” Liv. 28, 5 et saep.— Impers.: sic datur, so it goes, such is fate, i. e. you have your reward, Plaut. Truc. 4, 8, 4; id. Ps. 1, 2, 22; id. Men. 4, 2, 40; 64; id. Stich. 5, 6, 5.—Part. perf. sometimes (mostly in poets) subst.: dăta , ōrum, n., gifts, presents, Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 72; Prop. 3, 15, 6 (4, 14, 6 M.); Ov. M. 6, 363 (but not in Cic. Clu. 24, 66, where dona data belong together, as in the archaic formula in Liv. 22, 10 init.: “DATVM DONVM DVIT, P. R. Q.).— Prov.: dantur opes nulli nunc nisi divitibus,” Mart. 5, 81, 2; cf.: “dat census honores,” Ov. F. 1, 217.—

(b). Poet. with inf.: “da mihi frui perpetuā virginitate,” allow me, Ov. M. 1, 486; id. ib. 8, 350: “di tibi dent captā classem reducere Trojā,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 191; so id. ib. 1, 4, 39; id. Ep. 1, 16, 61; id. A. P. 323 et saep.—

(g). With ne: “da, femina ne sim,” Ov. M. 12, 202.

II. In partic.

A. In milit. lang.

1. Nomina, to enroll one's self for military service, to enlist, Cic. Phil. 7, 4, 13; Liv. 2, 24; 5, 10; cf. “transf. beyond the military sphere,” Plaut. Ps. 4, 6, 38.—

2. Manus (lit., as a prisoner of war, to stretch forth the hands to be fettered; cf. Cic. Lael. 26, 99; “hence),” to yield, surrender, Nep. Ham. 1, 4; “and more freq. transf. beyond the milit. sphere,” to yield, acquiesce, Plaut. Pers. 5, 2, 72; Cic. Lael. 26, 99; id. Att. 2, 22, 2; Caes. B. G. 5, 31, 3; Ov. H. 4, 14; id. F. 3, 688; Verg. A. 11, 568; Hor. Epod. 17, 1 al.—

3. Terga, for the usual vertere terga; v. tergum.—

B. To grant, consent, permit.

1. Esp. in jurid. lang.: DO, DICO, ADDICO, the words employed by the praetor in the execution of his office; viz. DO in the granting of judges, actions, exceptions, etc.; DICO in pronouncing sentence of judgment; ADDICO in adjudging the property in dispute to one or the other party; cf. Varr. L. L. 6, § 30 Müll.; “hence called tria verba,” Ov. F. 1, 47.—

2. Datur, it is permitted, allowed, granted; with subj. clause: quaesitis diu terris, ubi sistere detur, Ov. M. 1, 307: “interim tamen recedere sensim datur,” Quint. 11, 3, 127: “ex quo intellegi datur, etc.,” Lact. 5, 20, 11.—

C. In philos. lang., to grant a proposition: “in geometria prima si dederis, danda sunt omnia: dato hoc, dandum erit illud (followed by concede, etc.),” Cic. Fin. 5, 28, 83; id. Tusc. 1, 11, 25; id. Inv. 1, 31 fin.—

D. Designating the limit, to put, place, carry somewhere; and with se, to betake one's self somewhere: “tum genu ad terram dabo,” to throw, Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 17; cf.: “aliquem ad terram,” Liv. 31, 37; Flor. 4, 2 fin.: “me haec deambulatio ad languorem dedit!” has fatigued me, Ter. Heaut. 4, 6, 3: “hanc mihi in manum dat,” id. And. 1, 5, 62: “praecipitem me in pistrinum dabit,” id. ib. 1, 3, 9: “hostes in fugam,” Caes. B. G. 5, 51 fin.: “hostem in conspectum,” to bring to view, Liv. 3, 69 fin.: “aliquem in vincula,” to cast into prison, Flor. 3, 10, 18; cf.: “arma in profluentes,” id. 4, 12, 9: “aliquem usque Sicanium fretum,” Val. Fl. 2, 28: “aliquem leto,” to put to death, to kill, Phaedr. 1, 22, 9: “se in viam,” to set out on a journey, Cic. Fam. 14, 12: “sese in fugam,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 43 fin.; cf.: “se fugae,” id. Att. 7, 23, 2: “Socrates, quam se cumque in partem dedisset, omnium fuit facile princeps,” id. de Or. 3, 16, 60 et saep.—

E. Designating the effect, to cause, make, bring about, inflict, impose: “qui dederit damnum aut malum,” Ter. And. 1, 1, 116: “nec consulto alteri damnum dari sine dolo malo potest,” Cic. Tull. 14, 34; 16, 39; cf.: “malum dare,” id. N. D. 1, 44, 122: “hoc quī occultari facilius credas dabo,” Ter. Hec. 5, 4, 29: “inania duro vulnera dat ferro,” Ov. M. 3, 84: “morsus,” Prop. 5, 5, 39; cf.: “motus dare,” to impart motion, Lucr. 1, 819 al. (but motus dare, to make motion, to move, be moved, id. 2, 311): “stragem,” id. 1, 288: “equitum ruinas,” to overthrow, id. 5, 1329.—With part. fut. pass.: “pectora tristitiae dissolvenda dedit,” caused to be delivered from sadness, Tib. 1, 7, 40.— “Prov.: dant animos vina,” Ov. M. 12, 242. —

F. Aliquid alicui, to do any thing for the sake of another; to please or humor another; to give up, sacrifice any thing to another (for the more usual condonare): da hoc illi mortuae, da ceteris amicis ac familiaribus, da patriae, Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5 fin.: aliquid auribus alicujus, Trebon. ib. 12, 16: “Caere hospitio Vestalium cultisque diis,” Liv. 7, 20: “plus stomacho quam consilio,” Quint. 10, 1, 117 et saep.: “ut concessisti illum senatui, sic da hunc populo,” i. e. forgive him, for the sake of the people, Cic. Lig. 12, 37: “dabat et famae, ut, etc.,” Tac. A. 1, 7.—Hence,

b. Se alicui, to give one's self up wholly, to devote, dedicate one's self to a person or thing, to serve: “dedit se etiam regibus,” Cic. Rab. Post. 2, 4; so Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 10; id. Heaut. 4, 3, 10; Poëta ap. Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; Cic. Att. 7, 12, 3; Nep. Att. 9; Tac. A. 1, 31: “mihi si large volantis ungula se det equi,” Stat. Silv, 2, 2, 38; 1, 1, 42; 5, 3, 71 al.; Aus. Mosel. 5, 448; cf. Ov. H. 16, 161: “se et hominibus Pythagoreis et studiis illis,” Cic. Rep. 1, 111: “se sermonibus vulgi,” id. ib. 6, 23: “se jucunditati,” id. Off. 1, 34 al.: “se populo ac coronae,” to present one's self, appear, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 19; cf.: “se convivio,” Suet. Caes. 31 et saep.: “si se dant (judices) et sua sponte quo impellimus inclinant,” Cic. de Or. 2, 44, 187.—

G. Of discourse, to announce, tell, relate, communicate (like accipere, for to learn, to hear, v. accipio, II.; mostly ante-class. and poet.): “erili filio hanc fabricam dabo,” Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 132: “quam ob rem has partes didicerim, paucis dabo,” Ter. Heaut. prol. 10; cf. Verg. E. 1, 19: “imo etiam dabo, quo magis credas,” Ter. Phorm. 5, 6, 37: “da mihi nunc, satisne probas?” Cic. Ac. 1, 3, 10: “Thessalici da bella ducis,” Val. Fl. 5, 219: “is datus erat locus colloquio,” appointed, Liv. 33, 13: “fixa canens ... Saepe dedit sedem notas mutantibus urbes,” i. e. foretold, promised, Luc. 5, 107.—In pass., poet. i. q.: narratur, dicitur, fertur, etc., is said: “seu pius Aeneas eripuisse datur,” Ov. F. 6, 434; Stat. Th. 7, 315; Claud. Rapt. Pros. 3, 337.—

H. Fabulam, to exhibit, produce a play (said of the author; cf.: “docere fabulam, agere fabulam),” Cic. Brut. 18 fin.; id. Tusc. 1, 1 fin.; Ter. Eun. prol. 9; 23; id. Heaut. prol. 33; id. Hec. prol. 1 Don.; “and transf.,” Cic. Clu. 31, 84; cf. “also: dare foras librum = edere,” Cic. Att. 13, 22, 3.—

I. Verba (alicui), to give empty words, i. e. to deceive, cheat, Plaut. Capt. 5, 1, 25; id. Ps. 4, 5, 7; id. Rud. 2, 2, 19; Ter. And. 1, 3, 6 Ruhnk.; Quadrig. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 24; Cic. Phil. 13, 16 fin.; id. Att. 15, 16 A.; Hor. S. 1, 3, 22; Pers. 4, 45; Mart. 2, 76 et saep.—

K. Alicui aliquid (laudi, crimini, vitio, etc.), to impute, assign, ascribe, attribute a thing to any one, as a merit, a crime, a fault, etc.: “nunc quam rem vitio dent, quaeso animum attendite,” Ter. And. prol. 8: “hoc vitio datur,” id. Ad. 3, 3, 64: “inopiā criminum summam laudem Sex. Roscio vitio et culpae dedisse,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 16, 48; id. Off. 1, 21, 71; 2, 17, 58; id. Div. in Caecil. 10; id. Brut. 80, 277 et saep.—

L. Alicui cenam, epulas, etc., to give one a dinner, entertain at table (freq.): “qui cenam parasitis dabit,” Plaut. Capt. 4, 4, 2; 3, 1, 35; id. Stich. 4, 1, 8; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 45; Cic. Fam. 9, 20, 2; id. Mur. 36, 75: “prandium dare,” id. ib. 32, 67; cf. Sen. Ben. 1, 14, 1; Tac. A. 2, 57 al.—

M. To grant, allow, in gen. (rare, but freq. as impers.; v. B. 2. supra): “dari sibi diem postulabat,” a respite, Plin. Ep. 3, 9, 32.

91 dătīvus , a, um, adj. do,

I. of or belonging to giving, given, appointed.—

I. In jurid. Lat.: dativi tutores "qui nominatim testamento dantur," Gai. Inst. 1, § 149.—

II. In gram.: dativus casus, or absol. da-tivus , i, m., the dative, Quint. 1, 7, 18; 7, 9, 13; Gell. 4, 16, 3 et saep. (cf. casus dandi, Varr. L. L. 8, 18, 112; 10, 2, 165; Nigid. ap. Gell. 13, 25, 4; Gell. 4, 16, 4 al.).

92 ac-cūso (also with ss; cf. Cassiod. 2283 P.), āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. fr. causa; cf. cludo with claudo, orig. = ad causam provocare,

I. to call one to account, to make complaint against, to reproach, blame.

I. In gen., of persons: “si id non me accusas, tu ipse objurgandus es,” if you do not call me to account for it, you yourself deserve to be reprimanded, Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 59: “quid me accusas?” id. As. 1, 3, 21: “meretricem hanc primum adeundam censeo, oremus, accusemus gravius, denique minitemur,” we must entreat, severely chide, and finally threaten her, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 94 sq.: “ambo accusandi,” you both deserve reproach, id. Heaut. 1, 1, 67: “cotidie accusabam,” I daily took him to task, id. ib. 1, 1, 50: “me accusas cum hunc casum tam graviter feram,” Cic. Att. 3, 13; id. Fam. 1, 1 Manut.: “me tibi excuso in eo ipso, in quo te accuso,” id. Q. Fr. 2, 2: “ut me accusare de epistularum neglegentia possis,” that you may blame me for my tardiness in writing, id. Att. 1, 6. —Also metaph. of things, to blame, find fault with: “alicujus desperationem,” Cic. Fam. 6, 1: inertiam adolescentium, id. de Or. 1, 58 (cf. incusare, Tac. H. 4, 42); “hence also: culpam alicujus,” to lay the fault on one, Cic. Planc. 4, 9; cf. id. Sest. 38, 80; id. Lig. 1, 2; id. Cael. 12, 29.—Hence,

II. Esp.

A. Transferred to civil life, to call one to account publicly (ad causam publicam, or publice dicendam provocare), to accuse, to inform against, arraign, indict (while incusare means to involve or entangle one in a cause); t. t. in Roman judicial lang.; constr. with aliquem alicujus rei (like κατηγορεῖν, cf. Prisc. 1187 P.): “accusant ii, qui in fortunas hujus invaserunt, causam dicit is, cui nihil reliquerunt,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 5: “numquam, si se ambitu commaculasset, ambitus alterum accusaret,” id. Cael. 7: “ne quis ante actarum rerum accusaretur,” that no one should be called to account for previous offences, Nep. Thras. 3, 2; Milt. 1, 7. Other rarer constructions are: aliquem aliquid (only with id, illud, quod), Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 59; cf. Ter. Ph. 5, 8, 21: “aliquo crimine,” Cic. Verr. 1, 16; Nep. Milt. 8; id. Lys. 3, 4; id. Ep. 1 al.: “de pecuniis repetundis,” Cic. Clu. 41, 114; cf.: “de veneficiis,” id. Rosc. Am. 32, 90: “inter sicarios,” id. ib. 32; cf. Zumpt, § 446; Rudd. 2, 165 sq.; 169, note 4.—The punishment that is implied in the accusation is put in gen.: “capitis,” to accuse one of a capital crime, Nep. Paus. 2, 6; cf. Zumpt, § 447. —

B. Casus accusandi, the fourth case in grammar, the accusative case, Var. L. L. 8, § 66 Müll.; v. accusativus.

93 accūsātīvus , a, um id., prop. belonging to an accusation, hence, in gramm. with or without casus,

I. the accusative case, as if the defendant in a suit, Varr. L. L. 8, § 67 Müll. (in the prec. §: casus accusandi); Quint. 7, 9, 10, and all the later writers.—Hence, praepositiones accusativae, i. e. those joined with the accusative, Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 28 al.

94 vŏco , āvi, ātum

I. inf. vocarier, Plaut. Capt. 5, 4, 27), 1, v. a. and n. Sanscr. vak-, to say; Gr. root ϝεπ:, in ἔπος, word; εἶπον, said, to call; to call upon, summon, invoke; to call together, convoke, etc. (cf.: appello, compello).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: (patrem) blandā voce vocabam, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 20, 40 (Ann. v. 51 Vahl.): “quis vocat? quis nominat me?” Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 25: He. Vin' vocem huc ad te (patrem)? Ly. Voca, id. Capt. 2, 2, 110: “Trebonius magnam jumentorum atque hominum multitudinem ex omni provinciā vocat,” Caes. B. C. 2, 1: “Dumnorigem ad se vocat,” id. B. G. 1, 20: “populum Romanum ad arma,” id. B. C. 1, 7: “milites ad concilium classico ad tribunos,” Liv. 5, 47, 7: “aliquem in contionem,” Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 144; “for which, contionem,” Tac. A. 1, 29: “concilium,” Verg. A. 10, 2; 6, 433; Ov. M. 1, 167: “patribus vocatis,” Verg. A. 5, 758: “ipse vocat pugnas,” id. ib. 7, 614: “fertur haec moriens pueris dixisse vocatis,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 170.— With dat. (post-Aug. and rare): “populumque ac senatum auxilio vocare,” Tac. A. 4, 67 fin.; 12, 45.—Absol.: “in senatum vocare (sc. patres),” Liv. 23, 32, 3; 36, 21, 7.—Impers.: “in contionem vocari placuit,” Liv. 24, 28, 1: “cum in senatum vocari jussissent,” id. 2, 55, 10.—Poet.: “tum cornix plenā pluviam vocat improba voce,” i. e. announces, Verg. G. 1, 388; so, “ventos aurasque,” Lucr. 5, 1086: “voce vocans Hecaten caeloque Ereboque potentem,” invoking, Verg. A. 6, 247: “patrios Voce deos,” id. A. 4, 680; 12, 638; Tib. 2, 1, 83; Just. 38, 7, 8: “ventis vocatis,” Verg. A. 3, 253: “numina magna,” id. ib. 3, 264; “12, 181: auxilio deos,” id. ib. 5, 686: “divos in vota,” id. ib. 5, 234; “7, 471: vos (deos) in verba,” as witnesses, Ov. F. 5, 527: “quem vocet divum populus,” Hor. C. 1, 2, 25; cf. id. ib. 1, 14, 10; 1, 30, 2; 3, 22, 3; id. Epod. 5, 5: “votis imbrem,” to call down, Verg. G. 1, 157.—Poet. with inf.: “hic (Charon) levare functum Pauperem laboribus Vocatus atque non vocatus audit,” Hor. C. 2, 18, 40.—

B. In partic.

1. To cite, summon into court, before a magistrate (syn. cito): “in jus vocas: sequitur,” Cic. Quint. 19, 61: tribuni etiam consulem in rostra vocari jusserunt, Varr. ap. Gell. 13, 12, 6.—

2. To bid, invite one as a guest, to dinner, etc. (syn. invito): Pa. Solus cenabo domi? Ge. Non enim solus: “me vocato,” Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 20: “si quis esum me vocat,” id. ib. 1, 3, 28: “aliquem ad cenam,” Ter. And. 2, 6, 22; Cic. Att. 6, 3, 9: “vulgo ad prandium,” id. Mur. 34, 72: “domum suam istum non fere quisquam vocabat,” id. Rosc. Am. 18, 52: “nos parasiti, quos numquam quisquam neque vocat neque invocat,” Plaut. Capt. 1, 1, 7: “convivam,” id. As. 4, 1, 23: “spatium apparandis nuptiis, vocandi, sacrificandi dabitur paululum,” Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 21: Ge. Cenabis apud me. Ep. Vocata est opera nunc quidem, i. e. I have been already invited, I have an engagement, Plaut. Stich. 3, 2, 18; so, “too, bene vocas! verum vocata res est,” id. Curc. 4, 4, 7: bene vocas; “tum gratia'st,” id. Men. 2, 3, 36 Brix ad loc.—

3. In gen., to call, invite, exhort, summon, urge, stimulate, etc.: “quod me ad vitam vocas,” Cic. Att. 3, 7, 2: “haec nisi vides expediri, quam in spem me vocas?” id. ib. 3, 15, 6: quarum rerum spe ad laudem me vocasti, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 7, 2.—

b. Of inanimate or abstract subjects, to invite, call, summon, incite, arouse: quo cujusque cibus vocat atque invitat aventes, Lucr. 5, 524: “lenis crepitans vocat Auster in altum,” Verg. A. 3, 70; cf.: “quāque vo. cant fluctus,” Ov. R. Am. 532: “Carthaginienses fessos nox imberque ad necessariam quietem vocabat,” Liv. 28, 15, 12: “me ad studium (feriae),” Phaedr. 3, prol. 9: “quocumque vocasset defectionis ab Romanis spes,” Liv. 24, 36, 9; cf.: arrogantiā offensas vo care, to provoke or excite hostility, Tac. H. 4, 80.—Pass.: “cum ipso anni tempore ad gerendum bellum vocaretur,” Caes. B. G. 7, 32. —Poet., with inf.: “sedare sitim fluvii fontesque vocabant,” Lucr. 5, 945.—

4. To challenge: “centuriones ... nutu vocibusque hostes, si introire vellent, vocare coeperunt,” Caes. B. G. 5, 43: “cum hinc Aetoli, haud dubie hostes, vocarent ad bellum,” Liv. 34, 43, 5: “vocare hostem et vulnera mereri,” Tac. G. 14; Verg. G. 3, 194; 4, 76; id. A. 11, 375; 11, 442; Sil. 14, 199; Stat. Th. 6, 747; cf. Verg. A. 6, 172; 4, 223 Heyne ad loc.—

5. To call by name, to name, denominate (freq. and class.; syn. nomino): certabant urbem Romam Remoramne vocarent, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48. 107 (Ann. v. 85 Vahl.): quem Graeci vocant Aërem, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 65 Müll. (Epicharm. v. 8 Vahl.): “cum penes unum est omnium summa rerum, regen illum unum vocamus,” Cic. Rep. 1, 26, 42: comprehensio, quam κατάληψιν illi vocant, id. Ac. 2, 6, 17: “urbem ex Antiochi patris nomine Antiochiam vocavit,” Just. 15, 4, 8: “ad Spelaeum, quod vocant, biduum moratus,” Liv. 45, 33, 8: “me miserum vocares,” Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 92: “non possidentem multa vocaveris Recte beatum,” id. C. 4, 9, 45.— With de, to call after, to name after: “lapis, quem Magneta vocant patrio de nomine Graeci,” Lucr. 6, 908: “patrioque vocant de nomine mensem,” Ov. F. 3, 77.—Pass.: “ego vocor Lyconides,” Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 49: De. Quī vocare? Ge. Geta, Ter. Ad. 5, 6, 3: “jam lepidus vocor,” id. ib. 5, 7, 13; id. Eun. 2, 2, 33: “a se visum esse in eo colle Romulum, qui nunc Quirinalis vocatur ... se deum esse et Quirinum vocari,” Cic. Rep. 2, 10, 20: “syllaba longa brevi subjecta vocatur iambus,” Hor. A. P. 251: “patiens vocari Caesaris ultor,” id. C. 1, 2, 43: “sive tu Lucina probas vocari,” id. C. S. 15.—With de, to be named for, etc.: “Taurini vocantur de fluvio qui propter fuit,” Cat. Orig. 3, fr. 1: “ludi, qui de nomine Augusti fastis additi, Augustales vocarentur,” Tac. A. 1, 15.—

6. In eccl. Lat., to call to a knowledge of the gospel, Vulg. 1 Cor. 1, 2; id. Gal. 1, 6; id. 1 Thess. 2, 12.—

II. Transf., to call, i. e. to bring, draw, put, set, place in some position or condition: “ne me apud milites in invidiam voces,” Cic. Phil. 2, 24, 59: “aliquem in odium aut invidiam,” id. Off. 1, 25, 86: “cujusdam familia in suspitionem est vocata conjurationis,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 10: “aliquem in luctum,” id. Att. 3, 7, 2: “in partem (hereditatis) mulieres vocatae sunt,” succeeded to a share, id. Caecin. 4, 12; so, “aliquem in partem curarum,” Tac. A. 1, 11: “in portionem muneris,” Just. 5, 2, 9: “me ad Democritum vocas,” to refer, Cic. Ac. 2, 18, 56.—With inanimate or abstract objects: “ex eā die ad hanc diem quae fecisti, in judicium voco,” I call to account, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 12, § 34; so, “aliquid in judicium,” id. de Or. 1, 57, 241; id. Balb. 28, 64 al.: “singula verba sub judicium,” Ov. P. 1, 5, 20: “ad calculos vocare amicitiam,” Cic. Lael. 16, 58; Liv. 5, 4, 7; Plin. Pan. 38, 3: “nulla fere potest res in dicendi disceptationem aut controversium vocari, quae, etc.,” Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 291: “aliquid in dubium,” id. Inv. 2, 28, 84: “templa deorum immortalium, tecta urbis, vitam omnium civium, Italiam denique totam ad exitium et vastitatem vocas,” bring to destruction, reduce to ruin, destroy, id. Cat. 1, 5, 12.

 

95 vŏco , āvi, ātum

I. inf. vocarier, Plaut. Capt. 5, 4, 27), 1, v. a. and n. Sanscr. vak-, to say; Gr. root ϝεπ:, in ἔπος, word; εἶπον, said, to call; to call upon, summon, invoke; to call together, convoke, etc. (cf.: appello, compello).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: (patrem) blandā voce vocabam, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 20, 40 (Ann. v. 51 Vahl.): “quis vocat? quis nominat me?” Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 25: He. Vin' vocem huc ad te (patrem)? Ly. Voca, id. Capt. 2, 2, 110: “Trebonius magnam jumentorum atque hominum multitudinem ex omni provinciā vocat,” Caes. B. C. 2, 1: “Dumnorigem ad se vocat,” id. B. G. 1, 20: “populum Romanum ad arma,” id. B. C. 1, 7: “milites ad concilium classico ad tribunos,” Liv. 5, 47, 7: “aliquem in contionem,” Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 144; “for which, contionem,” Tac. A. 1, 29: “concilium,” Verg. A. 10, 2; 6, 433; Ov. M. 1, 167: “patribus vocatis,” Verg. A. 5, 758: “ipse vocat pugnas,” id. ib. 7, 614: “fertur haec moriens pueris dixisse vocatis,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 170.— With dat. (post-Aug. and rare): “populumque ac senatum auxilio vocare,” Tac. A. 4, 67 fin.; 12, 45.—Absol.: “in senatum vocare (sc. patres),” Liv. 23, 32, 3; 36, 21, 7.—Impers.: “in contionem vocari placuit,” Liv. 24, 28, 1: “cum in senatum vocari jussissent,” id. 2, 55, 10.—Poet.: “tum cornix plenā pluviam vocat improba voce,” i. e. announces, Verg. G. 1, 388; so, “ventos aurasque,” Lucr. 5, 1086: “voce vocans Hecaten caeloque Ereboque potentem,” invoking, Verg. A. 6, 247: “patrios Voce deos,” id. A. 4, 680; 12, 638; Tib. 2, 1, 83; Just. 38, 7, 8: “ventis vocatis,” Verg. A. 3, 253: “numina magna,” id. ib. 3, 264; “12, 181: auxilio deos,” id. ib. 5, 686: “divos in vota,” id. ib. 5, 234; “7, 471: vos (deos) in verba,” as witnesses, Ov. F. 5, 527: “quem vocet divum populus,” Hor. C. 1, 2, 25; cf. id. ib. 1, 14, 10; 1, 30, 2; 3, 22, 3; id. Epod. 5, 5: “votis imbrem,” to call down, Verg. G. 1, 157.—Poet. with inf.: “hic (Charon) levare functum Pauperem laboribus Vocatus atque non vocatus audit,” Hor. C. 2, 18, 40.—

B. In partic.

1. To cite, summon into court, before a magistrate (syn. cito): “in jus vocas: sequitur,” Cic. Quint. 19, 61: tribuni etiam consulem in rostra vocari jusserunt, Varr. ap. Gell. 13, 12, 6.—

2. To bid, invite one as a guest, to dinner, etc. (syn. invito): Pa. Solus cenabo domi? Ge. Non enim solus: “me vocato,” Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 20: “si quis esum me vocat,” id. ib. 1, 3, 28: “aliquem ad cenam,” Ter. And. 2, 6, 22; Cic. Att. 6, 3, 9: “vulgo ad prandium,” id. Mur. 34, 72: “domum suam istum non fere quisquam vocabat,” id. Rosc. Am. 18, 52: “nos parasiti, quos numquam quisquam neque vocat neque invocat,” Plaut. Capt. 1, 1, 7: “convivam,” id. As. 4, 1, 23: “spatium apparandis nuptiis, vocandi, sacrificandi dabitur paululum,” Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 21: Ge. Cenabis apud me. Ep. Vocata est opera nunc quidem, i. e. I have been already invited, I have an engagement, Plaut. Stich. 3, 2, 18; so, “too, bene vocas! verum vocata res est,” id. Curc. 4, 4, 7: bene vocas; “tum gratia'st,” id. Men. 2, 3, 36 Brix ad loc.—

3. In gen., to call, invite, exhort, summon, urge, stimulate, etc.: “quod me ad vitam vocas,” Cic. Att. 3, 7, 2: “haec nisi vides expediri, quam in spem me vocas?” id. ib. 3, 15, 6: quarum rerum spe ad laudem me vocasti, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 7, 2.—

b. Of inanimate or abstract subjects, to invite, call, summon, incite, arouse: quo cujusque cibus vocat atque invitat aventes, Lucr. 5, 524: “lenis crepitans vocat Auster in altum,” Verg. A. 3, 70; cf.: “quāque vo. cant fluctus,” Ov. R. Am. 532: “Carthaginienses fessos nox imberque ad necessariam quietem vocabat,” Liv. 28, 15, 12: “me ad studium (feriae),” Phaedr. 3, prol. 9: “quocumque vocasset defectionis ab Romanis spes,” Liv. 24, 36, 9; cf.: arrogantiā offensas vo care, to provoke or excite hostility, Tac. H. 4, 80.—Pass.: “cum ipso anni tempore ad gerendum bellum vocaretur,” Caes. B. G. 7, 32. —Poet., with inf.: “sedare sitim fluvii fontesque vocabant,” Lucr. 5, 945.—

4. To challenge: “centuriones ... nutu vocibusque hostes, si introire vellent, vocare coeperunt,” Caes. B. G. 5, 43: “cum hinc Aetoli, haud dubie hostes, vocarent ad bellum,” Liv. 34, 43, 5: “vocare hostem et vulnera mereri,” Tac. G. 14; Verg. G. 3, 194; 4, 76; id. A. 11, 375; 11, 442; Sil. 14, 199; Stat. Th. 6, 747; cf. Verg. A. 6, 172; 4, 223 Heyne ad loc.—

5. To call by name, to name, denominate (freq. and class.; syn. nomino): certabant urbem Romam Remoramne vocarent, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48. 107 (Ann. v. 85 Vahl.): quem Graeci vocant Aërem, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 65 Müll. (Epicharm. v. 8 Vahl.): “cum penes unum est omnium summa rerum, regen illum unum vocamus,” Cic. Rep. 1, 26, 42: comprehensio, quam κατάληψιν illi vocant, id. Ac. 2, 6, 17: “urbem ex Antiochi patris nomine Antiochiam vocavit,” Just. 15, 4, 8: “ad Spelaeum, quod vocant, biduum moratus,” Liv. 45, 33, 8: “me miserum vocares,” Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 92: “non possidentem multa vocaveris Recte beatum,” id. C. 4, 9, 45.— With de, to call after, to name after: “lapis, quem Magneta vocant patrio de nomine Graeci,” Lucr. 6, 908: “patrioque vocant de nomine mensem,” Ov. F. 3, 77.—Pass.: “ego vocor Lyconides,” Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 49: De. Quī vocare? Ge. Geta, Ter. Ad. 5, 6, 3: “jam lepidus vocor,” id. ib. 5, 7, 13; id. Eun. 2, 2, 33: “a se visum esse in eo colle Romulum, qui nunc Quirinalis vocatur ... se deum esse et Quirinum vocari,” Cic. Rep. 2, 10, 20: “syllaba longa brevi subjecta vocatur iambus,” Hor. A. P. 251: “patiens vocari Caesaris ultor,” id. C. 1, 2, 43: “sive tu Lucina probas vocari,” id. C. S. 15.—With de, to be named for, etc.: “Taurini vocantur de fluvio qui propter fuit,” Cat. Orig. 3, fr. 1: “ludi, qui de nomine Augusti fastis additi, Augustales vocarentur,” Tac. A. 1, 15.—

6. In eccl. Lat., to call to a knowledge of the gospel, Vulg. 1 Cor. 1, 2; id. Gal. 1, 6; id. 1 Thess. 2, 12.—

II. Transf., to call, i. e. to bring, draw, put, set, place in some position or condition: “ne me apud milites in invidiam voces,” Cic. Phil. 2, 24, 59: “aliquem in odium aut invidiam,” id. Off. 1, 25, 86: “cujusdam familia in suspitionem est vocata conjurationis,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 10: “aliquem in luctum,” id. Att. 3, 7, 2: “in partem (hereditatis) mulieres vocatae sunt,” succeeded to a share, id. Caecin. 4, 12; so, “aliquem in partem curarum,” Tac. A. 1, 11: “in portionem muneris,” Just. 5, 2, 9: “me ad Democritum vocas,” to refer, Cic. Ac. 2, 18, 56.—With inanimate or abstract objects: “ex eā die ad hanc diem quae fecisti, in judicium voco,” I call to account, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 12, § 34; so, “aliquid in judicium,” id. de Or. 1, 57, 241; id. Balb. 28, 64 al.: “singula verba sub judicium,” Ov. P. 1, 5, 20: “ad calculos vocare amicitiam,” Cic. Lael. 16, 58; Liv. 5, 4, 7; Plin. Pan. 38, 3: “nulla fere potest res in dicendi disceptationem aut controversium vocari, quae, etc.,” Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 291: “aliquid in dubium,” id. Inv. 2, 28, 84: “templa deorum immortalium, tecta urbis, vitam omnium civium, Italiam denique totam ad exitium et vastitatem vocas,” bring to destruction, reduce to ruin, destroy, id. Cat. 1, 5, 12.

 

96 ablātīvus , i, m. id., with or without casus,

I. the ablative case (as denoting that from which something is taken away), Quint. 1, 5, 59; 1, 7, 3; 1, 4, 26; 7, 9, 10 al.

97 cāsus (Ciceronis temporibus paulumque infra s geminabatur: cassus , etc., Quint. 1, 7, 20; cf.: causa, Juppiter al.; in inscr. also KASVS), ūs (dat. casu, Nep. Alcib. 6, 4), m. cado.

I. Lit., a falling (acc. to cado, I. A. and C.).

A. A falling down, etc.: “stillicidi,” Lucr. 1, 313: “geli,” id. 5, 205: “nivis,” Liv. 21, 35, 6: “fulminum,” Plin. 2, 50, 51, § 135; Ov. M. 8, 259: “celsae graviore casu Decidunt turres,” Hor. C. 2, 10, 10.—In plur., Lucr. 2, 231.—

B. A fall, an overthrow, a throwing down: “occumbunt multi letum praecipe casu,” Enn. Ann. 391 Vahl.: eoque ictu me ad casum dari, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 44: “casus, quo (infantes) in terram toties deferuntur,” Quint. 1, 12, 10; Lucr. 5, 1333: “vehiculi,” Plin. 28, 2, 4, § 21 al.—In plur.: cum loci Inciperent casus, i. e. the fall, destruction (by an earthquake), Ov. M. 8, 714.—

II. Trop.

A. Of time, the end: “extremae sub casum hiemis,” Verg. G. 1, 340.—

B. A moral fall, a false step, an error, fall: “multas vias adulescentiae lubricas ostendit (natura), quibus illa insistere, aut ingredi sine casu aliquo ac prolapsione vix posset,” Cic. Cael. 17, 41.—So of a political fall, Cic. Sest. 67, 140.—

2. Esp., a fall or change from a higher to a lower condition: “secum reputans quam gravis casus in servitium ex regno foret,” Sall. J. 62, 9.—

C. That which turns out or happens unexpectedly, an occurrence, event, accident, chance, misfortune, emergency (this most freq. in sing. and plur.): “quid est enim aliud fors, quid fortuna, quid casus, quid eventus, nisi cum sic aliquid cecidit, sic evenit, ut vel non cadere atque evenire, vel aliter cadere atque evenire potuerit? etc.,” Cic. Div. 2, 6, 15: quis iste tantus casus? unde tam felix concursus atomorum? cf. id. N. D. 1, 32, 90: “novi casus temporum,” id. Imp. Pomp. 20, 60: “quod consilium etsi in ejusmodi casu reprehendendum non est, tamen incommode accidit,” such an emergency, Caes. B. G. 5, 33: “quod in ejusmodi casu accidit, periti ignaris parebant,” Curt. 4, 3, 18; 10, 5, 8; Quint. 6, 2, 34; Tac. A. 2, 47; Liv. 24, 2, 11; 38, 8, 5: potest igitur veritatem casus imitari, Cic. Div. 2, 21, 49: “quis tantam Rutulis laudem, casusne deusne, Attulerit,” Verg. A. 12, 321: “sive illud deorum munus sive casus fuit,” Curt. 4, 7, 13: “quae casus obtulerat, in sapientiam vertenda ratus,” Tac. A. 1, 29: “ut quemque casus armaverat,” Sall. C. 56, 3: “si quos locus aut casus conjunxerat,” id. J. 97 fin.: “in aleam tanti casus se regnumque dare,” Liv. 42, 50, 2: “ludibrium casūs,” id. 30, 30, 5: “casum potius quam consilium sequatur,” Quint. 7, prooem. § 3: “ parata ad omnes casus eloquentia,” id. 10, 1, 2: “bellorum,” Tac. A. 1, 61: “satis jam eventuum, satis casuum,” id. ib. 2, 26: “adversi, secundi,” Nep. Dat. 5, 4; cf. Suet. Caes. 25; id. Oth. 9: “magnus,” Caes. B. G. 6, 30; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 18, 3: “mirificus,” Cic. Fam. 7, 5, 2: “mirabiles,” Nep. Timol. 5, 1: “rariores,” Cic. Off. 2, 6, 19: “dubii,” Cat. 64, 216; Hor. S. 2, 2, 108: “varii,” Verg. A. 1, 204: “subiti repentinique,” Suet. Aug. 73.—Hence, in abl.: casu , adverbially, by chance, casually, by accident, accidentally: “quod si haec habent aliquam talem necessitatem, quid est tandem, quod casu fieri aut forte fortunā putemus?” Cic. Div. 2, 7, 18: “id evenit non temere nec casu,” id. N. D. 2, 2, 6: “sive casu sive consilio deorum,” Caes. B. G. 1, 12; cf. Suet. Claud. 13: “necessitate an casu,” Quint. 3, 6, 26: “casu an persuasu et inductu,” id. 5, 10, 69: “casu an manibus impeditus,” Tac. A. 1, 13: “accidit casu ut legati, etc.,” Nep. Hann. 12, 1; cf. Hor. S. 1, 6, 53; 1, 9, 36; id. Ep. 1, 19, 18; Ov. M. 5, 118; 6, 359; 7, 84 et saep.—Hence, also,

b. A chance, an occasion, opportunity for something (esp. freq. in Sall. and Tac.): “aetas illa multo pluris quam nostra casus mortis habet,” Cic. Sen. 19, 67; cf.: “mortis durae casus,” Verg. A. 10, 791: “aut vi aut dolis sese casum victoriae inventurum,” Sall. J. 25, 9: “praeclari facinoris casum dare,” id. ib. 56, 4; so, “si casus daretur,” Tac. A. 1, 13; 11, 9: “invadendae Armeniae,” id. ib. 12, 50: “pugnae,” id. ib. 12, 28: “bene gerendae rei,” id. ib. 13, 36: “casum adferre,” Quint. 8, 4, 17.— Since the idea of suddenness, unexpectedness, easily passes into that of hostility, adverseness (cf. accido, 4.), casus signifies,

2. Esp., an adverse event, a misfortune, mishap, calamity, = συμφορά: “meum illum casum tam horribilem, tam gravem, tam repentinum,” Cic. Sest. 24, 53; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2; Caes. B. G. 7, 1, 4: “dolens civitatis casum,” Sall. C. 40, 2; cf. id. J. 14, 22; 23, 2; Liv. 37, 17, 7; 23, 22, 3; Cat. 28, 11.—Of disease: “si alius casus lecto te adfixit,” Hor. S. 1, 1, 81; Ov. M. 4, 142; 14, 473; 15, 494: “res minime in hujusmodi casu noxia,” in the earthquake, Sen. Q. N. 6, 21, 2; id. Cons. ad Marc. 5, 3: “urbis Trojanae,” overthrow, Verg. A. 1, 623.—Hence,

b. Euphemist. for death: “Saturnini atque Gracchorum casus,” Caes. B. C. 1, 7: “sui quemque casus per quinquennium absumpsissent,” Liv. 23, 22, 3; Sall. J. 73, 1; Hor. S. 2, 5, 49; Suet. Aug. 65; cf. id. Caes. 89; id. Calig. 10.—

D. In gram. t. t., a case in the inflection of words: “propter eorum qui dicunt, sunt declinati casus, uti is qui de altero diceret, distinguere posset, quom vocaret, etc.,” Varr. L. L. 8, § 16 Müll.: casus dicimus... et vocabulorum formas, Paul. ex Fest. p. 58, 11 ib.: “ea (verba) sic et casibus et temporibus et genere et numero conservemus, ut, etc.,” Cic. de Or. 3, 11, 40: “barbari casus... casus rectus,” id. Or. 48, 160; Quint. 1, 5, 61: “obliqui,” id. 1, 6, 22: “nominativo, dativo, ablativo,” id. 7, 9, 13: “genitivo,” id. 1, 5, 62: Latinus, sextus, i. e. the ablative, Varr. ap. Diom. p. 277 P.: “conversi, i. e. obliqui,” Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64: interrogandi (i. e. genetivus), Nigid. ap. Gell. 13, 26 Hertz: “vocandi,” id. ib.: “septimus,” Quint. 1, 4, 26.

98 vŏco , āvi, ātum

I. inf. vocarier, Plaut. Capt. 5, 4, 27), 1, v. a. and n. Sanscr. vak-, to say; Gr. root ϝεπ:, in ἔπος, word; εἶπον, said, to call; to call upon, summon, invoke; to call together, convoke, etc. (cf.: appello, compello).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: (patrem) blandā voce vocabam, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 20, 40 (Ann. v. 51 Vahl.): “quis vocat? quis nominat me?” Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 25: He. Vin' vocem huc ad te (patrem)? Ly. Voca, id. Capt. 2, 2, 110: “Trebonius magnam jumentorum atque hominum multitudinem ex omni provinciā vocat,” Caes. B. C. 2, 1: “Dumnorigem ad se vocat,” id. B. G. 1, 20: “populum Romanum ad arma,” id. B. C. 1, 7: “milites ad concilium classico ad tribunos,” Liv. 5, 47, 7: “aliquem in contionem,” Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 144; “for which, contionem,” Tac. A. 1, 29: “concilium,” Verg. A. 10, 2; 6, 433; Ov. M. 1, 167: “patribus vocatis,” Verg. A. 5, 758: “ipse vocat pugnas,” id. ib. 7, 614: “fertur haec moriens pueris dixisse vocatis,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 170.— With dat. (post-Aug. and rare): “populumque ac senatum auxilio vocare,” Tac. A. 4, 67 fin.; 12, 45.—Absol.: “in senatum vocare (sc. patres),” Liv. 23, 32, 3; 36, 21, 7.—Impers.: “in contionem vocari placuit,” Liv. 24, 28, 1: “cum in senatum vocari jussissent,” id. 2, 55, 10.—Poet.: “tum cornix plenā pluviam vocat improba voce,” i. e. announces, Verg. G. 1, 388; so, “ventos aurasque,” Lucr. 5, 1086: “voce vocans Hecaten caeloque Ereboque potentem,” invoking, Verg. A. 6, 247: “patrios Voce deos,” id. A. 4, 680; 12, 638; Tib. 2, 1, 83; Just. 38, 7, 8: “ventis vocatis,” Verg. A. 3, 253: “numina magna,” id. ib. 3, 264; “12, 181: auxilio deos,” id. ib. 5, 686: “divos in vota,” id. ib. 5, 234; “7, 471: vos (deos) in verba,” as witnesses, Ov. F. 5, 527: “quem vocet divum populus,” Hor. C. 1, 2, 25; cf. id. ib. 1, 14, 10; 1, 30, 2; 3, 22, 3; id. Epod. 5, 5: “votis imbrem,” to call down, Verg. G. 1, 157.—Poet. with inf.: “hic (Charon) levare functum Pauperem laboribus Vocatus atque non vocatus audit,” Hor. C. 2, 18, 40.—

B. In partic.

1. To cite, summon into court, before a magistrate (syn. cito): “in jus vocas: sequitur,” Cic. Quint. 19, 61: tribuni etiam consulem in rostra vocari jusserunt, Varr. ap. Gell. 13, 12, 6.—

2. To bid, invite one as a guest, to dinner, etc. (syn. invito): Pa. Solus cenabo domi? Ge. Non enim solus: “me vocato,” Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 20: “si quis esum me vocat,” id. ib. 1, 3, 28: “aliquem ad cenam,” Ter. And. 2, 6, 22; Cic. Att. 6, 3, 9: “vulgo ad prandium,” id. Mur. 34, 72: “domum suam istum non fere quisquam vocabat,” id. Rosc. Am. 18, 52: “nos parasiti, quos numquam quisquam neque vocat neque invocat,” Plaut. Capt. 1, 1, 7: “convivam,” id. As. 4, 1, 23: “spatium apparandis nuptiis, vocandi, sacrificandi dabitur paululum,” Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 21: Ge. Cenabis apud me. Ep. Vocata est opera nunc quidem, i. e. I have been already invited, I have an engagement, Plaut. Stich. 3, 2, 18; so, “too, bene vocas! verum vocata res est,” id. Curc. 4, 4, 7: bene vocas; “tum gratia'st,” id. Men. 2, 3, 36 Brix ad loc.—

3. In gen., to call, invite, exhort, summon, urge, stimulate, etc.: “quod me ad vitam vocas,” Cic. Att. 3, 7, 2: “haec nisi vides expediri, quam in spem me vocas?” id. ib. 3, 15, 6: quarum rerum spe ad laudem me vocasti, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 7, 2.—

b. Of inanimate or abstract subjects, to invite, call, summon, incite, arouse: quo cujusque cibus vocat atque invitat aventes, Lucr. 5, 524: “lenis crepitans vocat Auster in altum,” Verg. A. 3, 70; cf.: “quāque vo. cant fluctus,” Ov. R. Am. 532: “Carthaginienses fessos nox imberque ad necessariam quietem vocabat,” Liv. 28, 15, 12: “me ad studium (feriae),” Phaedr. 3, prol. 9: “quocumque vocasset defectionis ab Romanis spes,” Liv. 24, 36, 9; cf.: arrogantiā offensas vo care, to provoke or excite hostility, Tac. H. 4, 80.—Pass.: “cum ipso anni tempore ad gerendum bellum vocaretur,” Caes. B. G. 7, 32. —Poet., with inf.: “sedare sitim fluvii fontesque vocabant,” Lucr. 5, 945.—

4. To challenge: “centuriones ... nutu vocibusque hostes, si introire vellent, vocare coeperunt,” Caes. B. G. 5, 43: “cum hinc Aetoli, haud dubie hostes, vocarent ad bellum,” Liv. 34, 43, 5: “vocare hostem et vulnera mereri,” Tac. G. 14; Verg. G. 3, 194; 4, 76; id. A. 11, 375; 11, 442; Sil. 14, 199; Stat. Th. 6, 747; cf. Verg. A. 6, 172; 4, 223 Heyne ad loc.—

5. To call by name, to name, denominate (freq. and class.; syn. nomino): certabant urbem Romam Remoramne vocarent, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48. 107 (Ann. v. 85 Vahl.): quem Graeci vocant Aërem, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 65 Müll. (Epicharm. v. 8 Vahl.): “cum penes unum est omnium summa rerum, regen illum unum vocamus,” Cic. Rep. 1, 26, 42: comprehensio, quam κατάληψιν illi vocant, id. Ac. 2, 6, 17: “urbem ex Antiochi patris nomine Antiochiam vocavit,” Just. 15, 4, 8: “ad Spelaeum, quod vocant, biduum moratus,” Liv. 45, 33, 8: “me miserum vocares,” Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 92: “non possidentem multa vocaveris Recte beatum,” id. C. 4, 9, 45.— With de, to call after, to name after: “lapis, quem Magneta vocant patrio de nomine Graeci,” Lucr. 6, 908: “patrioque vocant de nomine mensem,” Ov. F. 3, 77.—Pass.: “ego vocor Lyconides,” Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 49: De. Quī vocare? Ge. Geta, Ter. Ad. 5, 6, 3: “jam lepidus vocor,” id. ib. 5, 7, 13; id. Eun. 2, 2, 33: “a se visum esse in eo colle Romulum, qui nunc Quirinalis vocatur ... se deum esse et Quirinum vocari,” Cic. Rep. 2, 10, 20: “syllaba longa brevi subjecta vocatur iambus,” Hor. A. P. 251: “patiens vocari Caesaris ultor,” id. C. 1, 2, 43: “sive tu Lucina probas vocari,” id. C. S. 15.—With de, to be named for, etc.: “Taurini vocantur de fluvio qui propter fuit,” Cat. Orig. 3, fr. 1: “ludi, qui de nomine Augusti fastis additi, Augustales vocarentur,” Tac. A. 1, 15.—

6. In eccl. Lat., to call to a knowledge of the gospel, Vulg. 1 Cor. 1, 2; id. Gal. 1, 6; id. 1 Thess. 2, 12.—

II. Transf., to call, i. e. to bring, draw, put, set, place in some position or condition: “ne me apud milites in invidiam voces,” Cic. Phil. 2, 24, 59: “aliquem in odium aut invidiam,” id. Off. 1, 25, 86: “cujusdam familia in suspitionem est vocata conjurationis,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 10: “aliquem in luctum,” id. Att. 3, 7, 2: “in partem (hereditatis) mulieres vocatae sunt,” succeeded to a share, id. Caecin. 4, 12; so, “aliquem in partem curarum,” Tac. A. 1, 11: “in portionem muneris,” Just. 5, 2, 9: “me ad Democritum vocas,” to refer, Cic. Ac. 2, 18, 56.—With inanimate or abstract objects: “ex eā die ad hanc diem quae fecisti, in judicium voco,” I call to account, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 12, § 34; so, “aliquid in judicium,” id. de Or. 1, 57, 241; id. Balb. 28, 64 al.: “singula verba sub judicium,” Ov. P. 1, 5, 20: “ad calculos vocare amicitiam,” Cic. Lael. 16, 58; Liv. 5, 4, 7; Plin. Pan. 38, 3: “nulla fere potest res in dicendi disceptationem aut controversium vocari, quae, etc.,” Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 291: “aliquid in dubium,” id. Inv. 2, 28, 84: “templa deorum immortalium, tecta urbis, vitam omnium civium, Italiam denique totam ad exitium et vastitatem vocas,” bring to destruction, reduce to ruin, destroy, id. Cat. 1, 5, 12.

 

99 rĕgo , xi, ctum, 3, v. a. Sanscr. arg-, argami, to obtain; Gr. ὀρέγω reach after; cf. Sanscr. rāgan; Goth. reiks, king; Germ. Reich and Recht,

I. to keep straight or from going wrong, to lead straight; to guide, conduct, direct (freq. and class.; syn.: guberno, moderor).

I. Lit.: “deus est, qui regit et moderatur et movet id corpus, cui praepositus est,” Cic. Rep. 6, 24, 26: “manus una (navem) regit,” Lucr. 4, 903: “onera navium velis,” Caes. B. G. 3, 13: “arte ratem,” Ov. Tr. 1, 4, 12; cf. “clavum,” Verg. A. 10, 218: “te ventorum regat pater,” Hor. C. 1, 3, 3: “vela,” Prop. 2, 28 (3, 24), 24: “coërcet et regit beluam,” Cic. Rep. 2, 40, 67: “equum,” Liv. 35, 11: “equos,” Ov. A. A. 3, 556; id. Ib. 474; cf. “quadrupedes,” id. M. 2, 86: “spumantia ora (equi),” id. ib. 8, 34: “frena,” id. P. 4, 12, 24: “equi impotentes regendi,” Liv. 35, 11; Ov. Tr. 1, 3, 28; Curt. 4, 15, 28: “currus,” Ov. A. A. 1, 4; Curt. 8, 14, 7: taurus ex grege, quem prope litora regebat, Sall. H. Fragm. ap. Prisc. p. 715 P.; Quint. 1, 1, 27: “rege tela per auras,” Verg. A. 9, 409: “tela per viscera Caesaris,” Luc. 7, 350; cf.: “missum jaculum,” Ov. M. 7, 684: “sagittas nusquam,” Luc. 7, 515: “regens tenui vestigia filo,” Cat. 64, 113; cf.: “Daedalium iter lino duce,” Prop. 2, 14 (3, 6), 8: “caeca filo vestigia,” Verg. A. 6, 30: “diverso flamina tractu,” Ov. M. 1, 59: “gressus,” Vulg. Judic. 16, 26.—

B. In partic., jurid. t. t.: “regere fines,” to draw the boundaries, mark out the limits, Cic. Leg. 1, 21, 55; id. Top. 10, 43; id. Mur. 9, 22; Tib. 1, 3, 44; cf. Dig. 10, 1, and Cod. Just. 3, 39 tit. Finium regundorum.—

II. Trop., to guide, lead, conduct, manage, direct.

A. In gen.: “Deus qui omnem hunc mundum regit,” Cic. Rep. 6, 13, 13: “domum,” id. ib. 1, 39, 61: “rem consilio,” Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 13: “belli fera munera Mavors regit,” Lucr. 1, 33; cf. “bella,” Caes. B. G. 6, 17; Sil. 7, 47: “omnia nostra ita gerito, regito, gubernato, ut, etc.,” Cic. Att. 16, 2, 2: “alicujus animum atque ingenium,” Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 90; cf.: “animi motus (with moderari cupiditates),” Cic. Part. Or. 22, 76: “mores,” Ov. M. 15, 834: “animos dictis,” Verg. A. 1, 153: “animum,” Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 62: “ut me ipse regam,” id. ib. 1, 1, 27: “consilia senatus,” Quint. 12, 1, 26: “valetudines principis,” Tac. A. 6, 50; cf.: “valetudinem arbitratu suo,” Suet. Tib. 68 al.: “neque regerentur magis quam regerent casus,” Sall. J. 1, 5; cf.: “jam regi leges, non regere,” Liv. 10, 13: “utroque vorsum rectum est ingenium meum,” Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 6: “vellem suscepisses juvenem regendum,” Cic. Att. 10, 6, 2; cf. Suet. Tib. 50; id. Claud. 9: “Silvanum specie obsequii regebat,” Tac. H. 3, 50: “nemo regere potest, nisi qui et regi,” Sen. Ira, 2, 15 fin.; Quint. 12, 10, 69.—

B. Transf.

1. To sway, control, rule, govern, have the supremacy over any thing: “quare qui convenit polliceri operam suam rei publicae, cum rem publicam regere nesciant?” Cic. Rep. 1, 6, 11; so, “rem publicam,” id. ib. 1, 26, 41; “1, 27, 43: in iis civitatibus quae ab optimis reguntur,” id. ib. 1, 34 fin.; “2, 9, 15: illa civitas optimatium arbitrio regi dicitur,” id. ib. 1, 26, 42; cf.: “Massilienses per delectos et principes cives summā justitiā reguntur,” id. ib. 1, 27, 43: “Frisios,” Tac. A. 4, 72: “populos imperio,” Verg. A. 6, 851: “imperiis Italiam,” id. ib. 4, 230: “legiones,” Tac. A. 15, 7; cf. “cohortes,” id. H. 4, 12: “exercitum,” Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 2; id. Pan. 9, 2: “domum,” Vulg. 1 Tim. 5, 4: “diva, quae regis Antium,” Hor. C. 1, 35, 1: “Diana, quae silentium regis,” id. Epod. 5, 51.—Transf., of abstract objects: “animi partes consilio,” Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 60: “ut unius potestate regatur salus et aequabilitas et otium civium,” id. ib. 2, 23, 43: “rex ille (Tarquinius) neque suos mores regere poterat neque suorum libidines,” id. ib. 2, 25, 46.— Absol.: “Tiberio regente,” Tac. A. 4, 33; 13, 3: “stare rempublicam nisi uno regente non posse,” Quint. 3, 8, 47: “quo regente,” Verg. Cul. 333; Just. 1, 9, 23: “Clemens ambitioso imperio regebat,” i. e. used his authority to court popular favor, Tac. H. 2, 12.—

2. To guide into the right way one who has erred; to set right, correct: non multa peccas, sed si peccas, te regere possum, old poet ap. Cic. Mur. 29, 60 (with corrigere and inflectere): “errantem regere,” Caes. B. C. 3, 57: “rogo, domine, consilio me regas, etc.,” Plin. Ep. 10, 19 (30), 1; cf.: alicujus dubitationem, id. ib 10, 118 (119), 3.— Hence,

I. P. a. as subst.: rĕgens , entis, m., a governor, prince, ruler, regent: “contemptus regentium,” Tac. A. 12, 54: “in obsequium regentis,” id. Or. 41: clementia regentis, Sen. Clem. 1, 22, 3: “vita regentis,” Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 301: “excogitare nemo quicquam poterit, quod magis decorum regenti sit quam clementia,” Sen. Clem. 1, 19, 1; id. Ep. 59, 7: “in vulgus manant exempla regentum (= -tium),” Claud. Laud. Stil. 1, 168.—

II. rectus , a, um, P. a., led straight along, drawn in a straight line (horizontal or vertical), straight, upright, ὀρθός.

A. Lit., of horizontal direction: “pars Remorum recta est (opp. refracta),” Lucr. 4, 439: “sed nil omnino rectā regione viaï declinare,” id. 2, 249 Munro: “rectā regione iter instituere,” Liv. 21, 31: “India, rectā regione spatiosa,” Curt. 8, 9, 2; cf. id. 7, 9, 2: “ad nostras aedes hic quidem habet rectam viam,” Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 26: “via,” id. Cas. 5, 2, 7; id. Poen. 3, 3, 79; id. Ps. 4, 7, 37; Ter. And. 3, 4, 21; id. Phorm. 2, 1, 80; Mart. 8, 75, 2; cf. “platea,” Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 58; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 35; 43: “porta,” Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 60: “ostium,” id. Mil. 2, 3, 58: “ostia viarum (opp. iter flexum),” Lucr. 4, 93: “cursus hinc in Africam,” Liv. 26, 43: “saxa quae rectis lineis suos ordines servant,” Caes. B. G. 7, 23 fin.: “recto flumine,” Verg. A. 8, 57: “recto ad Iberum itinere,” Caes. B. C. 1, 69; Liv. 22, 9: “ne qua forent pedibus vestigia rectis,” Verg. A. 8, 209: “recto grassetur limite miles,” Ov. Tr. 2, 477: “velut rectae acies concurrissent,” in a straight line, line of battle, Liv. 34, 28; so, “acies,” id. 35, 28: “qui (quincunx), in quamcumque partem spectaveris, rectus est,” Quint. 8, 3, 9: “hic vos aliud nihil orat, nisi ut rectis oculis hanc urbem sibi intueri liceat,” Cic. Rab. Post. 17, 48: “adversus adparatus terribilium rectos oculos tenet,” Sen. Const. 5, 5: “rectis oculis gladios micantes videre,” id. Ep. 76, 33; 104, 24: “oculi,” Suet. Aug. 16; cf. “acies,” Ov. M. 2, 776: “lumen,” Luc. 9, 638: “vultus,” Stat. Th. 10, 542.—Of vertical direction: “ut hae (partes) rursum rectis lineis in caelestem locum subvolent,” in perpendicular lines, Cic. Tusc. 1, 17, 40: “saxa,” perpendicular, steep, Liv. 21, 36 (just before: pleraque Alpium arrectiora sunt); cf.: “rectae prope rupes,” id. 38, 20: “truncus,” Ov. M. 7, 640: “ita jacere talum, ut rectus assistat: qui ita talus erit jactus ut cadet rectus,” Cic. Fin. 3, 16, 53: “caput rectum et secundum naturam (opp. dejectum, supinum), in latus inclinatum,” Quint. 11, 3, 69: “homines,” straight, erect, Cat. 10, 20; so, “Quintia,” id. 86, 1: “puella,” Hor. S. 1, 2, 123: “senectus,” Juv. 3, 26: “iterque Non agit in rectum, sed in orbem curvat eundem,” does not shape his course directly forward, Ov. M. 2, 715: “vidit ut hostiles in rectum exire cohortes,” Luc. 7, 327. — Comp.: “crus Rectius,” Hor. S. 1, 2, 82: “rectior coma,” smoother, straighter, Sen. Ep. 95, 24: “longā trabe rectior exstet,” Ov. M. 3, 78: “crura,” Pall. 7, 7. — Sup.: “rectissima linea,” Quint. 3, 6, 83: “via,” id. 12, 2, 27. —

B. Trop.

1. In gen., right, correct, proper, appropriate, befitting; opp. to what is false or improper: vobis mentes rectae quae stare solebant, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 6, 16 (Ann. v. 208 Vahl.): “ut rectā viā rem narret ordine omnem,” Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 28 (just before: aperte, ita ut res sese habet, narrato); cf. id. And. 2, 6, 11: De. Estne hoc, ut dico? Li. Rectam instas viam: Ea res est, you're on the right way, Plaut. As. 1, 1, 39: in rectam redire semitam, cf. id. Cas. 2, 3, 33: “rectā viā depelli,” Quint. 2, 7, 29; 10, 1, 29; cf. Sen. Ep. 94, 54; Quint. 2, 6, 2; “so post-class.: de viā rectā declinare,” Gell. 1, 3, 15: a rectā viā avertere, Aug. Civ Dei, 12, 17, 2: ad rectum iter retrahere, Hier. in Osee, 2, 8 sq.; id. in Mich. 3, 5: “recta consilia dare,” Ter. And. 2, 1, 9: “quae sint in artibus recta ac prava dijudicare,” Cic. de Or. 3, 50, 195; cf.: “quae sunt recta et simplicia laudantur,” id. Off. 1, 36, 130; Quint. 9, 3, 3: “sermo rectus et secundum naturam enunciatus,” id. 2, 5, 11; cf.: “(oratio) recta an ordine permutato,” id. 1, 13, 5; 9, 4, 27: “per Marathonis propugnatores recto sono juravit (opp. flexus vocis),” id. 11, 3, 168 Spald.; cf. id. 11, 3, 64: “recto ac justo proelio dimicare,” Liv. 35, 4 fin.: “rectarum cenarum consuetudo,” a regular, formal supper, Suet. Dom. 7; so, “cena,” Mart. 2, 69, 7; 7, 20, 2; also absol.: “recta,” Suet. Aug. 74; Mart. 8, 50, 10: “domus recta est (with contenta decore simplici),” Sen. Ep. 100, 6: “nominibus rectis expendere nummos,” i. e. on good securities, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 105: ut natura dedit, sic omnis recta figura, correct, beautiful, Prop. 2, 18, 25 (3, 11, 3): “absque te esset, ego illum haberem rectum ad ingenium bonum,” suitable, qualified, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 8.— Subst.: rectum , i, n.: “rectum est etiam in illis contentionibus gravitatem retinere,” Cic. Off. 1, 38, 137: “quid verum, quid falsum, quid rectum in oratione pravumve,” id. Ac. 1, 5, 19: “aliter, quam est rectum verumque dicere,” Quint. 6, 3, 89: “cum sit rectum, Nocere facile est, etc.,” id. 8, 5, 6; “so (opp. durum et incomptum),” id. 8, 6, 65; (opp. vitiosum) id. 1, 5, 29: “mutare aliquid a recto,” id. 2, 13, 11: “recta et vera loquere,” i. e. sincerely, openly, Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 7: “qui haec recta tantum et in nullos flexus recedentia copiose tractaverit,” Quint. 10, 5, 12: “ea plerumque recta sunt,” id. 9, 2, 5; cf. id. 9, 2, 45.—Comp.: “rectior divisio,” Quint. 7, 2, 39: “si quid novisti rectius istis,” Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 67; Cic. Rep. 1, 40, 62.—Sup.: “rectissima ratio,” Quint. 2, 13, 3.—

2. In partic.

a. Morally right, correct, lawful, just, virtuous, noble, good (opp. pravus); as subst.: rectum , i, n., that which is right, good, virtuous; uprightness, rectitude, virtue (very freq.): “honesta res dividitur in rectum et laudabile. Rectum est, quod cum virtute et officio fit,” Auct. Her. 3, 2, 3: illud rectum, quod κατόρθωμα dicebat, Cic. Fin. 4, 6, 15: “nec quicquam nisi honestum et rectum ab altero postulare,” id. Lael. 22, 82; “so with honestum,” id. ib. 21, 76; id. Fin. 1, 7, 25; id. Off. 1, 24, 82; id. Fam. 5, 19, 1 al.: “(opp. pravum) neque id Putabit, pravum an rectum siet, quod petet,” Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 76; id. Phorm. 5, 2, 6; Cic. Ac. 2, 11, 33; id. Or. 14, 45; id. Lig. 9, 30; Quint. 1, 3, 12; 2, 4, 20 et saep.; cf.: “recta consilia (opp. prava),” Liv. 1, 27: “in rectis (opp. in pravitatibus),” Cic. Leg. 1, 11, 31: “curvo dignoscere rectum,” Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 44: “mens sibi conscia recti,” Verg. A. 1, 604: “fidem rectumque colebat,” Ov. M. 1, 90: “recta ingenia (opp. perversa),” Plin. Ep. 4, 7, 3 et saep.: “in omni vitā suā quemque a rectā conscientiā traversum unguem non oportet discedere,” Cic. Att. 13, 20, 4: “animus secundis Temporibus dubiisque rectus,” Hor. C. 4, 9, 36: “natura,” id. S. 1, 6, 66: “ex consularibus, unus L. Caesar firmus est et rectus,” Cic. Fam. 12, 5, 2: “judex,” Quint. 4, 1, 13; cf. “auditor,” Plin. Ep. 2, 19, 6: “vir rectus et sanctus,” id. ib. 2, 11, 5; cf. id. ib. 7, 31, 1: “beatus judicii rectus,” Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 2.— Rectum est, with subjective-clause: “rectum est gravitatem retinere,” Cic. Off. 1, 38 fin.; so id. ib. 3, 11, 47; id. Mur. 2, 3; id. Att. 6, 9, 4.—

b. In gram.: rectus casus, the nominative case (because not inflected; “opp. obliqui casus),” Varr. L. L. 1 sq.; Quint. 1, 4, 13; 1, 5, 61; Gell. 13, 12, 4 et saep.—Hence the adverbs,

A. rectā,

B. rectō,

C. rectē.

A. rectā (sc. viā). straightway, straightforwards, right on, directly (freq. and class.): “hic ad me rectā habet rectam viam,” Plaut. Mil. 2, 6, 11; id. Ps. 4, 7, 37: “jam ad regem rectā me ducam,” id. Am. 4, 3, 8; 5, 1, 63; id. Capt. 3, 5, 93; id. Cas. prol. 43; id. Mil. 2, 5, 50; id. Merc. 5, 2, 92; id. Ps. 4, 2, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 13; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 7: “tu rus hinc ibis? ... rectā,” id. Ad. 3, 3, 79; id. Hec. 3, 3, 12; id. Phorm. 1, 2, 62; 5, 6, 19: “Marius ab subselliis in rostra rectā,” Cic. Off. 3, 20, 80; id. Att. 5, 14, 2; 6, 8, 1; 16, 10, 1; id. Fam. 9, 19, 1; Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 61, § 160; id. Cat. 1, 9, 23; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Auct. B. Afr. 18; 40; Auct. B. Hisp. 3; Plin. 2, 47, 46, § 121 al.: tendimus hinc rectā Beneventum. Hor. S. 1, 5, 71. —

B. rectō , straightforwards, directly (perh. only in the two foll. passages): “appellationes, quae recto ad principem factae sunt,” Dig. 49, 1, 21; Inscr. Grut. 611, 13.—

C. rectē .

1. Lit., in a straight line (horizontal or perpendicular), straightly, perpendicularly, uprightly, ὀρθῶς (very rare): “vitem bene enodatam deligato recte, flexuosa uti ne siet,” Cato, R. R. 33, 4: “sive aliae (atomi) declinabunt, aliae suo nutu recte ferentur ... quae (atomi) recte, quae oblique ferantur,” Cic. Fin. 1, 6, 20: “satyri, cum quadrupedes, tum recte currentes, humanā effigie,” Plin. 7, 2, 2, § 24.—

2. Trop., rightly, correctly, properly, duly, suitably, well, advantageously, accurately (very freq. in all periods and styles): “recta et vera loquere, sed neque vere neque recte adhuc Fecisti umquam,” Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 7; cf. Cic. Lael. 2, 8: “fecisti edepol et recte et bene,” Plaut. Capt. 5, 4, 20: si facias recte aut commode, id. Cas. 2, 3, 42; “so with commode,” Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 100: “recte et sapienter facit,” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 133; cf. id. ib. 3, 4, 12: “recte atque ordine factum,” Cic. Quint. 7, 28: “recte atque ordine facere,” id. Phil. 3, 15, 38; Sall. C. 51, 4; Liv. 24, 31; 28, 39; 30, 17 et saep.; “v. Brisson. Form. II. p. 197: recte ac merito miseriā commoveri,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 67, § 172: “recte atque in loco constare,” id. Mur. 12, 26: “recte factum,” Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 52: “seu recte seu pervorse facta sunt,” id. Trin. 1, 2, 146: “seu recte seu perperam facere,” Cic. Quint. 8, 31; so (opp. perperam) Sall. J. 31, 27; Liv. 29, 17: “recte dictum (opp. absurde),” Plaut. Capt. 1, 1, 4: “recte concludere (opp. vitiose),” Cic. Ac. 2, 30, 98: “recte factum (opp. turpiter),” Caes. B. G. 7, 80 et saep.: “recte rationem tenes,” Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 47: “hercle quin tu recte dicis,” id. Men. 2, 3, 74; id. Merc. 2, 3, 77; 5, 4, 47: recte auguraris de me, Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 16, 1: “non recte judicas de Catone,” Cic. Lael. 2, 9; cf.: “rectissime quidem judicas,” id. Rep. 3, 32, 44: “tum demum sciam Recta monuisse, si tu recte caveris,” Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 71 sq.: “monere,” id. Bacch. 2, 3, 96; id. Ps. 4, 4, 12; id. Pers. 4, 4, 53; id. Rud. 3, 5, 49; cf.: “admonere recte,” id. Men. 5, 9, 33: “suis amicis recte res suas narrare,” properly, openly, id. Poen. 5, 6, 2: “hic (Epicurus) circumitione quādam deos tollens recte non dubitat divinationem tollere,” consistently, logically, Cic. Div. 2, 17, 40: “aliquem asservare recte, ne aufugiat,” duly, carefully, Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 11: “alicui recte dare epistulam,” correctly, id. Ps. 4, 2, 33: “cum fuit cui recte ad te litteras darem,” safely, Cic. Att. 4, 1, 1; id. Fam. 1, 7, 1; so, “sed habebat ducem Gabinium, quicum quidvis rectissime facere posset,” id. Phil. 2, 19, 49; cf.: “alicui suam salutem recte committere,” Caes. B. G. 7, 6 fin.; id. B. C. 1, 74: “si recte ambulaverit is, qui hanc epistulam tulit,” goes as he ought, Cic. Att. 9, 4, 3: tabernaculum recte captum, i. e. in the prescribed manner (opp. vitio captum), id. Div. 2, 35, 75; Liv. 4, 7; cf.: “ludi recte facti,” id. 36, 2: “ver sacrum non esse recte factum,” id. 34, 44: procedere recte, well, rightly, Enn. ap. Acron. ad Hor. S. 1, 2, 37 (Ann. v. 454 Vahl.): Pi. Recte valet? Ch. Vivit recte et valet, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 11, and 14: “valere,” id. Merc. 2, 3, 53: “apud matrem recte est,” i. e. she is quite well, Cic. Att. 1, 7 init.; so, “recte esse,” id. ib. 14, 16, 4 (with belle); Hor. S. 2, 3, 162 Orell.; cf.: Tullia nostra recte valet ... Praeterea rectissime sunt apud te omnia, Dolab. ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 9, 1: “recte sit oculis tuis,” Gell. 13, 30, 11: “olivetum recte putare,” properly, advantageously, Cato, R. R. 44: “solet illa recte sub manus succedere,” well, Plaut. Pers. 4, 1, 2: “recte cavere,” to look out well, take good care, id. Bacch. 3, 6, 15; id. Ep. 2, 2, 107; id. Most. 3, 3, 23; id. Men. 2, 2, 72; cf.: recte sibi videre, to look out well for one's self, Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 12 Ruhnk.: “deos volo consilia vostra recte vortere,” well, happily, Plaut. Trin. 5, 2, 31; so, “vortere,” id. Aul. 2, 2, 41: recte vendere, well, i. e. dearly, at a high price (opp. male), Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 98, § 227: “alicui nec recte dicere, i. e. male, injuriose,” Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 11; id. Most. 1, 3, 83; id. Poen. 3, 1, 13; cf.: “nec recte loqui alicui,” id. Bacch. 4, 4, 83: “nec recte dicere in aliquem,” id. As. 1, 3, 3; “and simply nec recte dicere,” id. Ps. 4, 6, 23.— Comp.: “ad omnia alia aetate sapimus rectius,” Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 46: “hic tibi erit rectius,” Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 31: “rectius bella gerere,” Liv. 3, 2 fin.: “non possidentem multa vocaveris Recte beatum, rectius occupet Nomen beati, qui, etc.,” Hor. C. 4, 9, 46.—Sup., Cic. Rep. 3, 32, 44; v. supra. —

b. With adjj., right, well, properly, very, much, to strengthen the idea (ante-class.): illasce oves, quā de re agitur, sanas recte esse, uti pecus ovillum, quod recte sanum est, etc., an ancient formula in Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6: “locus recte ferax,” Cato, R. R. 44: “salvus sum recte,” Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 34: “morata recte,” id. Aul. 2, 2, 62: “oneratus recte,” id. Bacch. 2, 3, 115: “non recte vinctus est,” Ter. And. 5, 4, 52.—

c. Ellipt., esp. in answers, in colloquial lang., well, quite well, right, excellently: Thr. Primum aedis expugnabo. Gn. Recte. Thr. Virginem eripiam. Gn. Probe. Thr. Male mulcabo ipsam. Gn. Pulchre, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 3: quid vos? quo pacto hic? satin recte? (sc. est, agitur, valetis, etc.), quite well? id. And. 4, 5, 9; cf.: Le. Satin' salve? dic mihi. Ca. Recte, Plaut. Trin. 5, 2, 54; and: De. Quid fit? quid agitur? Sy. Recte. De. Optime'st, Ter. Ad. 5, 5, 3; Quint. 6, 3, 84.—

B. So, in colloquial lang., freq. like benigne and the Gr. καλῶς, or κάλλιστα ἔχει, as a courteously evasive answer, all's well, it's all right, there's nothing the matter; or, in politely declining an offer, nothing is wanting, no I thank you: De. Unde incedis? quid festinas, gnate mi? Ch. Recte pater, Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 33; cf.: So. Quid es tam tristis? Pa. Recte mater, Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 20; and: Ch. Quid tu istic? Syr. Recte equidem, id. Heaut. 3, 2, 7: Mi. Quid est? Aes. Nihil, recte, perge, id. Ad. 4, 5, 19: “rogo numquid velit? Recte inquit,” i. e. no, nothing, id. Eun. 2, 3, 51; so, “in an exclamation: clamabit, pulchre! bene! recte!” Hor. A. P. 4, 28.

100 vŏcātīvus , a, um, adj. voco,

I. of or belonging to calling: casus, the vocative case, in gram., Gell. 14, 5, 1 sq. al.—As subst.: vŏcātīvus , i, m., the vocative case, Charis. p. 11 P.; Prisc. p. 671 ib. al.

101 gĕro , gessi, gestum

I. Part. gen. plur. sync. gerentum, Plaut. Truc. 2, 1, 13; imper. ger, like dic, duc, fac, fer, Cat. 27, 2), 3, v. a. root gas-, to come, go; Zend, jah, jahaiti, come; gero (for geso), in caus. sense, to cause to come; cf. Gr. βαστάζω, from βαστος = gestus, to bear about with one, to bear, carry, to wear, have (in the lit. signif. mostly poet., not in Cic., Cæs., Sall., or Quint.; but instead of it ferre, portare, vehere, sustinere, etc.; but in the trop. signif. freq. and class.).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: “(vestem ferinam) qui gessit primus,” Lucr. 5, 1420; so, “vestem,” Ov. M. 11, 276 (with induere vestes), Nep. Dat. 3; cf.: “coronam Olympiacam capite,” Suet. Ner. 25: “ornamenta,” id. Caes. 84: “angues immixtos crinibus,” Ov. M. 4, 792: “clipeum (laeva),” id. ib. 4, 782; cf.: “galeam venatoriam in capite, clavam dextra manu, copulam sinistra,” Nep. Dat. 3: “ramum, jaculum,” Ov. M. 12, 442: “spicea serta,” id. ib. 2, 28: “vincla,” id. ib. 4, 681: “venabula corpore fixa,” id. ib. 9, 206; cf.: “tela (in pectore fixus),” id. ib. 6, 228: “Vulcanum (i. e. ignem) in cornu conclusum,” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 185: “spolia ducis hostium caesi suspensa fabricato ad id apte ferculo gerens,” Liv. 1, 10, 5; cf.: “Horatius trigemina spolia prae se gerens,” id. 1, 26, 2: “onera,” Varr. L. L. 6, § 77 Müll.: uterum or partum gerere, to be pregnant, be with young; so, gerere partum, Plin. 8, 47, 72, § 187: “uterum,” id. 8, 40, 62, § 151: “centum fronte oculos centum cervice gerebat Argus,” Ov. Am. 3, 4, 19: “lumen unum media fronte,” id. M. 13, 773: “cornua fronte,” id. ib. 15, 596: “virginis os habitumque gerens et virginis arma,” Verg. A. 1, 315: “virginis ora,” Ov. M. 5, 553; cf.: “quae modo bracchia gessit, Crura gerit,” id. ib. 5, 455 sq.: “Coae cornua matres Gesserunt tum,” i. e. were turned into cows, id. ib. 7, 364: “principio (morbi) caput incensum fervore gerebant,” Lucr. 6, 1145: “qui umbrata gerunt civili tempora quercu,” Verg. A. 6, 772: “tempora tecta pelle lupi,” Ov. M. 12, 380: “(Hector) squalentem barbam et concretos sanguine crines Vulneraque illa gerens, quae, etc.,” Verg. A. 2, 278: “capella gerat distentius uber,” Hor. S. 1, 1, 110.—

b. Of inanimate things: “semina rerum permixta gerit tellus discretaque tradit,” Lucr. 6, 790; cf.: “(terram) multosque lacus multasque lacunas In gremio gerere et rupes deruptaque saxa,” id. ib. 6, 539; Enn. ap. Non. 66, 26 (Sat. 23, p. 157 Vahl.); and: “quos Oceano propior gerit India lucos,” Verg. G. 2, 122: “speciem ac formam similem gerit ejus imago,” Lucr. 4, 52.—

B. In partic. (very rare).

1. With respect to the term. ad quem, to bear, carry, bring to a place: “(feminae puerique) saxa in muros munientibus gerunt,” Liv. 28, 19, 13: “neque eam voraginem conjectu terrae, cum pro se quisque gereret, expleri potuisse,” id. 7, 6, 2; cf. id. 37, 5, 1. —Absol.: “si non habebis unde irriges, gerito inditoque leniter,” Cato, R. R. 151, 4; Liv. 7, 6, 2 Drak.—Prov.: “non pluris refert, quam si imbrem in cribrum geras,” Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 100.—

2. With the accessory idea of production, to bear, bring forth, produce: “quae (terra) quod gerit fruges, Ceres (appellata est),” Varr. L. L. 5, § 64 Müll.; cf. Tib. 2, 4, 56: “violam nullo terra serente gerit,” Ov. Tr. 3, 12, 6: “arbores (Oete),” id. M. 9, 230: “malos (platani),” Verg. G. 2, 70: frondes (silva), Ov. M. 11, 615: “terra viros urbesque gerit silvasque ferasque Fluminaque et Nymphas et cetera numina ruris,” Ov. M. 2, 16.

II. Trop.

A. In gen., to bear, have, entertain, cherish: vos etenim juvenes animum geritis muliebrem, illa virago viri, Poët. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 18, 61; cf.: “fortem animum gerere,” Sall. J. 107, 1: “parem animum,” id. ib. 54, 1 Kritz.: “animum invictum advorsum divitias,” id. ib. 43, 5: “animum super fortunam,” id. ib. 64, 2: “mixtum gaudio ac metu animum,” Liv. 32, 11, 5; cf. also Verg. A. 9, 311; and v. infra B. 3.: aeque inimicitiam atque amicitiam in frontem promptam gero, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 8, 6 (Trag. v. 8 Vahl.): “personam,” to support a character, play a part, Cic. Off. 1, 32, 115; cf.: “est igitur proprium munus magistratus, intelligere, se gerere personam civitatis debereque ejus dignitatem et decus sustinere,” id. ib. 1, 34, 132; Aug. Doctr. Christ. 4, 29 init.; “id. Civ. Dei, 1, 21 al.: mores, quos ante gerebant, Nunc quoque habent,” Ov. M. 7, 655: “et nos aliquod nomenque decusque Gessimus,” Verg. A. 2, 89: “seu tu querelas sive geris jocos Seu rixam et insanos amores Seu facilem, pia testa (i. e. amphora), somnum,” Hor. C. 3, 21, 2: “in dextris vestris jam libertatem, opem ... geritis,” Curt. 4, 14 fin.: “plumbeas iras,” Plaut. Poen. 3, 6, 18: “iras,” Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 30: M. Catonem illum Sapientem cum multis graves inimicitias gessisse accepimus propter Hispanorum injurias, Cic. Div. ap. Caecil. 20, 66: “veteres inimicitias cum Caesare,” Caes. B. C. 1, 3, 4: “muliebres inimicitias cum aliqua,” Cic. Cael. 14, 32: “inimicitias hominum more,” id. Deiot. 11, 30: simultatem cum aliquo pro re publica, Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 14, 13, A, 3; cf. Suet. Vesp. 6; and Verg. A. 12, 48: “de amicitia gerenda praeclarissime scripti libri,” Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 5: “amicitiam,” Nep. Dat. 10 fin.: “praecipuum in Romanos gerebant odium,” Liv. 28, 22, 2: “cum fortuna mutabilem gerentes fidem,” id. 8, 24, 6: “utrique imperii cupiditatem insatiabilem gerebant,” Just. 17, 1 fin. —Absol.: “ad ea rex, aliter atque animo gerebat, placide respondit,” Sall. J. 72, 1.—

B. In partic.

1. Gerere se aliquo modo, to bear, deport, behave, or conduct one's self, to act in any manner: “in maximis rebus quonam modo gererem me adversus Caesarem, usus tuo consilio sum,” Cic. Fam. 11, 27, 5; cf. id. Off. 1, 28, 98: “ut, quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,” id. ib. 1, 26, 90; so, “se liberius (servi),” id. Rep. 1, 43: “se inconsultius,” Liv. 41, 10, 5: “se valde honeste,” Cic. Att. 6, 1, 13: “se perdite,” id. ib. 9, 2, A, 2: “se turpissime (illa pars animi),” id. Tusc. 2, 21, 48: “se turpiter in legatione,” Plin. Ep. 2, 12, 4: “sic in provincia nos gerimus, quod ad abstinentiam attinet, ut, etc.,” Cic. Att. 5, 17, 2: “sic me in hoc magistratu geram, ut, etc.,” id. Agr. 1, 8, 26; cf.: “nunc ita nos gerimus, ut, etc.,” id. ib. 2, 22, 3: “uti sese victus gereret, exploratum misit,” Sall. J. 54, 2: “se medium gerere,” to remain neutral, Liv. 2, 27, 3.—

b. In a like sense also post-class.: gerere aliquem, to behave or conduct one's self as any one (like agere aliquem): “nec heredem regni sed regem gerebat,” Just. 32, 3, 1; Plin. Pan. 44, 2: “tu civem patremque geras,” Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 293: “aedilem,” App. M. 1, p. 113: “captivum,” Sen. Troad. 714.—

c. Gerere se et aliquem, to treat one's self and another in any manner: “interim Romae gaudium ingens ortum cognitis Metelli rebus, ut seque et exercitum more majorum gereret,” Sall. J. 55, 1: “meque vosque in omnibus rebus juxta geram,” id. ib. 85, 47.—

d. Pro aliquo se gerere, to assume to be: “querentes, quosdam non sui generis pro colonis se gerere,” Liv. 32, 2, 6: “eum, qui sit census, ita se jam tum gessisse pro cive,” Cic. Arch. 5, 11 dub.—

2. Gerere prae se aliquid (for the usual prae se ferre), to show, exhibit, manifest: “affectionis ratio perspicuam solet prae se gerere conjecturam, ut amor, iracundia, molestia, etc.,” Cic. Inv. 2, 9, 30; cf.: “prae se quandam gerere utilitatem,” id. ib. 2, 52, 157: animum altum et erectum prae se gerebat, Auct. B. Afr. 10 fin.; Aug. de Lib. Arbit. 3, 21, 61 al.; “so gerere alone: ita tum mos erat, in adversis voltum secundae fortunae gerere, moderari animo in secundis,” to assume, Liv. 42, 63, 11.—

3. With the accessory idea of activity or exertion, to sustain the charge of any undertaking or business, to administer, manage, regulate, rule, govern, conduct, carry on, wage, transact, accomplish, perform (cf.: facio, ago).—In pass. also in gen., to happen, take place, be done (hence, res gesta, a deed, and res gestae, events, occurrences, acts, exploits; v. the foll.): tertium gradum agendi esse dicunt, ubi quid faciant; “in eo propter similitudinem agendi et faciundi et gerundi quidam error his, qui putant esse unum. Potest enim aliquid facere et non agere, ut poëta facit fabulam et non agit: contra actor agit et non facit. ... Contra imperator quod dicitur res gerere, in eo neque facit neque agit, sed gerit, id est sustinet, translatum ab his qui onera gerunt, quod hi sustinent,” Varr. L. L. 6, § 77 Müll.: “omnia nostra, quoad eris Romae, ita gerito, regito, gubernato, ut nihil a me exspectes,” Cic. Att. 16, 2, 2: “gerere et administrare rem publicam,” id. Fin. 3, 20, 68; cf. id. Rep. 2, 1 and 12: “rem publicam,” id. ib. 1, 7; 1, 8; id. Fam. 2, 7, 3 et saep.: “magistratum,” id. Sest. 37, 79; cf. “potestatem,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 55, § 138: “consulatum,” id. Agr. 1, 8, 25; id. Sest. 16, 37: “duumviratum,” id. ib. 8, 19: “tutelam alicujus,” Dig. 23, 2, 68; 27, 1, 22 al.: multi suam rem bene gessere et publicam patria procul, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6, 1 (Trag. v. 295 Vahl.); so, “rem, of private affairs,” Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 34; Cic. de Sen. 7, 22 al.: “aliquid per aes et libram gerere,” to transact by coin and balance, Gai. Inst. 3, 173; cf. Weissenb. ad Liv. 6, 14.—Of war: etsi res bene gesta est, Enn. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 42, 168 (Ann. v. 512 Vahl.): vi geritur res, id. ap. Gell. 20, 10 (Ann. v. 272 ib.); cf.: “gladiis geri res coepta est,” Liv. 28, 2, 6: “ubi res ferro geratur,” id. 10, 39, 12: qui rem cum Achivis gesserunt statim, Enn. ap. Non. 393, 14 (Trag. v. 39 Vahl.); cf. Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 84: “Alexander ... passurus gestis aequanda pericula rebus,” exploits, Juv. 14, 314: “miranda quidem, sed nuper gesta referemus,” id. 15, 28.—Of public affairs, affairs of government: “magnae res temporibus illis a fortissimis viris summo imperio praeditis, dictatoribus atque consulibus, belli domique gerebantur,” Cic. Rep. 2, 32 fin.; 2, 24: “a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit,” id. de Sen. 6, 15; cf. § 17: quid quod homines infima fortuna, nulla spe rerum gerendarum (public business), opifices denique, delectantur historia? maximeque eos videre possumus res gestas (public events or occurrences) audire et legere velle, qui a spe gerendi absunt, confecti senectute, id. Fin. 5, 19, 52: “sin per se populus interfecit aut ejecit tyrannum, est moderatior, quoad sentit et sapit et sua re gesta laetatur,” their deed, id. Rep. 1, 42: “ut pleraque senatus auctoritate gererentur,” id. ib. 2, 32; cf. id. ib. 1, 27: “haec dum Romae geruntur,” id. Quint. 6, 28: “ut iis, qui audiunt, tum geri illa fierique videantur,” id. de Or. 2, 59, 241: “susceptum negotium,” id. Fam. 13, 5, 1; cf.: “si ipse negotium meum gererem, nihil gererem, nisi consilio tuo,” id. Att. 13, 3, 1: “negotium bene, male, etc.,” id. Rosc. Com. 11, 32; id. Cat. 2, 10, 21; Caes. B. G. 3, 18, 5 et saep.; cf.: “quid negotii geritur?” Cic. Quint. 13, 42: annos multos bellum gerentes summum summā industriā, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 Vahl.); cf.: “bello illo maximo, quod Athenienses et Lacedaemonii summa inter se contentione gesserunt,” Cic. Rep. 1, 16; so, “bella,” id. ib. 5, 2: pacem an bellum gerens, v. Andrews and Stoddard's Gram. § 323, 1 (2); Sall. J. 46 fin.: “bella multa felicissime,” Cic. Rep. 2, 9: “bellum cum aliquo,” id. Sest. 2, 4; id. Div. 1, 46, 103; Caes. B. G. 1, 1, 4 et saep.: “bello gesto,” Liv. 5, 43, 1: mea mater de ea re gessit morem morigerae mihi, performed my will, i. e. complied with my wishes, gratified, humored me, Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 87; cf.: “geram tibi morem et ea quae vis, ut potero, explicabo,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 17: morem alicui (in aliqua re), Enn. ap. Non. 342, 24 (Trag. v. 241 Vahl.): “sine me in hac re gerere mihi morem,” Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 74; Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 44; id. Men. 5, 2, 37; id. Mil. 2, 1, 58; Cic. Rep. 3, 5; id. N. D. 2, 1, 3; Ov. Am. 2, 2, 13 et saep.; also without dat., Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 36; Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 77.—Pass.: “ut utrique a me mos gestus esse videatur,” Cic. Att. 2, 16, 3; Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 69; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 108; id. Ad. 2, 2, 6; Nep. Them. 7, 3 al.—With a play upon this meaning and that in II. A.: magna, inquit, bella gessi: “magnis imperiis et provinciis praefui. Gere igitur animum laude dignum,” Cic. Par. 5, 2, 37.—Absol.: “cum superiores alii fuissent in disputationibus perpoliti, quorum res gestae nullae invenirentur, alii in gerendo probabiles, in disserendo rudes,” Cic. Rep. 1, 8; cf. “the passage,” id. Fin. 5, 19, 52 supra: “Armeniam deinde ingressus prima parte introitus prospere gessit,” Vell. 2, 102, 2 (where others unnecessarily insert rem), Liv. 25, 22, 1; cf. “also: sive caesi ab Romanis forent Bastarnae ... sive prospere gessissent,” id. 40, 58 fin.: “cum Persis et Philippus qui cogitavit, et Alexander, qui gessit, hanc bellandi causam inferebat, etc.,” Cic. Rep. 3, 9.—

4. Of time, to pass, spend (mostly post-Aug.; not in Cic.): ut (Tullia) cum aliquo adolescente primario conjuncta aetatem gereret, Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 3; cf.: “pubertatis ac primae adolescentiae tempus,” Suet. Dom. 1: “vitam,” Petr. 63; Val. Fl. 6, 695: “annum gerens aetatis sexagesimum et nonum,” Suet. Vesp. 24.—Hence, gĕrens , entis, P. a. (acc. to II. B. 3.), managing, conducting, etc.; with gen.: “rei male gerentes,” Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 43: “sui negotii bene gerens,” Cic. Quint. 19, 62.

 

102 sŭpīnus , a, um, adj. from sub; cf. ὕπτιος, from ὑπό, ὑπαί,

I. backwards, bent backwards, thrown backwards, lying on the back, supine (opp. pronus, cernuus).

I. Lit.

A. In gen. (freq. and class.), of persons: “stertitque supinus,” Hor. S. 1, 5, 19; Suet. Aug. 16; id. Claud. 33: pater excitat supinum juvenem, i. e in bed, Juv. 14, 190.—Of animals, parts of the body, etc.: “animal omne, ut vult, ita utitur motu sui corporis, prono, obliquo, supino,” Cic. Div. 1, 53, 120: “refracta videntur omnia converti sursumque supina reverti,” Lucr. 4, 441: “quid nunc supina sursum in caelum conspicis?” Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 78: “cubitus,” a lying on the back, Plin. 28, 4, 14, § 54: “caput,” thrown back, Quint. 11, 3, 69: “cervix,” id. 11, 3, 82: “vultus,” id. 1, 11, 9: “ora,” Cic. Univ. 14: “venter,” Hor. S. 1, 5, 85: “testudines,” Plin. 32, 4, 14, § 41: “apes,” id. 11, 8, 8, § 19: “pugnans falce supinā,” Juv. 8, 201: tendoque supinas Ad caelum cum voce manus, i. e. with the open palms turned upwards (a gesture of one praying), Verg. A. 3, 176; so, “manus,” Ov. M. 8, 681; Liv. 3, 50; 26, 9; Curt. 6, 6, 34; Suet. Vit. 7; Hor. C. 3, 23, 1; Quint. 11, 3, 99: “cornua aliis adunca, aliis redunca, supina, convexa,” Plin. 11, 37, 45, § 125: “cathedra,” an easy chair with an inclined back, id. 16, 37, 68, § 174: jactus, a throwing up, Liv. 30, 10, 13: signis supinis, lowered (opp. erectis), Spart. Sev. 7.— Comp.: “in arborum tonsurā supiniore,” Plin. 17, 23, 35, § 214. —

B. In partic.

1. Of motion, backwards, going back, retrograde (poet.): “nec redit in fontes unda supina suos,” Ov. Med. Fac. 40: “cursus fluminum,” id. P. 4, 5, 43: “carmen,” i. e. that can be read backwards in the same metre, Mart. 2, 86, 1.—

2. Of localities.

a. Sloping, inclined (not in Cic.; “syn. declivis): tabulae scheda,” Plin. 13, 12, 23, § 77: “scandenti circa ima labor est ... si haec jam lenius supina evaseris,” Quint. 12, 10, 79: “per supinam vallem fusi,” Liv. 4, 46, 5; 6, 24, 3; 7, 24, 5: “sin tumulis adclive solum collisque supinos (metabere),” Verg. G. 2, 276: “per supina camporum,” undulating, Amm. 22, 15, 7. —

b. Stretched out, extended: “Tibur,” Hor. C. 3, 4, 23: “solum,” Plin. Pan. 30, 4: “mare,” Plin. 9, 2, 1, § 2: “vindemia,” id. 17, 22, 35, § 185. —

II. Trop. (poet. and in post-Aug. prose).

A. Of the mind.

1. Careless, thoughtless, heedless, negligent, indolent, supine: “otiosi et supini (oratores),” Quint. 10, 2, 17 Spald.: “supini securique,” id. 11, 3, 3; Dig. 18, 1, 15: “animus,” Cat. 17, 25: “Maecenas,” Juv. 1, 66: “auris,” Mart. 6, 42, 22: “compositio (with tarda),” Quint. 9, 4, 137: “ignorantia,” Dig. 22, 6, 6; Quint. 12, 10, 79. — Comp.: “deliciae supiniores,” Mart. 2, 6, 13. —

2. With head thrown back, haughty, proud: “haec et talia dum refert supinus,” Mart. 5, 8, 10; Pers. 1, 129.—

B. In later gram. lang. sŭpīnum (sc. verbum).

1. The verbal form in um and u, the supine (perh. because, although furnished with substantive case-endings, it rests or falls back on the verb), Charis. p. 153 P.; Prisc. p. 811 ib. (called in Quint. 1, 4, 29, verba participialia).—

2. The verbal form in andum and endum, the gerund, Charis. p. 153 P.; Prisc. p. 823 ib. — Hence, * adv.: sŭpīnē (acc. to II. A. 1.), carelessly, negligently: “beneficium accipere,” Sen. Ben. 2, 24, 3.

103 oblīquus (oblīcus , v. Orthogr. Vergl. p. 449 Wagner), a, um, adj. ob and liquus; root lek-; Gr. λέχριος, λέχρις, slantwise (cf.: λοξός, Λοξίας); Lat. licinus, limus, luxus, luxare,

I. sidelong, slanting, awry, oblique (freq. and class.; cf.: transversus, imus).

I. Lit.: “motus corporis, pronus, obliquus, supinus,” Cic. Div. 1, 53, 120: “hos partim obliquos, partim aversos, partim etiam adversos stare vobis,” on one side of you, sideways, id. Rep. 6, 19, 20: “obliquo claudicare pede,” Ov. Am. 2, 17, 20: “sublicae,” Caes. B. G. 4, 17: “ordines,” id. ib. 7, 73: “iter,” id. B. C. 1, 70: “obliquam facere imaginem,” a side-likeness, profile, Plin. 35, 10, 36, § 90: “chordae,” i. e. of the triangular harp, Juv. 3, 64: “verris obliquum meditantis ictum Sanguine donare,” Hor. C. 3, 22, 7: “obliquo dente timendus aper,” Ov. H. 4, 104: “rex aquarum cursibus obliquis fluens,” id. M. 9, 18: “radix,” id. ib. 10, 491: “obliquo capite speculari,” Plin. 8, 24, 36, § 88: “non istic obliquo oculo mea commoda quisquam Limat,” with a sidelong glance, an envious look, Hor. Ep. 1, 14, 37: “non obliquis oculis sed circumacto capite cernere,” Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 151: “obliquoque notat Proserpina vultu,” Stat. S. 2, 6, 102.— Adverbial phrases: ab obliquo, ex obliquo, per obliquum, in obliquum, obliquum, from the side, sideways, not straight on: “ab obliquo,” Ov. R. Am. 121: “nec supra ipsum nec infra, sed ex obliquo,” Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99: “serpens per obliquum similis sagittae Terruit mannos,” Hor. C. 3, 27, 6: “cancri in obliquom aspiciunt,” Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 152: obliquum, obliquely, askance: “oculis obliquum respiciens,” App. M. 3, p. 140.—Comp.: “quia positio signiferi circa media sui obliquior est,” Plin. 2, 77, 79, § 188.—

II. Fig.

A. Of relationship, not direct, collateral (poet. and late Lat.): “obliquum a patre genus,” i. e. not born of the same mother with myself, Stat. Th. 5, 221: “obliquo maculat qui sanguine regnum,” by collateral consanguinity, Luc. 8, 286; cf.: “tertio gradu veniunt ... ex obliquo fratris sororisque filius,” Paul. Sent. 4, 11, 3.—

B. Of speech.

1. Indirect, covert: “obliquis orationibus carpere aliquem,” Suet. Dom. 2: “insectatio,” Tac. A. 14, 11: “dicta,” Aur. Vict. Epit. 9: “verba,” Amm. 15, 5, 4.—

2. In a bad sense, envious, hostile (post-class.): “Cato adversus potentes semper obliquus,” Flor. 4, 2, 9.—

3. In gram.

a. Obliquus casus, an oblique case (i. e. all the cases except the nom. and voc.), opp. rectus: “alia casus habent et rectos et obliquos,” Varr. L. L. 8, § 49 Müll.—

b. Obliqua oratio, indirect speech: apud historicos reperiuntur obliquae allocutiones, ut in T. Livii primo statim libro (c. 9): urbes quoque, ut cetera, ex infimo nasci; “deinde, etc.,” Quint. 9, 2, 37: “oratio,” Just. 38, 3, 11.— Hence, adv.: oblīquē , sideways, athwart, obliquely.

A. Lit. (class.): “quae (atomi) recte, quae oblique ferantur,” Cic. Fin. 1, 6, 20: “sublicae oblique agebantur,” Caes. B. G. 4, 17, 9: procedere. Plin. 9, 30, 50, § 95: “situs signifer,” id. 2, 15, 13, § 63.—

B. Trop., indirectly, covertly (post-Aug.): “aliquem castigare,” Tac. A. 3, 35: “perstringere aliquem,” id. ib. 5, 2: “admonere,” Gell. 3, 2, 16: “agere,” id. 7, 17, 4.

104 gĕnus , ĕris, n. = γένος, root GEN, gigno, gens,

I. birth, descent, origin; and concr., a race, stock, etc. (cf.: familia, gens, stirps).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: bono genere gnati, Cato ap. Gell. 10, 3, 17; cf.: “ii, qui nobili genere nati sunt,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 70, § 180: “amplissimo genere natus,” Caes. B. G. 4, 12, 4: “genere regio natus,” Cic. Rep. 1, 33: “C. Laelius, cum ei quidam malo genere natus diceret, indignum esse suis majoribus, at hercule, inquit, tu tuis dignus,” id. de Or. 2, 71, 286: “genere et nobilitate et pecunia sui municipii facile primus,” id. Rosc. Am. 6, 15: “esse genere divino,” id. Rep. 2, 2: “contempsisti L. Murenae genus, extulisti tuum,” id. Mur. 7, 15: “hic sacra, hic genus, hic majorum multa vestigia,” id. Leg. 2, 1, 3; cf. id. Brut. 58, 212; id. Rep. 1, 18: “adulescens, cujus spei nihil praeter genus patricium deesset,” Liv. 6, 34, 11: “in famam generis ac familiae,” Quint. 3, 11, 12; 5, 10, 24: “genus Lentulorum,” id. 6, 3, 67: “Atys, genus unde Atii duxere Latini,” Verg. A. 5, 568: “fortuna non mutat genus,” Hor. Epod. 4, 6: “virginem plebei generis petiere juvenes, alter virgini genere par, alter, etc.,” Liv. 4, 9, 4: “qui sibi falsum nomen imposuerit, genus parentesve finxerit, etc.,” Plaut. Sent. 5, 25, 11.—Plur.: “summis gnati generibus,” Plaut. Most. 5, 2, 20.—

B. In partic., birth, for high or noble birth (mostly poet.): “cum certi propter divitias aut genus aut aliquas opes rem publicam tenent, est factio,” Cic. Rep. 3, 14: pol mihi fortuna magis nunc defit quam genus, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 19, 44 (Trag. v. 394 Vahl.): “et genus et virtus, nisi cum re vilior alga est,” Hor. S. 2, 5, 8; cf.: “et genus et formam regina pecunia donat,” id. Ep. 1, 6, 37: “non, Torquate, genus, non te facundia, non te Restituet pietas,” id. C. 4, 7, 23: “jactes et genus et nomen inutile,” id. ib. 1, 14, 13; cf.: “cui genus et quondam nomen natique fuissent,” Verg. A. 5, 621: “nunc jam nobis patribus vobisque plebei promiscuus consulatus patet, nec generis, ut ante, sed virtutis est praemium,” Liv. 7, 32, 14; cf. id. 4, 4, 7.

II. Transf.

A. Like gens and stirps, a descendant, offspring, child; and collect., descendants, posterity, race (poet.): neve tu umquam in gremium extollas liberorum ex te genus, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 46, 155 (Trag. v. 347 Vahl.): “credo equidem, genus esse deorum,” Verg. A. 4, 12: “Uraniae genus, Hymen,” i. e. her son, Cat. 61, 2: “audax Iapeti,” i. e. his son Prometheus, Hor. C. 1, 3, 27: “Jovis,” i. e. Perseus, Ov. M. 4, 609; cf. also Prop. 2, 2, 9; Hor. C. 2, 14, 18: “genus Adrasti,” i. e. Diomede, grandson of Adrastus, Ov. F. 6, 433; “so of a grandson,” id. M. 2, 743; cf. “nepotum,” Hor. C. 3, 17, 4: “Tantali genus,” id. ib. 2, 18, 37: “Danai,” id. ib. 2, 14, 18: “Messi clarum genus Osci,” id. S. 1, 5, 54: “ab alto Demissum genus Aenea,” i. e. Octavianus, as the adopted son of Julius Cœsar, id. ib. 2, 5, 63: “sive neglectum genus et nepotes Respicis auctor,” i. e. the Romans, id. C. 1, 2, 35; cf. ib. 3, 6, 18: “regium genus,” id. ib. 2, 4, 15. —

B. Of an assemblage of objects (persons, animals, plants, inanimate or abstract things) which are related or belong together in consequence of a resemblance in natural qualities; a race, stock, class, sort, species, kind (in this signif. most freq. in all periods and kinds of writing).

1. In gen.

a. Of living things: ne genus humanum temporis longinquitate occideret, propter hoc marem cum femina esse coniunctum, Cic. ap. Col. 12, 1 (Fragm. Cic. 1, 5 Baiter): “quod ex infinita societate generis humani ita contracta res est, etc.,” of the human race, Cic. Lael. 5, 20; cf. id. Rep. 1, 2 fin.: “o deorum quicquid in caelo regit Terras et humanum genus,” Hor. Epod. 5, 2; “for which: consulere generi hominum,” Cic. Rep. 3, 12; cf.: “cum omni hominum genere,” id. ib. 2, 26; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 7: “solivagum genus,” Cic. Rep. 1, 25: potens vir cum inter sui corporis homines tum etiam ad plebem, quod haudquaquam inter id genus contemptor ejus habebatur, i. e. among the Plebeians, Liv. 6, 34, 5: Graium genus, the Grecian race, Enn. ap. Prob. ad Verg. E. 6, 31 (Ann. v. 149 Vahl.): “virtus est propria Romani generis atque seminis,” Cic. Phil. 4, 5, 13; cf. id. Ac. 2, 27, 86: “Ubii, paulo quam sunt ejusdem generis et ceteris humaniores,” Caes. B. G. 4, 3, 3; cf. “also: impellit alios (Aeduos) iracundia et temeritas, quae maxime illi hominum generi est innata,” race of men, id. ib. 7, 42, 2; so, like gens, of nations, peoples, tribes: ferox, Sall. Fragm. ap. Arus. Mess. s. v. insolens, p. 241 Lind. (Hist. 1, 14 Gerl.); Liv. 34, 7, 6: “implacidum (Genauni),” Hor. C. 4, 14, 10: “durum ac velox (Ligures),” Flor. 2, 3, 4: “omne in paludes diffugerat,” id. 3, 10, 14: “Graecorum,” Cic. Fl. 4, 9: “Numidarum,” Liv. 30, 12, 18: “genus omne nomenque Macedonum,” id. 13, 44, 6; Nep. Reg. 2: “Italici generis multi mortales,” Sall. J. 47, 1: “Illyriorum,” Liv. 27, 32, 4; 27, 48, 10; 42, 47 fin.: “Scytharum,” Just. 2, 3, 16; Tac. H. 2, 4; Suet. Ner. 37; Vell. 2, 118, 1.—In plur.: “conventus is, qui ex variis generibus constaret,” Caes. B. C. 2, 36, 1: “olim isti fuit generi quondam quaestus apud saeclum prius ... est genus hominum, qui se primos esse omnium rerum volunt,” class of men, profession, Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 15 and 17: “firmi et stabiles et constantes (amici), cujus generis est magna penuria,” Cic. Lael. 17, 62: “saepius genus ejus hominis (sc. procuratoris rei publicae) erit in reliqua nobis oratione tractandum,” id. Rep. 2, 29 fin.; cf.: “genus aliud tyrannorum,” id. ib. 1, 44: “judicum genus et forma,” id. Phil. 5, 5, 13: “istius generis asoti,” id. Fin. 2, 8, 23; cf.: “omnium ejus generis poëtarum haud dubie proximus,” Quint. 10, 1, 85: “liberrimum hominum,” id. 10, 12, 2, § 22: “irritabile vatum,” Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 102: “hoc omne (ambubajarum, etc.),” id. S. 1, 2, 2: “hominum virile, muliebre,” Cic. Inv. 1, 24, 35: “equidem fabulam et fictam rem ducebam esse, virorum omne genus in aliqua insula conjuratione muliebri ab stirpe sublatum esse,” Liv. 34, 2, 3: “cedat consulari generi praetorium,” Cic. Planc. 6, 15: “ad militare genus = ad milites,” Liv. 24, 32, 2: “alia militaris generis turba,” id. 44, 45, 13: “castellani, agreste genus,” id. 34, 27, 9 Weissenb. ad loc.—Sing. with plur. predicate: “Ministrantibus sibi omni genere turpium personarum,” Capitol. Ver. 4.—In plur.: “eorum hominum ... genera sunt duo,” Caes. B. G. 6, 13, 1: “tria auditorum,” Quint. 3, 4, 6.— Repeated in the relative-clause: “duo genera semper in hac civitate fuerunt ... quibus ex generibus,” Cic. Sest. 45, 96.—In the acc., of description (v. Roby's Gram. 2, p. 42 sq.): “quot et quod genus pastores habendi,” of what kind, Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1: “quod genus ii sunt, etc.,” Auct. Her. 2, 30, 48; cf. in the foll.—

(b). Of animals, plants, etc.: genus altivolantum, the race of birds, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 84 Vahl.); cf.: genu' pennis condecoratum, id. Fragm. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 59: “lanigerum, id. Fragm. ap. Paul. ex Fest. s. v. Cyprio, p. 59 Müll.: squamigerum,” Lucr. 1, 162; cf. “piscium,” Hor. C. 1, 2, 9: “silvestre,” Lucr. 5, 1411: “omne ferarum,” id. 5, 1338: “acre leonum,” id. 5, 862: “malefici generis plurima animalia,” Sall. J. 17, 6: “diversum confusa genus panthera camelo,” Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 195: “animantūm propagare genus,” to propagate the race, Lucr. 1, 195: “ad genus faciendum,” Just. 2, 9 fin.: “juxta genus suum,” Vulg. Gen. 1, 11 saep.— Plur.: “quae vero et quam varia genera bestiarum vel cicurum vel ferarum!” Cic. N. D. 2, 39, 99: “piscium genera,” Quint. 5, 10, 21.—In the acc., of description: “porticus avibus omne genus oppletae,” Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 11: “pascuntur omne genus objecto frumento,” id. ib. 3, 6: “boves et id genus pecua,” App. M. 2, p. 115, 4; id. Flor. p. 37. —

b. Of inanim. and abstr. things, kind, sort, description, class, order, character: “genus ullum materiaï,” Lucr. 2, 304: “cum is (sol) quoque efficiat, ut omnia floreant et in suo quaeque genere pubescant,” Cic. N. D. 2, 15, 41: “naves omni genere armorum ornatissimae,” Caes. B. G. 3, 14, 2: “cibi genus,” id. ib. 4, 1, 9: “cum omni genere commeatus,” Liv. 30, 36, 2: “frugum,” id. 38, 15, 9: “hoc sphaerae genus,” Cic. Rep. 1, 14: “hoc triplex rerum publicarum genus,” id. ib. 2, 23: “regale civitatis,” id. ib.; cf.: “totum regiae civitatis,” id. ib. 2, 29: “novum imperii,” id. ib. 2, 32: “ipsum istud genus orationis exspecto,” id. ib. 1, 24 fin.; cf.: dulce orationis, id. Or. 13, 42: “qua re esset hoc bellum genere ipso necessarium,” id. de Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; cf.: “genus hoc erat pugnae, quo, etc.,” Caes. B. G. 1, 48, 4: “potestas annua (consulum) genere ipso ac jure regia,” Cic. Rep. 2, 32: “genus vitae ... genus aetatis,” id. Off. 1, 32, 117: “optimum emendandi,” Quint. 10, 4, 2: “dicendi,” Cic. Off. 1, 1, 3; Quint. 8, 3, 56; 12, 10, 69: “simplex rectumque loquendi,” id. 9, 3, 3: “omnis generis tormenta,” Liv. 32, 16, 10: “praeda ingens omnis generis,” id. 27, 5, 9; so, “omnis generis, with tela,” id. 38, 26, 4; “with naves,” id. 34, 8, 5; “with eloquentia,” id. 39, 40, 7, etc.—Repeated in the relative-clause: “erat haec (ratio) ex eodem genere, quod ego maxime genus ex sociorum litteris reperire cupiebam,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 74, § 183.—In plur.: “Caesar haec genera munitionis instituit,” Caes. B. G. 7, 72, 1: “disserere de generibus et de rationibus civitatum,” Cic. Rep. 2, 11; cf. id. ib. 1, 26; “28: genera juris institutorum, morum consuetudinumque describere,” id. ib. 3, 10: “genera furandi,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 7, § 18.—In the acc., of description: omne, hoc, id, quod genus, for omnis, ejus, hujus, cujus generis, of every, of this, of which kind: “sub urbe hortum omne genus, coronamenta omne genus,” Cato, R. R. 8, 2; Varr. R. R. 1, 29, 1: “omne genus simulacra feruntur,” Lucr. 4, 735: “si hoc genus rebus non proficitur,” Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 23; id. L. L. 9, § 110 Müll.; Lucr. 6, 917 and Hor. S. 2, 6, 44: “in id genus verbis,” Varr. L. L. 10, § 79; 8, 7, 108, § 17: “in id genus libris,” Gell. 3, 8, 1: “scis me ante orationes aut aliquid id genus solitum scribere,” Cic. Att. 13, 12, 3: “vitanda sunt illa, quae propinqua videntur: quod genus, fidentiae contrarium est diffidentia, etc.,” for example, id. Inv. 2, 54, 165; so ib. 2, 52, 157; 2, 54, 162; 2, 57, 172; Lucr. 4, 271; 6, 1058: “lege jus est id quod populi jussu sanctum est, quod genus: ut in jus eas cum voceris,” Auct. Her. 2, 13, 19; cf. “ib. sqq.— In gen.: i. q. res or aliquid: ut in omni genere hujus populi (Graeci) consuetudinem videretur imitatus,” in all respects, in everything, Cic. Rep. 2, 20; cf.: “innumerabiles res sunt, in quibus te quotidie in omni genere desiderem,” id. Q. Fr. 2, 2 fin.: “incredibile est, quam me in omni genere delectarit,” id. Att. 16, 5, 2: “medici assiduitas et tota domus in omni genere diligens,” id. ib. 12, 33, 2; “7, 1, 2: qui in aliquo genere aut inconcinnus aut multus est, is ineptus dicitur,” in any respect whatever, id. de Or. 2, 4, 17: “qua de re et de hoc genere toto pauca cognosce,” id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 2, § 4.—Adverb.: in genus, in general, generally: “sermones in genus communes,” Gell. 4, 1 fin.—

2. In partic.

a. In philos. lang., opp. partes, and comprising them within itself, a general term, logical genus: “genus est id, quod sui similes communione quadam, specie autem differentes, duas aut plures complectitur partes,” Cic. de Or. 1, 42, 189; cf.: genus est, quod plures partes amplectitur, ut animal; “pars est, quae subest generi, ut equus. Sed saepe eadem res alii genus, alii pars est: nam homo animalis pars est, Thebani aut Trojani genus,” id. de Inv. 1, 22, 32: genus est, quod partes aliquas amplectitur, ut cupiditas; “pars est, quae subest generi, ut cupiditati amor, avaritia,” id. ib. 1, 28, 42; cf. “also: genus est notio ad plures differentias pertinens,” id. Top. 7, 31: “nec vero sine philosophorum disciplina genus et speciem cujusque rei cernere neque eam definiendo explicare nec tribuere in partes possumus, etc.,” id. Or. 4, 16; cf. ib. 33, 117: “formae dicendi specie dispares, genere laudabiles,” id. de Or. 3, 9, 34: “perturbationes sunt genere quatuor, partibus plures,” id. Tusc. 3, 11, 24; cf. ib. 5, 25, 71: “et conjuncta quaeremus, et genera et partes generibus subjectas, et similitudines, etc.,” id. de Or. 2, 39, 166; “opp. species and pars,” Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 3.—

b. In gram., gender: transversi sunt (ordines) qui ab recto casu obliqui declinantur, ut albus, albi, albo; “directi sunt, qui ab recto casu in rectos declinantur, ut albus, alba, album. Transversorum ordinum partes appellantur casus, directorum genera: utrisque inter se implicatis forma,” Varr. L. L. 10, § 22 Müll.: “quod ad verborum temporalium rationem attinet, cum partes sint quatuor: temporum, personarum, generum, divisionum, etc.,” ib. 9, § 95: “in nominibus tria genera,” Quint. 1, 4, 23: “barbarismum fieri per numeros aut genera,” id. 1, 5, 16; “9, 3, 6: in verbis quoque quis est adeo imperitus, ut ignoret genera et qualitates, etc.,” id. 1, 4, 27.

105 sexus , ūs

I. abl. plur. sexibus, Spart. Hadr. 18, 10 al.; “but sexubus,” Jul. Val. Rer. G. Alex. 1, 36), m., or sĕcus , indecl. n. root sec- of seco; hence properly, a division, segment.

I. A sex, male or female (of men and beasts).

(a). Form sexus: “hominum genus et in sexu consideratur, virile an muliebre sit,” Cic. Inv. 1, 24, 35; cf.: “natus ambiguo inter marem ac feminam sexu infans,” Liv. 27, 11; and: mare et femineum sexus, App de Mundo, c. 20, p. 66 med.: “feminarum sexus,” Plin. 7, 52, 53, § 175: virilis sexus, Pac. ap. Fest. p. 334 Müll. (Trag. Rel. p. 70 Rib.); Plin. 10, 55, 76, § 154 orbus virili sexu, Afran. ap. Fest. l. l. (Com. Rel. p. 166 Rib.): “liberi sexūs virilis,” Suet. Aug. 101; Front. Strat. 1, 11, 6: “puberes virilis sexūs,” Liv. 26, 34: “tres (liberi) sexūs feminini,” Suet. Calig. 7; cf. Plin. 27, 2, 2, § 4; cf.: “juvenes utriusque sexūs,” Suet. Aug. 31: “liberi,” id. ib. 100; id. Vit. 6; id. Tib. 43: “sine ullo sexūs discrimine,” id. Calig. 8; Tac. A. 16, 10 fin. et saep.—Plur.: (συνεζευγμένον) jungit et diversos sexus, ut cum marem feminamque filios dicimus, Quint. 9, 3, 63: “lavacra pro sexibus separavit,” Spart. Hadr. 18 fin.—

(b). Form secus (in the poets and historians, in the latter usually virile or muliebre secus, as an acc. resp. or limiting accusative, equivalent to the genitive or ablative of quality; v. Zumpt, Lat. Gram. § 428, for the preceding virilis sexūs, the male sex): “filiolam ego unam habui, Virile secus numquam ullum habui,” Plaut. Rud. 1, 2, 19: virile secus, Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 5: “quod ejus virile secus futurum est,” Varr. ib. 3, 10, 7: “secus muliebre,” Aus. Idyll. 11, 8: “puerile,” id. Epigr. 70, 6: virile ac muliebre secus populi multitudo, Sisenn. ap. Non. 222, 27: concurrentium undique virile et muliebre secus, Sall. H. Fragm. ib. 25; and in Macr. S. 2, 9 (p. 228 Gerl.): “ut Philippi statuae ... item majorum ejus virile ac muliebre secus omnium tollerentur, Liv 31, 44, 4: multitudinem obsessorum omnis aetatis, virile ac muliebre secus,” Tac. H. 5, 13: “praedas hominum virile et muliebre secus agebant,” Amm. 29, 6, 8 et saep.: “liberorum capitum virile secus ad decem milia capta,” Liv. 26, 47, 1: “athletarum spectaculo muliebre secus omnes adeo summovit, ut, etc.,” Suet. Aug. 44 fin.: “destinatum Lacedaemoniis omnes virile secus interficere,” Front. Strat. 1, 11, 6.—Rarely as nom.: “affluxere avidi talium ... virile ac muliebre secus, omnis aetas,” Tac. A. 4, 62: “tres ordine partae, Vesta, Ceres et Juno, secus muliebre, sorores,” Aus. Idyll. 11, 7; “or as object of a verb: cur ex his unum secus virile designet,” Arn. 1, 59; 5, 25: promiscue virile et muliebre secus trucidabant, Amm. 16, 11, 9; 27, 10, 2.—

II. Transf.

A. A sex, of plants and minerals, Plin. 13, 4, 7, § 31; 12, 14, 32, § 61; 36, 16, 25, § 128; 36, 21, 39, § 149.—

B. The sexual organs, Plin. 22, 8, 9, § 20; Lact. 1, 21, 16.

106 mascŭlīnus , a, um, adj. masculus,

I. male, masculine; of human beings, animals, and plants (not in Cic.; perh. not ante-Aug.).

I. Lit.: “membra,” the male parts, Phaedr. 4, 14, 15: “facies,” App. M. 7, p. 190, 20: “rapa rotunda masculini sexus,” Plin. 19, 5, 25, § 75.—

II. Transf.

a. (Cf. masculus, II. B.) Manly, worthy of manhood: masculini viri, v. l. Quint. 5, 12, 20; al. leg. masculi.—

b. In gram., of gender, masculine: “masculina Graeca nomina,” Quint. 1, 5, 61: “ut si quaeratur, funis masculinum sit an femininum,” id. 1, 6, 3: masculino genere cor enuntiavit Ennius, Caesell. Vindex ap. Gell. 7, 2.—Hence, adv. (post-class.).

A. mascŭlīnē , in the masculine gender, Arn. 1, 36: masculine etiam dicebant frontem, Paul. ex Fest. p. 151 Müll.: “caelum masculine veteres dixerunt,” Charis. p. 55 P. —*

B. mascŭlīnĭter , in the masculine gender, Vet. Interpr. Iren. 1, 1.

107 vĭrīlis , e, adj. vir,

I. of or belonging to a man, manly, virile (cf.: mas, masculus).

I. Lit.

A. In respect of sex, male, masculine.

1. In gen.: virile et muliebre secus, Sall. Fragm. ap. Macr. S. 2, 9: “virile secus, i. e. puer,” Plaut. Rud. 1, 2, 19: “vestimentum,” id. Men. 4, 2, 97: “genus,” Lucr. 5, 1356: “semen,” id. 4, 1209: “stirps fratris,” Liv. 1, 3, 11: “vox,” Ov. M. 4, 382: “vultus,” id. ib. 3, 189: “coetus,” of men, id. ib. 3, 403; cf. balnea, Cato ap. Gell. 10, 3, 3: “flamma,” the love of a man, Ov. A. A. 1, 282.—

2. In partic.

a. In mal. part.: “pars,” Lucr. 6, 1209; cf. Col. 7, 11, 2.—As subst.: vĭrī-lia , ĭum, n., = membrum virile, Petr. 108; Plin. 20, 16, 61, § 169; 20, 22, 89, § 243.— Comp.: “qui viriliores videbantur,” Lampr. Heliog. 8 fin.—

b. In gram., of the masculine gender, masculine: “nomen,” Varr. L. L. 10, §§ 21 and 30 Müll.; Gell. 1, 7, 15; 11, 1, 4 al.—

B. In respect of strength, vigor, etc., manly, full-grown, arrived at the years of manhood: “conversis studiis aetas animusque virilis Quaerit opes, etc.,” Hor. A. P. 166: “ne forte seniles Mandentur juveni partes pueroque viriles,” the parts of fullgrown men, id. ib. 177: “pars magna domus tuae morietur cum ad virilem aetatem venerit,” Vulg. 1 Reg. 2, 33: “toga,” assumed by Roman youth in their sixteenth year, Cic. Lael. 1, 1; id. Sest. 69, 144; Liv. 26, 19, 5; 42, 34, 4 al.—Opp. to female garments: “sumpsisti virilem togam quam statim muliebrem stolam reddidisti,” Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 44.—

C. Transf., in jurid. lang., of or belonging to a person, that falls to a person or to each one in the division of inheritances: ut ex bonis ejus, qui, etc., virilis pars patrono debeatur, a proportionate part, an equal share with others, Gai Inst. 3, 42: “tota bona pro virilibus partibus ad liberos defuncti pertinere,” id. ib.: “virilis,” id. ib. 3, 70; Dig. 30, 1, 54, § 3; so, “virilis portio,” ib. 37, 5, 8 pr.; 31, 1, 70, § 2; Paul. Sent. 3, 2, 3.—

2. Transf., in gen.

(a). Virilis pars or portio, share, part, lot of a person: “est aliqua mea pars virilis, quod ejus civitatis sum, quam ille claram reddidit,” my part, my duty, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 37, § 81: “plus quam pars virilis postulat,” id. ib. 2, 3, 3, § “7: cum illius gloriae pars virilis apud omnes milites sit, etc.,” Liv. 6, 11, 5: “quem agrum miles pro parte virili manu cepisset, eum senex quoque vindicaret,” id. 3, 71, 7: “haec qui pro virili parte defendunt, optimates sunt,” i. e. to the utmost of their ability, as far as in them lies, Cic. Sest. 66, 138; so, “pro virili parte,” id. Phil. 13, 4, 8: “pro parte virili,” Liv. 10, 8, 4; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 23: “pro virili portione,” Tac. Agr. 45; id. H. 3, 20.—

(b). In other connections (poet.): “actoris partis chorus officiumque virile Defendat,” Hor. A. P. 193 Orell. ad loc. —

II. Trop., of quality, worthy of a man, manly, manful, firm, vigorous, bold, spirited, etc.: “veretur quicquam aut facere aut loqui, quod parum virile videatur,” Cic. Fin. 2, 14, 47: “laterum inflexio fortis ac virilis,” id. de Or. 3, 59, 220: “inclinatio laterum,” Quint. 1, 11, 18: “acta illa res est animo virili, consilio puerili,” Cic. Att. 14, 21, 3; so, “ingenium,” Sall. C. 20, 11: “vis ingenii (with solida),” Quint. 2, 5, 23: “audacia,” Just. 2, 12, 24: “oratio (with fortis),” Cic. de Or. 1, 54, 231; so, “compositio,” Quint. 2, 5, 9: “sermo,” id. 9, 4, 3: “ratio atque sententia,” Cic. Tusc. 3, 10, 22: “neque enim oratorius iste, immo hercle ne virilis quidem cultus est,” Tac. Or. 26.—As subst.: vĭrīlia , ĭum, n., manly deeds, Sall. H. 3, 61, 15 Dietsch.—Sup.: ALMIAE SABINAE MATRI VIRILISSIMAE, etc., Inscr. Grud. p. 148, n. 5.—Adv.: vĭrīlĭter , manfully, firmly, courageously (acc. to II.), Cic. Tusc. 2, 27, 65; id. Off. 1, 27, 94; Auct. Her. 4, 11, 16; Ov. F. 1, 479.—Comp.,, Sen. Contr. 5, 33 fin.; id. Brev. Vit. 6, 5.

108 fēmĭnīnus , a, um, adj. femina, in gram.,

I. of the feminine gender, feminine: “nomen,” Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 6; Quint. 1, 5, 54; 1, 6, 14 et saep.; cf.: “quae feminina positione mares significant,” id. 1, 4, 24: “funis masculinum sit an femininum,” id. 1, 4, 24: “sexus,” Dig. 2, 8, 2, § 3; Gai. Inst. 1, 130: persona, id. ib. 1, 150; 3, 24.—Adv.: fēmĭnīnē , femininely, of the feminine gender (postclass.), Arn. 1, 36; Charis. p. 55 P.; Fest. s. v. Petronia, p. 250, 15 Müll.

109 mŭlĭĕbris , e, adj. mulier,

I. of or belonging to a woman, womanly, female, feminine.

I. Adj. (class.): “loci muliebres, ubi nascendi initia consistunt,” Varr. L. L. 5, 3: “facinus,” Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 35: “comitatus,” Cic. Mil. 10, 28: “vox,” id. de Or. 3, 11, 41: “vestis,” Nep. Alc. 10, 6: “venustas,” Cic. Off. 1, 36, 130: “fraus,” Tac. A. 2, 71: “impotentia,” id. ib. 1, 4: “certamen, i. e. de mulieribus,” Liv. 1, 57: “jura,” id. 34, 3: “Fortuna Muliebris, worshipped in memory of the wife and mother of Coriolanus, who persuaded him to retreat,” Val. Max. 1, 8, 4; Liv. 2, 40.—

B. In a reproachful sense, womanish, effeminate, unmanly: parce muliebri supellectili. Mi. Quae ea est supellex? Ha. Clarus clamor sine modo, Plaut. Poen. 5, 3, 26 sq.: animum geritis muliebrem, Poët. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 18, 61 (Trag. Rel. p. 227 Rib.): “muliebris enervataque sententia,” Cic. Tusc. 2, 6, 15.—Gram. t. t., feminine (opp. virilis): “vocabulum,” Varr. L. L. 9, § 40 sq. Müll.—

II. Subst.: mŭlĭĕbrĭa , ĭum, n.

A. = pu denda muliebria, Tac. A. 14, 60: “muliebria pati,” to let one's self be used as a woman, id. ib. 11, 36.—

B. Womanish things: “muliebria cetera,” Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 17 = menstrua: “desierant Sarae fieri muliebria,” Vulg. Gen. 18, 11.—Hence, adv.: mŭlĭĕ-brĭter .

1. In the manner of a woman, like a woman: “nec muliebriter Expavit ensem,” Hor. C. 1, 37, 22: “ingemiscens,” Plin. 35, 11, 40, § 140: “flere,” Spart. Hadr. 14, 5: “Hunni equis muliebriter insidentes,” in the manner of women, Amm. 31, 2, 6.—

2. Womanishly, effeminately: si se lamentis muliebriter lacrimisque dedet. Cic. Tusc. 2, 21, 48: “ne quid serviliter muliebriterve faciamus,” id. ib. 2, 23, 55: “Antinăum suum muliebriter flere,” Spart. Hadr. 14, 5.

110 neuter , tra, trum

I. gen. neutri, Varr. L. L. 9, § 62, acc. to the MSS.; cf. §§ 55 and 58; Aus. Ep. 50; “and by grammarians always in the phrase neutri generis,” of the neuter gender, Charis. 13 P.; Diom. 277 P. al.; Serv. Verg. A. 1, 449; dat. sing. neutrae, acc. to Prisc. p. 678.—Collat. form, NECVTER, Inscr. Orell. 4859), adj. ne-uter, neither the one nor the other, neither of two: “ut neutri illorum quisquam esset me carior,” Cic. Att. 7, 1, 2: “in neutram partem moveri,” id. Ac. 2, 42, 130; id. Off. 2, 6, 20: “debemus neutrum eorum contra alium juvare,” Caes. B. C. 1, 35, 5: “quid bonum sit, quid malum, quid neutrum,” Cic. Div. 2, 4, 10; Ov. M. 4, 378: “ita fiet ut neutra lingua alteri officiat,” Quint. 1, 1, 14.—Repeated: “neuter neutri invidet,” Plaut. Stich. 5, 4, 49.—With verb in plur.: “ut caveres, neuter ad me iretis cum querimoniā,” Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 34: “quia neuter consulum potuerant bello abesse,” Liv. 9, 44, 2.—

(b). In plur.: “in quo neutrorum contemnenda est sententia,” Cic. Off. 1, 21, 70: “neutri alteros primo cernebant,” Liv. 21, 46, 4: “ita neutris cura posteritatis,” Tac. H. 1, 1: “in neutris partibus esse,” Sen. Ira, 2, 23: “neutris quicquam hostile facientibus,” Just. 6, 7, 1.—

II. In partic., in gram.: neutra nomina, of the neuter gender: “neutra (nomina or verba),” which are neither active nor passive, middle, Cic. Tusc. 4, 12, 28; id. Or. 46, 155; Gell. 1, 7, 15 et saep. —Hence,

A. Adv.: ‡ neutrē , neutrally; in neither way: neutre, οὐδετέρως, Gloss. Philox.—

B. neutrō , adv., to neither one side nor the other; to neither side, neither way: “neutro inclinatā spe,” Liv. 5, 26 fin.: “neutro inclinaverat fortuna,” Tac. H. 3, 23: “si neutro litis condicio praeponderet,” Quint. 7, 2, 39.

111 neutrālis , e, adj. neuter, in gram., of the gender of substantives,

I. neuter: “positio,” Quint. 1, 4, 24: “nomina,” id. 1, 5, 54 et saep.—Hence, adv.: neutrālĭter , as a neuter; Gellius fora navium neutraliter dixit, Charis. p. 55 P.

112 multĭtūdo , ĭnis, f. multus,

I. a great number, multitude (class.; cf.: copia, vis, magnitudo).

I. In gen.: “nationes, quae numero hominum ac multitudine ipsā poterant in provincias nostras redundare,” Cic. Prov. Cons. 12, 31: “navium,” Nep. Hann. 10, 4: argenti facti, Varr. ap. Non. 465, 27: “sacrificiorum,” Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 71.—

II. In partic.

A. Of people, a great number, a crowd, multitude: “tanta multitudo lapides ac tela conjiciebat, ut, etc.,” Caes. B. G. 2, 6; Nep. Milt. 3, 5; id. Arist. 1, 3: “multitudine domum circumdare,” Nep. Hann. 12, 4: “multitudine civium factiones valuere,” Sall. C. 51, 40: “prima lux mediocrem multitudinem ante moenia ostendit,” Liv. 7, 12, 3.—In plur., multitudes: “partim exquirebant duces multitudinum,” Sall. C. 50, 1.—

2. Of the common people, the crowd, the multitude (cf. turba): “ex errore imperitae multitudinis,” Cic. Off. 1, 19, 65: “sed multitudinem haec maxime allicit,” id. Fin. 1, 7, 25: “multitudinis judicium,” id. Tusc. 2, 26, 63; id. Clu. 29, 59; id. Sest. 58, 124: “credula,” Just. 2, 8, 9.—

B. In gram.: numerus multitudinis, or simply multitudo, the plural number, the plural: “quod alia vocabula singularia sint solum ut cicer, alia multitudinis solum ut scalae ... multitudinis vocabula sunt, etc.,” Varr. L. L. 9, § 63 Müll.: “cur mel et vinum, atque id genus cetera numerum multitudinis capiunt, lacte non capiat,” Gell. 19, 8, 13.—In plur., Varr. L. L. 9, § 65 Müll.

113 nŭmĕrus , i, m. Gr. νέμω, to distribute; cf.: numa, nemus, nummus,

I. a number.

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: “illi octo cursus septem efficiunt distinctos intervallis sonos: qui numerus rerum omnium fere nodus est,” Cic. Rep. 6, 18, 18; cf. Macr. Somn. Scip. 1, 6: “duo hi numeri,” Cic. Rep. 6, 12, 12: “consummare perfectissimum numerum, quem novem novies multiplicata componunt,” Sen. Ep. 58: “numerumque referri Jussit,” that their number should be counted, Verg. E. 6, 85; cf.: numerus argenteorum facilior usui est, the counting, reckoning. Tac. G. 5 fin.: sed neque quam multae species, nec nomina quae sint Est numerus; “neque enim numero conprendere refert,” cannot be counted, Verg. G. 2, 104: “eorumque nummorum vis et potestas non in numero erat, sed in pondere,” Gai. Inst. 1, 122.—

B. In partic.

1. A certain collective quantity, a body, number of persons or things: tunc deinceps proximi cujusque collegii ... in sortem coicerentur, quoad is numerus effectus esset, quem ad numerum in provincias mitti oporteret, S. C. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 8: “haec in Aeduorum finibus recensebantur numerusque inibatur,” Caes. B. G. 7, 76; Liv. 38, 22: “eum clavum, quia rarae per ea tempora litterae erant, notam numeri annorum fuisse ferunt,” Liv. 7, 3: “Pompilius ad pristinum numerum duo augures addidit,” Cic. Rep. 2, 14, 26: “haec enim sunt tria numero,” in number, altogether, id. de Or. 2, 28, 121: “classis mille numero navium,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 48: “oppida sua omnia, numero ad duodecim, incendunt,” Caes. B. G. 1, 5: “ad duorum milium numero ex Pompeianis cecidisse reperiebamus,” id. B. C. 3, 53: reliqui omnes, numero quadraginta, interfecti, Sall J. 53, 4; cf. id. ib. 93, 8: “cum magnus piratarum numerus deesset,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 28, § 72: “ad eorum numerum,” to the full number of them, id. ib. 2, 5, 28, § 73; id. Q. Fr. 2, 13; Caes. B. G. 5, 20: “si naves suum numerum haberent,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 51, § 133: “supra numerum,” superfluous, Suet. Ner. 15; id. Claud. 25: “magnus numerus frumenti,” a great quantity, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 72, § 176; cf. id. Planc. 26, 64; Caes. B. C. 2, 18: “vini,” Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 66; so without an adj., like the Engl. number, for a great number: “est (in eādem provinciā) numerus civium Romanorum atque hominum honestissimorum,” id. Font. 5, 13 (1, 3): “plures numero tuti,” Tac. A. 14, 49 fin.: “sed illos Defendit numerus,” Juv. 2, 46; cf. Verg. E. 7, 52: “latet in numero virtus,” Sil. 1, 323.—

2. In plur.: numeri, the mathematics, astronomy: “ut a sacerdotibus barbaris numeros et caelestia acciperet,” Cic. Fin. 5, 29, 87: “Thales hoc etiam numeris inquirit et astris,” Sid. 15, 79: “numerisque sequentibus astra,” Stat. Th. 4, 411. —Rarely in sing., Claud. Cons. Mall. 130.—

3. In milit. lang., a division of the army, a troop, band (post-Aug.): “sparsi per provinciam numeri,” Tac. Agr. 18; cf.: “plena urbs exercitu insolito: multi ad hoc numeri e Germaniā ac Britanniā,” id. H. 1, 6: “nondum distributi in numeros erant,” Plin. Ep. 10, 29 (38), 2: “revocare ad officium numeros,” Suet. Vesp. 6: “militares numeri,” cohorts, Amm. 14, 7, 19: “in numeris esse,” to be enrolled, Dig. 29, 1, 43; cf. ib. 29, 1, 38; Claud. Epith. Pall. et Celer. 86; Inscr. Grut. 1096. —

4. Like the Gr. ἀριθμός, a mere number, opp. to quality, worth: “nos numerus sumus et fruges consumere nati,” we are mere numbers, ciphers, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 27; cf. Juv. 2, 46 supra.—

5. In gram., a number (singular, plural, dual), Varr. L. L. 9, § 65 sq. Müll.; Quint. 1, 4, 27; 1, 5, 42; 47; 1, 6, 25 et saep. —

C. Transf., poet., dice (marked with numbers): “seu ludet numerosque manu jactabit eburnos,” Ov. A. A. 2, 203: “et modo tres jactet numeros,” id. ib. 3, 355; cf. Suet. Tib. 14, 2.—

II. Trop., number, rank, place, position, estimation, relation, class, category (cf.: “nomen, locus, in loco, in vicem): me adscribe talem (i. e. talium) in numerum,” Cic. Phil. 2, 13, 33: “in illo antiquorum hominum numero reponi,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210: “in deorum numero haberi,” id. N. D. 3, 19, 48: “reponere,” id. ib. 3, 3, 21: “referre,” id. ib. 3, 1, 12: “numero beatorum aliquem eximere,” Hor. C, 2, 2, 18: “si quo in numero illud, quod per similitudinem affertur, et quo in loco illud, cujus causā affertur, haberi conveniat, ostendetur,” Cic. Inv. 2, 50, 151; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 54, § 134: “ex hoc numero hunc esse,” id. Arch. 7, 16: “parentis numero alicui esse,” id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61 sq.: “in hostium numero habere aliquem,” Caes. B. G. 1, 28: “ducere in numero hostium,” id. ib. 6, 32: “hujus originis apud veteres numerus erat exilis,” Amm. 23, 6, 35: in numero esse, to be of the number of, to be reckoned among, to be any thing, Lucr. 5, 180: “Q. Aelius Tubero fuit illo tempore nullo in oratorum numero,” Cic. Brut. 31, 117: “sine actione summus orator esse in numero nullo potest,” id. de Or. 3, 56, 213: “quo sunt in numero Curiosolites, etc.,” Caes. B. G. 7, 75, 4; 3, 7, 2; Nep. Att. 1, 4: “quo in numero ego sum,” Cic. Fam. 13, 23, 1; Caes. B. C. 2, 44, 3; 3, 53, 2: “qui in eo numero fuisset,” Cic. Phil. 2, 11, 25; id. Fl. 4, 9; id. Fam. 7, 6, 1: “quo in numero hi quoque fuerunt,” Liv. 39, 36 fin.— Without in: “ut civium numero simus,” Liv. 4, 4, 12; 7, 30, 19; 30, 42, 9; 4, 56, 11; “36, 35, 9: aliquem hostium numero habere,” Caes. B. G. 6, 6, 3; id. B. C. 3, 82, 3; id. B. G. 6, 21, 2: “qui hostium numero non sunt,” Cic. Phil. 13, 5, 11; id. Brut. 20, 78: “aliquo numero esse,” to be of some repute, id. Fam. 1, 10; Caes. B. G. 6, 13, 1; cf. Cic. Or. 62, 208; id. de Or. 3, 9, 33: “Bambalio quidam, homo nullo numero,” of no account, Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16: “numerum aliquem obtinere,” id. Brut. 47, 175.—

B. A part of a whole, member, category: “omnes numeros virtutis continet,” Cic. Fin. 3, 7, 24: “varium et elegans omni fere numero poëma,” id. Ac. 1, 3, 9: “mundus perfectus expletusque omnibus suis numeris atque partibus,” id. N. D. 2, 13, 37: “animalia imperfecta suisque Trunca vident numeris,” Ov. M. 1, 427; 7, 126: “quid omnibus numeris praestantius?” Quint. 10, 1, 91: “liber numeris omnibus absolutus,” Plin. Ep. 9, 38; cf. of the days of the month: luna alternis mensibus XXX. implebit numeros, alternis vero detrahet singulos, Plin. 18, 32, 75, § 325.—Hence, omnium numerorum esse, to be complete, perfect, Petr. 68: “puer omnium numerūm,” id. ib. 63. And, on the contrary: “deesse numeris suis,” to be deficient, Ov. Am. 3, 8, 11.—

C. Order: “quaecumque in foliis descripsit carmina virgo, Digerit in numerum,” Verg. A. 3, 446.—

D. An office, duty, part: “ad numeros exige quidque suos,” Ov. R. Am. 372: “Veneri numeros eripere suos,” id. H. 4, 88; id. Am. 3, 7, 18; cf. id. ib. 3, 7, 26: “verae numeros modosque ediscere vitae,” Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 143.—

E. Musical measure, time, rhythm, harmony, numbers: “in numerum exsultant,” Lucr. 2, 631: “in musicis numeri, et voces et modi, etc.,” Cic. de Or. 1, 42, 187; Quint. 9, 4, 126: “histrio si paulum se movet extra numerum,” Cic. Par. 3, 2, 26; Quint. 12, 2, 12: “sit igitur hoc cognitum, in solutis etiam verbis inesse numeros,” Cic. Or. 56, 190: “Isocrates verbis solutis numeros primus adjunxit,” id. ib. 52, 174: “in solutā oratione ... modum tamen et numerum quendam oportere servari,” id. Brut. 8, 32: “multum interest, utrum numerosa sit, id est similis numerorum, an plane e numeris constet oratio,” id. Or. 65, 220: “redigere omnes fere in quadrum numerumque sententias,” id. ib. 61, 208.—Hence, quamvis nil extra numerum fecisse modumque Curas, nothing out of measure, improper, Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 59.—

2. A measure, number, in poetry: “nam cum sint numeri plures, iambum et trochaeum frequentem segregat ab oratore Aristoteles,” Cic. de Or. 3, 47, 182; id. Or. 64, 215: “numeris nectere verba,” Ov. P. 4, 2, 30; 4, 2, 5: “numeros memini, si verba tenerem,” i. e. the tune, Verg. E. 9, 45: “numerisque fertur Lege solutis,” Hor. C. 4, 2, 11.—

3. A verse, in gen. (poet.): “arma gravi numero violentaque bella parabam Edere,” i. e. verses in heroic metre, Ov. Am. 1, 1, 1: “impares,” i. e. elegiac verses, id. ib. 3, 1, 37.—Hence, nŭmĕrō (abl.), adverb., lit., measured according to number or time, i. e. precisely, exactly, just (only ante-class.; freq. in Plautus; not found in Ter. or Lucr.).

A. Just, precisely, at the right time, on the instant: numero mihi in mentem fuit. Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 25: neminem vidi, qui numero sciret, quod scitu est opus, Naev. ap. Fest. p. 170 Müll.—

B. Quickly, rapidly, soon: “numero significat cito,” Non. 352, 16 sq.: “(apes) si quando displicatae sunt, cymbalis et plausibus numero reducunt in locum unum,” Varr. R. R. 3, 16, 7. —With nimis: perfalsum et abs te creditum numero nimis, too quickly, too soon, Afran. ap. Paul. ex Fest. p. 170 Müll.: numquam nimis numero quemquam vidi facere, quam facto est opus, Turp. ap. Non. 352, 20.—

2. In a bad sense, too quickly, too hastily, too soon: “Menaechme, numero huc advenis ad prandium: Nunc opsonatu redeo,” Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 13: “numero dicis,” id. Cas. 3, 5, 28; id. Mil. 5, 1, 6: “o Apella, o Zeuxis pictor, Cur numero estis mortui, hinc exemplum ut pingeretis?” why have you died too soon? id. Poen. 5, 4, 102; Afran. ap. Non. 352, 26; id. ap. Paul. ex Fest. l. l.

114 singŭlāris , e, adj. singuli.

I. Lit.

A. In gen., one by one, one at a time, alone, single, solitary; alone of its kind, singular (class.; “syn.: unus, unicus): non singulare nec solivagum genus (sc. homines),” i. e. solitary, Cic. Rep. 1, 25, 39: “hostes ubi ex litore aliquos singulares ex navi egredientes conspexerant,” Caes. B. G. 4, 26: “homo,” id. ib. 7, 8, 3; so, “homo (with privatus, and opp. isti conquisiti coloni),” Cic. Agr. 2, 35, 97: “singularis mundus atque unigena,” id. Univ. 4 med.: “praeconium Dei singularis facere,” Lact. 4, 4, 8; cf. Cic. Ac. 1, 7, 26: “natus,” Plin. 28, 10, 42, § 153: “herba (opp. fruticosa),” id. 27, 9, 55, § 78: singularis ferus, a wild boar (hence, Fr. sanglier), Vulg. Psa. 79, 14: “hominem dominandi cupidum aut imperii singularis,” sole command, exclusive dominion, Cic. Rep. 1, 33, 50; so, “singulare imperium et potestas regia,” id. ib. 2, 9, 15: “sunt quaedam in te singularia ... quaedam tibi cum multis communia,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 88, § 206: “singulare beneficium (opp. commune officium civium),” id. Fam. 1, 9, 4: “odium (opp. communis invidia),” id. Sull. 1, 1: “quam invisa sit singularis potentia et miseranda vita,” Nep. Dion, 9, 5: “pugna,” Macr. S. 5, 2: “si quando quid secreto agere proposuisset, erat illi locus in edito singularis,” particular, separate, Suet. Aug. 72.—

B. In partic.

1. In gram., of or belonging to unity, singular: “singularis casus,” Varr. L. L. 7, § 33 Müll.; “10, § 54 ib.: numerus,” Quint. 1, 5, 42; 1, 6, 25; 8, 3, 20; Gell. 19, 8, 13: “nominativus,” Quint. 1, 6, 14: “genitivus,” id. 1, 6, 26 et saep. —Also absol., the singular number: “alii dicunt in singulari hac ovi et avi, alii hac ove et ave,” Varr. L. L. 8, § 66 Müll.; Quint. 8, 6, 28; 4, 5, 25 al.—

2. In milit lang., subst.: singŭlāris , is, m.

a. In gen., an orderly man (ordonance), assigned to officers of all kinds and ranks for executing their orders (called apparitor, Lampr. Alex. Sev. 52): “SINGVLARIS COS (consulis),” Inscr. Orell. 2003; cf. ib. 3529 sq.; 3591; 6771 al.—

b. Esp., under the emperors, equites singulares Augusti, or only equites singulares, a select horse body-guard (selected from barbarous nations, as Bessi, Thraces, Bæti, etc.), Tac. H. 4, 70; Hyg. m. c. §§ 23 and 30; Inscr. Grut. 1041, 12 al.; cf. on the Singulares, Henzen, Sugli Equiti Singolari, Roma, 1850; Becker, Antiq. tom. 3, pass. 2, p. 387 sq.—

3. In the time of the later emperors, singulares, a kind of imperial clerks, sent into the provinces, Cod. Just. 1, 27, 1, § 8; cf. Lyd. Meg. 3, 7.—

II. Trop., singular, unique, matchless, unparalleled, extraordinary, remarkable (syn.: unicus, eximius, praestans; “very freq. both in a good and in a bad sense): Aristoteles meo judicio in philosophiā prope singularis,” Cic. Ac. 2, 43, 132: “Cato, summus et singularis vir,” id. Brut. 85, 293: “vir ingenii naturā praestans, singularis perfectusque undique,” Quint. 12, 1, 25; so, “homines ingenio atque animo,” Cic. Div. 2, 47, 97: “adulescens,” Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 2.—Of things: “Antonii incredibilis quaedam et prope singularis et divina vis ingenii videtur,” Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 172: “singularis eximiaque virtus,” id. Imp. Pomp. 1, 3; so, “singularis et incredibilis virtus,” id. Att. 14, 15, 3; cf. id. Fam. 1, 9, 4: “integritas atque innocentia singularis,” id. Div. in Caecil. 9, 27: “Treviri, quorum inter Gallos virtutis opinio est singularis,” Caes. B. G. 2, 24: “Pompeius gratias tibi agit singulares,” Cic. Fam. 13, 41, 1; cf.: “mihi gratias egistis singularibus verbis,” id. Cat. 4, 3: “fides,” Nep. Att. 4: “singulare omnium saeculorum exemplum,” Just. 2, 4, 6.—In a bad sense: “nequitia ac turpitudo singularis,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 44, § 106; so, “nequitia,” id. ib. 2, 2, 54, § 134; id. Fin. 5, 20, 56: “impudentia,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 7, § 18: audacia (with scelus incredibile), id. Fragm. ap. Quint. 4, 2, 105: “singularis et nefaria crudelitas,” Caes. B. G. 7, 77.— Hence, adv.: singŭlārĭter (singlā-rĭter , Lucr. 6, 1067).

1. One by one, singly, separately.

a. In gen. (ante- and post-class.): “quae memorare queam inter se singlariter apta, Lucr. l. l. Munro (Lachm. singillariter): a juventā singulariter sedens,” apart, separately, Paul. Nol. Carm. 21, 727.—

b. In partic. (acc. to I. B. 1.), in the singular number: “quod pluralia singulariter et singularia pluraliter efferuntur,” Quint. 1, 5, 16; 1, 7, 18; 9, 3, 20: “dici,” Gell. 19, 8, 12; Dig. 27, 6, 1 al.—

2. (Acc. to II.) Particularly, exceedingly: “aliquem diligere,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 117: “et miror et diligo,” Plin. Ep. 1, 22, 1: “amo,” id. ib. 4, 15, 1.

115 ūnus (old forms OINOS and OENOS; cf. Cic. Leg. 3, 3, 9; C. I. L. 1, 32, 35), a, um

I. gen. sing. unĭus, Lucr. 2, 379; Verg. A. 1, 41; Hor. S. 1, 6, 13 al.: “unīus,” Verg. A. 1, 251; Ov. M. 13, 181 al.; ante-class. collat. form of the gen. sing. uni, Titin. ap. Prisc. pp. 694 and 717 P.; dat. m. uno, Varr. R. R. 1, 18, 6; dat. f. unae, Cato, R. R. 19, 1; acc. OINO, C. I. L. l. l.; voc. une, Plaut. ap. Prisc. p. 673 P.; Cat. 37, 17; cf. Varr. L. L. 8, § 63 Müll.; Aug. Conf. 1, 7), num. adj. cf. Gr. οἴνη, οἶος; Goth. ains; Germ. eins; Engl. one.

I. Prop.

A. In gen., one, a single.

1. Sing.: “dabitur tibi amphora una et una semita, Fons unus, unum aënum et octo dolia,” Plaut. Cas. 1, 33 sq.: “mulieres duas pejores esse quam unam,” id. Curc. 5, 1, 2: “pluris est oculatus testis unus, quam auriti decem,” id. Truc. 2, 6, 8: “unius esse negotium diei,” Caes. B. C. 3, 82: “mors Tiberii Gracchi ... divisit populum unum in duas partes,” Cic. Rep. 1, 19, 31: “cum penes unum est omnium summa rerum, regem illum unum vocamus,” id. ib. 1, 26, 42: “qui uno et octogesimo anno scribens est mortuus,” id. Sen. 5, 13; cf. Plin. 29, 6, 39, § 141.—Corresponding to alter: “Helvetii continentur unā ex parte flumine Rheno, alterā ex parte monte Jurā,” Caes. B. G. 1, 2: “unum, alterum, tertium annum Sassia quiescebat,” Cic. Clu. 64, 178; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 29, § 66; 2, 5, 29, § 76: “exercituum unus ... alter,” Liv. 24, 44, 1: “ratio triplex: una de vitā et moribus, altera de naturā,” Cic. Ac. 1, 5, 19: “cum duas cerneret vias, unam Voluptatis, alteram Virtutis,” id. Off. 1, 32, 118: “unam Nicaeam, alteram Bucephalen vocavit,” Just. 12, 8, 8; and, connected with alter: “habetur una atque altera contio vehemens,” repeated, several, Cic. Clu. 28, 77: “neque in uno aut altero animadversum est, sed jam in pluribus,” one or two, id. Mur. 21, 43: “meae verecundiae sufficit unus aut alter, ac potius unus,” Plin. Ep. 2, 13. 3; “4, 3, 1: excepto patre tuo, praeterea uno aut altero,” id. Pan. 45: “unus atque alter et mox plures,” Suet. Claud. 12: “unus et alter assentiuntur,” Curt. 5, 7, 4: “sed postquam amans accessit ... Unus et item alter,” Ter. And. 1, 1. 50: “amici, Qui modo de multis unus et alter erant,” Ov. Tr. 1, 3, 16; “rarely unus post unum (= singuli deinceps): interiere,” Aur. Vict. Epit. 26, 41: “uno plus Tuscorum cecidisse in acie (sc. quam Romanorum),” Liv. 2, 7, 2; cf.: “legem unā plures tribus antiquarunt quam jusserunt,” id. 5, 30, 7.—

b. With gen. part.: Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres: quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam, etc., Caes. B. G. 1, 1: “totam philosophiam tres in partes diviserunt ... quarum cum una sit, etc.,” Cic. Fin. 4, 2, 5: “superiores tres erant, quarum est una sola defensa,” id. ib. 5, 7, 20: “orare ut trium harum rerum unam ab se impetrari sinerent,” Liv. 42, 23, 5.—

2. Plur.: “ex unis geminas mihi conficies nuptias,” Ter. And. 4, 1, 50: molas asinarias unas, et trusatiles unas, Hispanienses unas. Cato, R. R. 10, 4; so, “molae,” id. ib. 13, 1: “quadrigae,” Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 14: “similitudines, unae rerum, alterae verborum,” Auct. Her. 3, 20, 33: “adductus sum tuis unis et alteris litteris,” Cic. Att. 14, 18, 1: “decumae,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 98, § 227: “tibi invideo, quod unis vestimentis tam diu lautus es,” id. Fl. 29, 70: “satis una superque Vidimus excidia,” Verg. A. 2, 642; Luc. 4, 548.—

b. With gen. part.: “tria Graecorum genera sunt, quorum uni sunt Athenienses, etc.,” Cic. Fl. 27, 64.—

B. Esp.

1. Adverbial expressions.

a. Ad unum, all together, unanimously, to a man, without exception: “amplius duūm milium numero ad unum terga vertebant, Auct. B. Afr. 70: consurrexit senatus cum clamore ad unum,” Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 2, 2: “Juppiter, si nondum exosus ad unum Trojanos,” Verg. A. 5, 687: “cui sunt adsensi ad unum (senatores),” Cic. Fam. 10, 16, 2: “ipsos ad unum caedere,” Curt. 7, 5, 32; “usu. with omnes,” Cic. Lael. 23, 86; Liv. 21, 42, 2; Caes. B. C. 3, 27; cf. ad, C. 2.—

b. In unum, into one, to one place, together: “Fibrenus divisus aequaliter in duas partes latera haec alluit, rapideque dilapsus cito in unum confluit,” Cic. Leg. 2, 3, 6; cf. Sall. J. 51, 3; Liv. 30, 11, 4; 44, 7, 8; Verg. E. 7, 2; Ov. R. Am. 673.—

2. Of that which is common to several persons or things, one and the same.

a. Alone.

(a). Sing.: “cum suo sibi gnato unam ad amicam de die Potare,” Plaut. As. 4, 2, 16: “uno exemplo ne omnes vitam viverent,” id. Mil. 3, 1, 132; cf. id. Capt. prol. 20: “unius aetatis clarissimi et sapientissimi nostrae civitatis viri,” Cic. Rep. 1, 8, 13: “illa cum uno tempore audīsset, etc.,” id. Clu. 9, 28: “atque uno etiam tempore accidit, ut, etc.,” Caes. B. C. 3, 15: “omnibus hic erit unus honos,” Verg. A. 5, 308: “omnes una manet nox,” Hor. C. 1, 28, 15: “unus utrique Error,” id. S. 2, 3, 51: “parentum injuriae Unius modi sunt ferme,” Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 31: “noli putare tolerabiles horum insanias nec unius modi fore,” Cic. Att. 9, 7, 5; so, “unius modi,” id. Univ. 7.—Esp., uno ore, with one voice, all together, unanimously: “ceteri amici omnes Uno ore auctores fuere, ut, etc.,” Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 20: “de cujus utilitate omnes uno ore consentiunt,” Cic. Lael. 23, 86: “unoque omnes eadem ore fremebant,” Verg. A. 11, 132.—

(b). Plur.: “aderit una in unis aedibus,” Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 76: “unis moribus et nunquam mutatis legibus vivunt,” Cic. Fl. 26, 63.—

b. Connected with idem: “exitus quidem omnium unus et idem fuit,” Cic. Div. 2, 47, 97: “in quā (sc. causā) omnes sentirent unum atque idem,” id. Cat. 4, 7, 14: “ferar unus et idem,” Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 200; Plin. Ep. 8, 14, 18.—

c. Corresponding to idem: “non semper idem floribus est honor Vernis, neque uno Luna rubens nitet Vultu,” Hor. C. 2, 11, 10.—

3. For solus, of that which is alone, by itself; one, alone, only, sole, single.

a. Sing.

(a). Alone: “hic unus, ut ego suspicor, servat fidem,” Plaut. Trin. 4, 4, 21: “unum hoc scio, hanc meritam esse, ut memor esses sui,” Ter. And. 1, 5, 46; cf.: “unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis, etc.,” Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: “cum mihi sit unum opus hoc a parentibus meis relictum,” id. ib. 1, 22, 35: “nunc vero eversis omnibus rebus, una ratio videtur,” id. Fam. 6, 21, 1: “itaque unum illud erat insitum priscis illis,” id. Tusc. 1, 12, 27: “quove praesidio unus per tot gentes pervenisset?” Liv. 1, 18, 3: “erat omnino in Galliā ulteriore legio una,” Caes. B. G. 1, 7: “Pompejus plus potest unus, quam ceteri omnes,” Cic. Att. 6, 1, 3: “cui (sc. mihi) semper uni magis, quam universis, placere voluisti,” id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 16, § 46: “qui (sc. Demosthenes) unus eminet inter omnes in omni genere dicendi,” id. Or. 29, 104: “te unum in tanto exercitu mihi fuisse adsensorem,” id. Fam. 6, 21, 1.—Absol.: “de Antonio nihil dico praeter unum,” Cic. Sest. 3, 8.—

(b). With ex: “cum te unum ex omnibus ad dicendum maxime natum aptumque cognōssem,” Cic. de Or. 1, 22, 99: illc unus ex omnibus Italicis intactus profugit, Sall. J. 67, 3; 69, 4.—

(g). With gen.: “ille unus ordinis nostri discessu meo palam exsultavit,” Cic. Sest. 64, 133: “quod post Cannensem cladem unus Romanorum imperatorum prospere rem gessisset,” Liv. 23, 30, 19.—

(d). With sup.: “tu, quam ego unam vidi mulierem audacissumam,” Plaut. As. 3, 1, 16: “unus istic servos est sacerrumus,” id. Most. 4, 2, 67: “rem unam esse omnium difficillimam,” Cic. Brut. 6, 25: “urbem unam mihi amicissimam declinavi,” id. Planc. 41, 97: “quo ego uno equite Romano familiarissime utor,” id. Fam. 13, 43, 1: “virum unum totius Graeciae doctissimum Platonem accepimus,” id. Rab. Post. 9, 23.—(ε) With magis: “quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam Posthabitā coluisse Samo,” Verg. A. 1, 15.—(ζ) With comp.: “sagacius unus odoror,” Hor. Epod. 12, 4.—(η) Strengthened by solus: “unus est solus inventus, qui, etc.,” Cic. Sest. 62, 130; cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 5, § 13: “ex uno oppido solo,” id. ib. 2, 2, 75, § “185: nil admirari prope res est una, Numici, Solaque, quae, etc.,” Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 1: “te unum, solum suum depeculatorem, vexatorem ... venisse senserunt,” Cic. Pis. 40, 96: “unus solusque censebat,” Plin. Pan. 76.—(θ) Strengthened by tantum (rare before the Aug. age; once in Cic.; cf. Halm ad Cic. Sull. 22, 62): “inter bina castra ... unum flumen tantum intererat,” Caes. B. C. 3, 19: “excepit unum tantum, nihil amplius,” Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74: “unius tantum criminis in vincla te duci jubeo,” Liv. 3, 56, 4 Weissenb. ad loc.: “unā tantum perforatā navi,” id. 21, 50, 6; 34, 9, 5; 44, 43, 6; Just. 8, 5, 5; Sen. Ep. 79, 1; Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120; 11, 37, 47, § 131; Cels. 5, 28, 14; cf. absol.: “unum defuisse tantum superbiae, quod, etc.,” Liv. 6, 16, 5.—(ι) Strengthened by modo (class.): “nam aliis unus modo, aliis plures, aliis omnes eidem videntur,” Cic. Or. 54, 180: “hi unum modo quale sit suspicantur,” id. ib. 9, 28: “hoc autem si ita sit, ut unum modo sensibus falsum videtur,” id. Ac. 2, 32, 101; id. Phil. 1, 6, 14; Sall. J. 89, 6; id. H. 3, 61, 12 Dietsch; Liv. 22, 45, 4; 23, 42, 5.—(κ) Unus for unus omnium maxime: “quae tibi una in amore atque in deliciis fuit,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 1, § 3; so, “Nautes, unum Tritonia Pallas Quem docuit,” Verg. A. 5, 704.—(λ) Emphat., with negatives, no one person or thing, not a single one, none whatever: “eum si reddis mihi, praeterea unum nummum ne duis,” Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 81: “nemo de nobis unus excellat,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 36, 105: “ut unum signum Byzantii ex maximo numero nullum haberent,” id. Prov. Cons. 4, 7: “nullā re unā magis oratorem commendari, quam, etc.,” id. Brut. 59, 216: “haec adhortatio praetoris non modo quemquam unum elicuit ad suadendum, sed ne fremitum quidem movit (i. e. non modo non ... sed),” Liv. 32, 20, 7: “quia nemo unus satis dignus regno visus est,” id. 2, 6, 3: “eo mortuo ad neminem unum summa imperii redit,” Caes. B. C. 3, 18: “Rhodiis ut nihil unum insigne, ita omnis generis dona dedit,” Liv. 41, 20, 7; cf. id. 3, 45, 4.—

b. Plur.: “sequere me Tres unos passus,” three single steps, only three steps, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 7, 34: “unae quinque minae,” id. Ps. 1, 1, 52: “ruri dum sum ego unos sex dies,” id. Trin. 1, 2, 129; id. Cist. 4, 2, 68: “sese unis Suebis concedere,” Caes. B. G. 4, 7: “Ubii, qui uni legatos miserant,” id. ib. 4, 16: “ut unis litteris totius aestatis res gestas ad senatum perscriberem,” Cic. Fam. 2, 7, 3: “abs te ipso, qui me accusas, unas mihi scito litteras redditas esse,” id. Att. 1, 5, 4.

II. Transf., indef., a or an, one, some, some one.

A. Without a pron.

1. Absol.: “inter mulieres, Quae ibi aderant, forte unam aspicio adulescentulam, etc.,” Ter. And. 1, 1, 91: “ibi una aderit mulier lepida, etc.,” Plaut. Ps. 4, 1, 38: “sicut unus paterfamilias his de rebus loquor,” Cic. de Or. 1, 29, 132; cf.: “me una haec res torquet, quod non Pompejum tanquam unus manipularis secutus sim,” id. Att. 9, 10, 2.—

2. With ex: “ut me sic audiatis ut unum e togatis,” Cic. Rep. 1, 22, 36; cf.: “qui non fuit orator unus e multis: potius inter multos prope singularis fuit,” id. Brut. 79, 274: “ex principibus unus nomine Polyaenus,” Liv. 24, 22, 1: “unus ex ultimā turbā,” id. 24, 27, 1.—

3. With de: “tenuis L. Verginius unusque de multis,” Cic. Fin. 2, 20, 66. —

4. With gen. part. (not in Cic.): “eregione unius eorum pontium,” Caes. B. G. 7, 35: “Apollonides principum unus orationem habuit,” Liv. 24, 28, 1: “pastorum unus,” id. 10, 4, 8 : “servus unus exulum initium fecit,” id. 25, 23, 6: “scortum transfugarum unius,” id. 26, 12, 16; 26, 33, 11; 30, 42, 30; 37, 23, 7; “40, 5, 10: unus turbae militaris,” id. 22, 42, 4; 6, 40, 6: “unus hostium Latinae linguae sciens,” Tac. A. 2, 13: “una Amazonum,” id. ib. 4, 56: “unum se civium (esse) respondit,” id. ib. 12, 5.—

5. With sup.: “est huic unus servos violentissimus, Qui, etc.,” Plaut. Truc. 2, 1, 39; cf.: “tanquam mihi cum M. Crasso contentio esset, non cum uno gladiatore nequissimo,” Cic. Phil. 2, 3, 7.—

B. With,

1. Aliquis: “ex quibus si unum aliquod in te cognoveris, etc.,” Cic. Div. in Caecil. 9, 27; cf.: “ad unum aliquem confugere,” id. Off. 2, 12, 41: “unius alicujus,” id. Fin. 3, 19, 64; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 62; 2, 2, 3, § 9; id. Phil. 10, 1, 3.—In the order aliquis unus, Cic. Rep. 1, 32, 48.—

2. Quidam: “est enim eloquentia una quaedam de summis virtutibus,” Cic. de Or. 3, 14, 55: “unius cujusdam,” id. ib. 2, 10, 40.—

3. Quivis: “si tu solus aut quivis unus, etc.,” Cic. Caecin. 22, 62.—

4. Quilibet: “queratur unus quilibet militis mei injuriam,” Liv. 42, 42, 3: “unus Quiritium quilibet,” id. 6, 40, 6: “quilibet unus ex iis, quos, etc.,” id. 9, 17, 15.—

5. Quisque: “ponite ante oculos unum quemque regum,” Cic. Par. 1, 2, 11; so, “unus quisque (and sometimes in one word, unusquisque): unāquāque de re,” id. Font. 10, 21: “unum quodque,” id. Rosc. Am. 30, 83: “unum quidque,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 59, § 132; cf. Caes. B. C. 2, 29: “domini capitis unius cujusque,” Cic. Rep. 1, 32, 48.—

6. Quisquis: “sin unum quicquid singillatim et placide percontabere,” Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 39: “unum quicquid,” Lucr. 5, 1388.—

C. Private, un official, a private person, a private citizen (post-class.): “dicentes publicam violationem fidei non debere unius lui sanguine,” Vell. 2, 1, 5: “pro uno homine jactura publica pacisceris,” Sen. Suas. 7, 3.—Adv.: ūnā (acc. to I. B. 1.), in one and the same place, at the same time, in company, together: “qui cum Amphitruone hinc una ieram in exercitum,” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 248: “hic Juppiter hodie ipse aget, Et ego una cum illo,” id. ib. prol. 95: “quod summi puerorum amores saepe una cum praetextā togā ponerentur,” Cic. Lael. 10, 33: “i mecum, obsecro, una simul,” Plaut. Most. 4, 3, 43: “mandata eri perierunt, una et Sosia,” id. Am. 1, 1, 182: “si mei consilii causam rationemque cognoverit, una et id quod facio probabit, et, etc.,” Cic. Div. in Caecil. 1, 1: “qui una venerant,” id. Rep. 1, 12, 18: “cum et ego essem una et pauci admodum familiares,” id. Lael. 1, 2: “si in Italiā consistat (Pompejus), erimus una,” id. Att. 7, 10; id. Fin. 2, 24, 79; id. Brut. 21, 81.—Poet., with dat.: “Pallas huic filius una, Una omnes juvenum primi pauperque senatus Tura dabant,” at the same time, along with him, Verg. A. 8, 104 sq.

116 multus (old form moltus ), a, um;

I. comp. plus; sup. plurimus (v. at the end of this art.), adj. etym. dub., much, great, many, of things corporeal and incorporeal.

I. Posit.

A. In gen.: multi mortales, Cato ap. Gell. 10, 3, 17: multi suam rem bene gessere: multi qui, etc., Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6, 1 (Trag. v. 295 sq. Vahl.): “multi fortissimi viri,” Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 3: “rationes,” id. de Or. 1, 51, 222. tam multis verbis scribere, at such length, id. Fam. 3, 8, 1: “beneficia. Cato ap. Fest. s. v. ratissima, p. 286 Müll.: multi alii,” Ter. And. 5, 4, 28.—When used with another adjective it is usually connected with it by a conjunction: “multae et magnae contentiones,” many great conlests, Cic. Phil. 2, 3, 7; 3, 10, 26: “O multas et graves offensiones,” id. Att. 11, 7, 3: “multi et graves dolores,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 45, § 119: “multi et varii timores,” Liv. 3, 16, 3: “multae bonaeque artes animi,” Sall. J. 28, 5: “multa et clara facinora,” Tac. A. 12, 31.—But when the second adjective is used substantively the conjunction is omitted: “multi improbi,” Cic. Off. 2, 8, 28; 2, 19, 65: “multi boni, docti, prudentes,” id. Fl. 4, 8: “multi nobiles,” id. Planc. 20, 50: “multa acerba habuit ille annus,” id. Sest. 27, 58; 66, 139: “multa infanda,” Liv. 28, 12, 5: “multa falsa,” id. 35, 23, 2.—Also, when the second adjective forms with its substantive a single conception: “multa secunda proelia,” victories, Liv. 9, 42, 5; 35, 1, 3; 41, 17, 1: “multa libera capita,” freemen, id. 42, 41, 11: “multae liberae civitates,” republics, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 30, § 68: “multos fortes viros,” id. Cat. 3, 2, 7; id. Mur. 8, 17: “multi clari viri,” noblemen, id. Leg. 1, 5, 17: “multi primarii viri,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 61, § 149.—Similarly, et is omitted between multi and adjectives which form with their substantives familiar phrases: “multi clarissimi viri,” Cic. Phil. 11, 10, 24: “multi amplissimi viri,” id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Deiot. 14, 39; id. Fam. 10, 25, 2; id. Att. 10, 8, 7; 16, 16, 11; Cic. Verr. 1, 7, 19: “multi honestissimi homines,” id. Fam. 15, 15, 3: “multi peritissimi homines,” id. Caecin. 24, 69: “multi summi homines,” id. Arch. 12, 30; id. Har. Resp. 26, 56: “multi clarissimi et sapientissimi viri,” id. Planc. 4, 11; id. Cael. 18, 43.—Et is also omitted when the substantive stands between the two adjectives: “in veteribus patronis multis,” Cic. Div. in Caecil. 1, 2: “multa praeterea bella gravia,” id. Agr. 2, 33, 90: “multis suppliciis justis,” id. Cat. 1, 8, 20: “multa majores nostri magna et gravia bella gesserunt,” id. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6: “plurima signa pulcherrima,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 23, § 61.—When both adjectives follow the substantive, et is sometimes inserted: “virtutes animi multae et magnae,” Cic. Imp. Pomp. 22, 64: “causas ille multas et graves habuit,” id. Clu. 30, 82; “and is sometimes omitted, the emphasis then falling on the second adjective: utebatur hominibus improbis, multis,” id. Cael. 5, 12: “prodigia multa, foeda,” Liv. 40, 29, 1.—With a partitive gen.: “multi hominum,” Plin. 16, 25, 40, § 96: “multae silvestrium arborum,” id. 16, 31, 56, § 128.—In neutr. plur.: multa , ōrum, many things, much: “nimium multa,” Cic. Fam. 4, 14, 3: “nimis multa,” id. Fin. 2, 18, 57: “insulae non ita multae,” not so many, not so very many, Plin. 5, 7, 7, § 41: “parum multa scire,” too few, Auct. Her. 1, 1, 1: bene multi, a good many, Asin. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 33, 4: “quam minime multa vestigia servitutis,” as few as possible, Nep. Tim. 3, 3: “minime multi remiges,” exceedingly few, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 34, § 88: “in multas pecunias alienissimorum hominum invasit,” id. Phil. 2, 16, 41; Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 19, § 48: “multae pecuniae variis ex causis a privatis detinentur,” Plin. Ep. 10, 17, 3.—Sometimes multi stands for multi alii, many others: “nam certe Pompeio, et a Curionibus patre et filio, et a multis exprobratum est,” Suet. Caes. 50.—The sing. also is used poet. for the plur., many a: “aut trudit acres hinc et hinc multā cane Apros in obstantes plagas,” with many dogs, Hor. Epod. 2, 31: “multa prece prosequi,” id. C. 4, 5, 33: “multā victima,” Verg. E. 1, 34: agna. Ov. F. 4, 772: “avis,” id. Am. 3, 5, 4: “tabella,” Tib. 1, 3, 28; so of persons: multus sua vulnera puppi Affixit moriens, many a one, for multi affixerunt, Luc. 3, 707.—In sing., to denote quantity, much, great, abundant: multum aurum et argentum. Plaut. Rud. 5, 2, 8; 22: “exstructa mensa multā carne rancidā,” Cic. Pis. 27, 67: “multo labore quaerere aliquid,” with much labor, great exertion, Cic. Sull. 26, 73: “cura,” Sall. J. 7, 4: “sol,” much sun, Plin. 31, 7, 39, § 81: sermo, much conversalion, Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 20, 1: stilus tuus multi sudoris est. Cic. de Or. 1, 60, 257: multo cibo et potione completi, id. Tusc. 5, 35, 100: “multo sanguine ea Poenis victoria stetit,” Liv. 23, 30, 2: “multum sanguinem haurire,” Curt. 4, 14, 17; 8, 14, 32: “multam harenam mare evomit,” id. 4, 6, 8: “arbor,” id. 7, 4, 26: “silva,” id. 8, 10, 14: “multae vestis injectu opprimi,” Tac. A. 6, 50: “multa et lauta supellex,” Cic. Phil. 2, 27, 66: “aurum,” Sall. J. 13, 6; Tac. A. 6, 33; Liv. 26, 11, 9; Curt. 3, 3, 12: “libertas,” Hor. S. 1, 4, 5: “multam salutem dicere alicui,” to greet heartily, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 194: “cum auro et argento multo,” Sall. J. 13, 6.—Of time: “Itaque multum diei processerat,” a great part of the day, Sall. J. 51, 2: “ad multum diem,” till far in the day, Cic. Att. 13, 9, 1: “multo adhuc die,” when much of the day was still remaining, when it was still high day, Tac. H. 2, 44: “multo denique die,” when the day was far spent, Caes. B. G. 1, 22: “multā nocte,” late at night, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 2: “multo mane,” very early, id. Att. 5, 4, 1: “multa opinio, for multorum,” the general opinion, Gell. 3, 16, 1: “velut multā pace,” as in a general peace, as if there were peace everywhere, Tac. H. 4, 35: “multus homo,” one who gives himself up to the lusts of many, Cat. 112, 1.—multi , ōrum, m., the many, the common mass, the multitude: probis probatus potius, quam multis forem, Att. ap. Non. 519, 9: “video ego te, mulier, more multarum utier,” id. ib.—Esp.: unus e (or de) multis, one of the multitude, a man of no distinction: “tenuis L. Virginius unusque e multis,” Cic. Fin. 2, 20, 62: “unus de multis esse,” id. Off. 1, 30, 109: M. Calidius non fuit orator unus e multis; “potius inter multos prope singularis fuit,” id. Brut. 79, 274: “numerarer in multis,” among the herd of orators, id. ib. 97, 333: “e multis una sit tibi,” no better than others, Ov. R. Am. 682: “multum est,” it is of importance, Verg. G. 2, 272.—In neutr. absol.: ne multa, or ne multis, not to be prolix, in short: “ne multa: perquiritur a coactoribus,” Cic. Clu. 64, 181: “ne multis: Diogenes emitur,” id. ib. 16, 47: “quid multis moror?” Ter. And. 1, 1, 87.—Sometimes multa is used (particularly by the poets) adverbially, much, greatly, very: “multa reluctari,” Verg. G. 4, 301: “gemens,” id. ib. 3, 226; id. A. 5, 869: “deos testatus,” id. ib. 7, 593: “invehi,” Nep. Ep. 6, 1 (cf. nonnulla invehi, id. Tim. 5, 3): “haud multa moratus,” Verg. A. 3, 610.—Rarely in multum: “in multum velociores,” by far, Plin. 10, 36, 52, § 108.—

B. In partic.

1. Too much, overmuch, excessive: “supellex modica, non multa,” Nep. Att. 13, 5.—

2. In speech, much-speaking, diffuse, prolix: “qui in aliquo genere aut inconcinnus aut multus est,” Cic. de Or. 2, 4, 17: “ne in re notā et pervulgatā multus et insolens sim,” id. ib. 2, 87, 358: “nolo in stellarum ratione multus vobis videri,” id. N. D. 2, 46, 119.—

3. Frequent, frequently present: “in operibus, in agmine, atque ad vigilias multus adesse,” Sall. J. 96, 3: “multus in eo proelio Caesar fuit,” was in many places, Flor. 4, 2, 50: “hen hercle hominem multum et odiosum mihi!” troublesome, tedious, Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 41: “instare,” Sall. J. 84, 1.—Hence, adv., in two forms.

A. multum , much, very much, greatly, very, often, frequently, far, etc. (class.): “salve multum, gnate mi,” Plaut. Trin. 5, 2, 56: “multum vale,” farewell, id. Stich. 3, 2, 40: “hominem ineptum multum et odiosum mihi,” id. Men. 2, 2, 42: “opinor, Cassium uti non ita multum sorore,” not very much, Cic. Fam. 7, 23, 3: “multum mecum municipales homines loquuntur,” often, id. Att. 8, 13, 2: “non multum ille quidem nec saepe dicebat,” id. Brut. 34, 128: “non multum confidere,” not very much, not particularly, Caes. B. G. 3, 25: “sunt in venationibus,” often, frequently, id. ib. 4, 1: “in eodem genere causarum multum erat T. Juventius,” Cic. Brut. 48, 178: “multum fuisse cum aliquo,” to have had much intercourse with, id. Rep. 1, 10, 16: “sum multum equidem cum Phaedro in Epicuri hortis,” id. Fin. 5, 1, 3: “gratiā valere,” to be in great favor, Nep. Con. 2, 1: “res multum et saepe quaesita,” Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 33: “longe omnes multumque superabit,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 115: “multum et diu cogitans,” id. Div. 2, 1, 1: “diu multumque scriptitare,” id. de Or. 1, 33, 152.—With an adj.: “multum loquaces,” very talkative, Plaut. Aul. 2, 1, 5: “mepti labores,” very, Plin. Ep. 1, 9.—Poet. also with comp.: “multum improbiores sunt quam a primo credidi,” much, far, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 139: “multum robustior illo,” Juv. 19, 197: “majora,” Sil. 13, 708.— So with infra, post: “haud multum infra viam,” Liv. 5, 37, 7; Plin. 98, 7, § 20: “haud multum post mortem ejus,” Tac. A. 5, 3: “ut multum,” at most, Mart. 10, 11, 6; Vop. Aur. 46.—

B. multō by much, much, a great deal, far, by far (class.).

1. With comparatives and verbs which imply comparison: “multo tanto carior,” Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 76: “pauciores oratores,” Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 11: “facilius atque expeditius iter,” Caes. B. G. 1, 6.—With verbs: “virtutem omnibus rebus multo anteponentes,” Cic. Fin. 4, 18, 49: “multo ceteros anteibant,” Tac. H. 4, 13: “multo praestat beneficii, quam maleficii immemorem esse,” Sall. J. 31, 28.—With malle: “multo mavolo,” Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 88; id. Ps. 2, 4, 38: “meo judicio multo stare malo, quam, etc.,” Cic. Att. 12, 21, 1.—

2. With sup. (rare but class.), by far, by much: “quae tibi mulier videtur multo sapientissuma,” Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 66; id. Am. 2, 2, 150: multo optimus hostis, by far, Lucil. ap. Non. 4, 413: “simulacrum multo antiquissimum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 49, § 109; 2, 4, 23, § 50; id. Cat. 4, 8, 17: “maxima pars,” id. Imp. Pomp. 18, 54; cf. Hor. S. 2, 3, 82: “multo id bellum maximum fuit,” Liv. 1, 11, 5: “pars multo maxima,” id. 30, 18, 14: multo molestissima, Cic. Div. in. Caecil. 11, 36: “multo gratissima lux,” Hor. S. 1, 5, 39: “foedissimum,” Quint. 9, 4, 72: “optimum,” id. ib. 26: “pulcherrimum,” id. 1, 2, 24: “utilissima,” id. 2, 10, 1: “maxime,” Auct. Her. 4, 44, 58: “multo maxime miserabile,” Sall. C. 36, 4: “multo maxime ingenio validus,” id. J. 6, 1.—

3. With particles denoting a difference, far, greatly, very: “multo aliter,” Ter. And. prol. 4: “multo aliter ac sperabat,” far otherwise than, Nep. Ham. 2: “quod non multo secus fieret, si,” not far otherwise, not very different, Cic. Fam. 4, 9, 1: multo infra Cyrenaicum. Plin. 19, 3, 15, § 40. —

4. In specifications of time, before ante and post, long, much: “non multo ante urbem captam,” Cic. Div. 1, 45, 101: “non multo ante,” not long before, Nep. Eum. 3, 3: “multo ante,” Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1: “non multo post, quam, etc.,” not long after, id. Att. 12, 49, 9: “haud multo ante solis occasum,” Liv. 5, 39, 2: “multo ante noctem,” id. 27, 42, 13.—

5. Very rarely with the positive for multum: “maligna multo,” very, Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 83 Umpf.—

6. Doubled, multo multoque, with comparatives: “multo multoque longior,” far, very much, Front. ad M. Caes. 2, 5: “multo multoque operosius est,” Val. Max. 4, 1, 2: multo multoque magis, Front. Laud. Negl. § 3.

II. Comp.: plūs , plūris; in the plur., plūres, plūra (in sing. anciently written plous; three times in the S. C. de Bacch. Here perh. belongs, in the plur., pleores and pleoris, for plures, in the Song of the Arval Brothers.—For the class. neuter of the plur., plura, the form pluria was used in ante-class. Latinity. Gellius cites M. Cato, Q. Claudius, Valerius Antias, L. Ælius, P. Nigidius, and M. Varro as authorities for this form, Gell. 5, 21, 6; yet Plautus and Terence have only plura; and the earlier reading pluria, in Lucr. 1, 877; 2, 1135; 4, 1085, is now supplanted by the critically certain plura and plurima.—The gen. plur. plurium, however, has remained the predominant form, e. g. Quint. 7, 1, 1; 8, 4, 27; 9, 4, 66 et saep.) [from the root ple; Gr. πλέον, πίμπλημι; cf. plenus, plera, compleo, etc.; also locu-ples, plebes, populus, etc.], more.

A. In the sing. (used both substantively and adverbially): LIBRAS FARRIS ENDO DIES DATO. SI VOLET PLVS DATO, Fragm. XII. Tab. in Gell. 20, 1, 45: SI PLVS MINVSVE SECVERVNT, SE FRAVDE ESTO, ib.; “so (perh. in imitation of this legal phrase): ebeu, cur ego plus minusve feci quam aequom fuit!” Plaut. Capt. 5, 3, 18; Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 21: “ne plus minusve loqueretur,” Suet. Aug. 84; cf. Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 27; and in the signif. of circiter, about: septingenti sunt paulo plus aut minus anni ... postquam, etc., Enn. ap. Varr. R. R. 3, 1, 2 (Ann. v. 493 Vahl.); “so. non longius abesse plus minus octo milibus,” Hirt. B. G. 8, 20, 1 Oud.; cf.: “speranti plures ... venerunt plusve minusve duae,” Mart. 8, 71, 4: “aut ne quid faciam plus, quod post me minus fecisse satius sit,” too much ... too little, Ter. Hec. 5, 1, 4: “tantum et plus etiam ipse mihi deberet,” Cic. Att. 7, 3, 7: “vos et decem numero, et, quod plus est, Romani estis,” and what is more, Liv. 9, 24, 8: “verbane plus an sententia valere debeat,” Cic. Top. 25, 96: cf.: “apud me argumenta plus quam testes valent,” id. Rep. 1, 38, 59: “valet enim salus plus quam libido,” id. ib. 1, 40, 63.—

(b). With a partitive gen.: “vultis pecuniae plus habere,” Cic. Inv. 1, 47, 88; cf.: “nostri casus plus honoris habuerunt quam laboris,” id. Rep. 1, 4, 7; so, “plus virium,” id. Leg. 1, 2, 6: “plus hostium,” Liv. 2, 42: “plus dapis et rixae multo minus invidiaeque,” Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 51: “in hac causā eo plus auctoritatis habent, quia, etc.,” Cic. Rep. 3, 16, 26; cf.: “plus ingenii,” id. ib. 1, 14, 22: “Albano non plus animi erat quam fidei,” as little courage as fidelity, Liv. 1, 27, 5.—

(g). With quam (some examples of which have already been given above): “non plus quam semel,” Cic. Off. 3, 15, 61: “confiteor eos ... plus quam sicarios esse,” id. Phil. 2, 13, 31: “ne plus reddat quam acceperit,” id. Lael. 16, 58 et saep.: “non plus quam in tres partis posse distribui putaverunt,” into not more than, id. Inv. 1, 34, 57: “plus quam decem dies abesse,” id. Phil. 2, 13, 31: “nulla (navis) plus quam triginta remis agatur,” with more than, Liv. 38, 38, 8.—

(d). Without quam: “HOMINES PLOVS V. OINVORSEI VIREI ATQVE MVLIERES, S. C. de Bacch. 19 (Wordsw. Fragm. and Spec. p. 173): plus mille capti,” Liv. 24, 44: “plus milies audivi,” Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 32: plus semel, Varr. ap. Plin. 14, 14, 17, § 96: “plus quingentos colaphos infregit mihi,” Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 46: “ferre plus dimidiati mensis cibaria,” Cic. Tusc. 2, 16, 37: “non plus mille quingentos aeris,” id. Rep. 2, 22, 40: “paulo plus ducentos passus a castris,” Liv. 31, 34: “cum plus annum aeger fuisset,” id. 40, 2: “parte plus dimidiā rem auctam,” id. 29, 25.—(ε) With a compar. or adverbial abl., or with an abl. of measure: “VIREI PLOVS DVOBVS, S. C. de Bacch. 20 (Wordsw. Fragm. and Spec. p. 173): de paupertate tacentes Plus poscente ferent,” more than the importunate, Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 44: “ex his alius alio plus habet virium,” Cic. Leg. 1, 2, 6: cave putes hoc tempore plus me quemquam cruciari, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 15, A, 2: “alterum certe non potest, ut plus una vera sit,” Cic. N. D. 1, 2, 5; cf.: “in columbā plures videri colores, nec esse plus uno,” id. Ac. 2, 25, 79: HOC PLVS NE FACITO, more than this, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Cic. Leg. 2, 23, 59: “annos sexaginta natus es Aut plus eo,” or more than that, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 11: “plus aequo,” Cic. Lael. 16, 58: “plus paulo,” Ter. Heaut. 2, 1, 8: “paulo plus,” Liv. 31, 34: multo plus, Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 8, A, 1: “plus nimio,” overmuch, Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 30: quam molestum est uno digito plus habere, too much by a finger, i. e. a finger too much, Cic. N. D. 1, 35, 99: “uno plus Etruscorum cecidisse in acie,” one man more, Liv. 2, 7, 2.—

2. In the gen. pretii, pluris, of more value, of a higher price, for more, higher, dearer: “ut plus reddant musti et olei, et pretii pluris,” of greater value, Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 4: “ager multo pluris est,” is worth much more, Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; cf.: “quo pluris sint nostra oliveta,” id. Rep. 3, 9, 16: “pluris emere,” dearer, id. Fam. 7, 2, 1; so, “vendere,” id. Off. 3, 12, 51; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 19, § 48; Hor. S. 2, 3, 300: “aedificare,” Col. 1, 4, 7: “pluris est oculatus testis quam auriti decem,” of more value, Plaut. Truc. 2, 6, 8: “mea mihi conscientia pluris est, quam omnium sermo,” Cic. Att. 12, 28, 2: “facio pluris omnium hominem neminem,” id. ib. 8, 2, 4: “facere aliquem pluris,” make more of one, esteem him more highly, id. Fam. 3, 4, 2: “pluris habere,” id. Phil. 6, 4, 10: “aestimare,” id. Par. 6, 2, 48: “ducere,” id. Att. 7, 3, 5: “putare,” id. Off. 3, 4, 18 et saep.—

3. Rarely, instead of the genitive, in the abl. pretii: plure vendunt, Lucil. ap. Charis. 2, p. 189 P.: plure altero tanto, quanto ejus fundus est, velim, Plaut. ib.: plure venit, Cic. ib.—

4. Plus plusque, more and more: quem mehercule plus plusque in dies diligo. Cic. Att. 6, 2, 10.—*

5. Like magis, with an adj.: “plus formosus, for formosior,” Nemes. Ecl. 4, 72.—

B. In the plur.

1. Comparatively, more in number: “omnes qui aere alieno premantur, quos plures esse intellego quam putāram,” Cic. Att. 7, 3, 5; id. Rep. 2, 22, 40: “nemini ego plura acerba esse credo ex amore homini umquam oblata quam mihi,” Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 1: “ne plura insignia essent imperii in libero populo quam in regno fuissent,” Cic. Rep. 2, 31, 55: “multo plura,” many more things, Quint. 3, 6, 28.—

2. In gen., of a great number, many: qui plus fore dicant in pluribus consilii quam in uno. Cic. Rep. 1, 35, 55: cf.: quid quaeso interest inter unum et plures, si justitia est in pluribus? id. ib. 1, 39, 61; “1, 34, 52: non possunt unā in civitate multi rem ac fortunas amittere, ut non plures secum in eandem trahant calamitatem,” id. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19: “quod pluribus praesentibus eas res jactari nolebat,” Caes. B. G. 1, 18: “plura castella Pompeius tentaverat,” id. B. C. 3, 52: “summus dolor plures dies manere non potest,” Cic. Fin. 2, 28, 93: “pluribus diebus, Quint. prooem. § 7: illic plurium rerum est congeries,” id. 8, 4, 27: “quae consuetudo sit, pluribus verbis docere,” Cic. Clu. 41, 115: “eum pluribus verbis rogat, ut, etc.,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 28, § 64; “without verba: quid ego plura dicam?” id. de Or. 1, 5, 18: “pluribus haec exsecutus sum,” Phaedr. 3, 10, 59; “also elliptically, quid plura? and, ne plura, like quid multa? and ne multa: hic sacra, hic genus, hic majorum multa vestigia. Quid plura? hanc vides villam, etc.,” what need of many words? in short, Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3: “sed—ne plura—dicendum enim aliquando est—Pomponium Atticum sic amo, ut alterum fratrem,” id. Fam. 13, 1, 5.—

b. Esp.: plures.

(a). The mass, the multitude, opp. pauciores, = οἱ ὀλίγοι, Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 13.—

(b). Euphemistically, acc. to the Gr. οἱ πλείονες, the dead: “quin prius Me ad plures penetravi?” Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 14.—

(g). The greater number, the majority: “plures nesciebant quā ex causā convenissent,” Vulg. Act. 19, 32.

III. Sup.: plūrĭmus (archaic form, plisima plurima, Paul. ex Fest. p. 204 and 205 Müll.: PLIOIRVME (I), Epit. of Scipio), a, um [from root ple; whence also plus, q. v., ploirumus for ploisumus; and thence the predominant form plurimus], most, very much, or many (as an adj. in good prose mostly in the plur., except the standing formula of greeting: salutem plurimam dicere alicui; v. infra): “hujus sunt plurima simulacra,” Caes. B. G. 6, 17: “nos plurimis ignotissimi gentibus,” Cic. Rep. 1, 17, 26: “plurimae et maximae partes,” id. ib. 1, 4, 8: “plurimorum seculorum memoria,” id. ib. 3, 9, 14: “haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt,” id. ib. 1, 7, 12 et saep.—In sing.: “me plurimā praedā onustum,” Plaut. Rud. 4, 2, 4: “sermo,” Quint. 2, 2, 5: “risus,” id. 6, 3, 85: “res,” id. 6, 1, 51: “exercitatio,” id. 8 prooem. § 28: “ mons,” very large, Verg. A. 1, 419: “cervix,” id. G. 3, 52: “Aetna,” Ov. Ib. 600.—Of a greeting: impertit salutem plurimam, Lucil. ap. Non. 472. 16; and esp. freq.: salutem plurimam dicit (commonly abbrev. S. P. D.) at the beginning of letters; v. salus.— Poet.: “medio cum plurimus orbe Sol erat,” very powerful, oppressive, Ov. M. 14, 53: plurima quā silva est. thickest, id. ib. 14, 361: “coma plurima,” very thick, id. ib. 13, 844: “sed plurima nantis in ore Alcyone conjux,” mostly, chiefly, id. ib. 11, 562.—And collect.: “plurimus in Junonis honorem Aptum dicet equis Argos,” many a one, very many, Hor. C. 1, 7, 8; so, “oleaster plurimus,” Verg. G. 2, 183: “quā plurima mittitur ales,” Mart. 9, 56, 1: “plurima lecta rosa est,” Ov. F. 4, 441.— In neutr. absol. (substant. or adverb.): “ut haberet quam plurimum,” as much as possible, Cic. Rab. Post. 14, 39: “caput autem est, quam plurimum scribere,” id. de Or. 1, 33, 150: “ut in quoque oratore plurimum esset,” id. Rep. 1, 27, 123.—Adv.: plūrĭmum : “et is valebat in suffragio plurimum, cujus plurimum intererat, esse in optimo statu civitatem,” Cic. Rep. 2, 22, 40: “auspiciis plurimum obsecutus est Romulus,” id. ib. 2, 9, 16: “si vero populus plurimum potest,” id. ib. 3, 14, 23; cf.: “qui apud me dignitate plurimum possunt,” id. Rosc. Am. 1, 4: “plurimum aliis praestare,” id. Inv. 2, 1, 1: “ut te plurimum diligam,” id. Fam. 1, 7, 1; id. Tusc. 5, 27, 78: “hoc ego utor uno omnium plurimum,” id. Fam. 11, 16, 2: “quantum (al. quanto) plurimum possunt,” Quint. 11, 3, 120: plurimum quantum also signifies very much indeed, exceedingly (post-class.): “plurimum quantum veritati nocuere,” Min. Fel. Oct. 22: “gratulor,” id. ib. 40: “(elleborum) ex aquā datur plurimum drachma,” at the most, Plin. 25, 5, 22, § 54; 9, 36, 60, § 125; 30, 6, 16, § 48; so, “cum plurimum,” id. 2, 17, 15, § 78 (opp. to cum minimum); 18, 7, 10, § 60: nec tam numerosa differentia; tribus ut plurimum bonitatibus distat, for the most part, commonly, usually, = plerumque, Plin. 15, 3, 4, § 18.—

(b). In neutr. with a partit. gen.: sententiarum et gravitatis plurimum, Cic. Inv. 1, 18, 25: “artis,” Quint. 10, 5, 3: “auctoritatis et ponderis,” id. 9, 4, 91: “ut laboris sic utilitatis etiam longe plurimum,” id. 10, 3, 1: “virtutum,” id. 12, 1, 20 plurimum quantum favoris partibus dabat fratermtas ducum, Flor. 4, 2, 74.—

(g). In the gen. pretii: “plurimi: immo unice unum plurimi pendit,” values very highly, esteems very much, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 29: “quem unum Alexander plurimi fecerat,” Nep. Eum. 2, 2: “ut quisque quod plurimi est possidet,” Cic. Par. 6, 2, 48.

117 plūrālis , e, adj. plus,

I. belonging or relating to more than one, relating to many (post-Aug.).

I. In gen.

1. Pluralis elocutio testium, Dig. 22, 5, 12.—

2. Plural, consisting of more than one: “deitas,” Arn. in Psa. 67.—

II. In partic., a gram. t. t., plural: praeterea numeros, in quibus nos singularem ac pluralem habemus, Graeci et δυικον, Quint. 1, 5, 42: “genitivus,” of the plural, id. 1, 6, 26.—Absol.: “cum singulari pluralis subjungitur,” the plural, Quint. 9, 3, 8: “singularia pluralibus miscet,” id. 9, 3, 63; 1, 5, 16; cf. id. 8, 6, 28.—Adv.: plūrālĭ-ter , in the plural, gram. t. t.: “tonitrua nos pluraliter dicimus,” Sen. Q. N. 2, 56, 1; Quint. 1, 6, 25; 8, 3, 35; 8, 6, 28.

118 contentĭo , ōnis, f. contendo (acc. to contendo, II.),

I. an eager stretching, a straining, exertion of the powers of body or mind, tension, effort, a vigorous struggling or striving for something, a struggle after (very freq. and in good prose).

I. In gen.

A. Prop.: “contentio et summissio vocis,” Cic. Off. 1, 41, 146; id. de Or. 1, 61, 261: “vocis,” id. Tusc. 2, 24, 56: “vocis aut lateris,” Plin. 26, 13, 85, § 137 al.: “gravitatis et ponderum,” of gravitation, Cic. N. D. 2, 45, 116: “animi (opp. relaxatio),” id. de Or. 2, 5, 21; cf. id. Arch. 6, 12 et saep.—With gen. of the object: “disputationis,” Cic. de Or. 3, 61, 230: “honorum (with ambitio),” id. Off. 1, 25, 87; cf. “palmae,” Quint. 1, 2, 24: “dignitatis,” id. 4, 5, 12; cf.: “libertatis dignitatisque,” Liv. 4, 6, 11 al.—

B. Transf.

1. Labored, formal speech (opp. talk, conversation): quoniam magna vis orationis est, eaque duplex, altera contentionis, altera sermonis; “contentio disceptationibus tribuatur judiciorum ... sermo in circulis, etc.,” Cic. Off. 1, 37, 132; 2, 14, 48 Heine ad loc.; cf.: sermo est oratio remissa et finitima cottidianae locutioni; “contentio est oratio acris, etc.,” Auct. Her. 3, 13, 23.—*

2. Gregum = admissura, Censor. 5.—

II. In partic.

A. (Acc. to contendo, II. B. 2.) A contest, contention, strife (with weapons or words), a fight, dispute, controversy (so most freq.): “contentiones proeliorum,” Cic. Off. 1, 26, 90; cf.: “magna belli,” id. Sest. 27, 58: “contentiones, quae cum inimicissimis fiunt,” id. Off. 1, 38, 137; so with cum, id. Phil. 2, 3, 7; id. Leg. 3, 11, 25 al.: “cum aliquo de aliquā re,” Quint. 4, 2, 132: “de aliquā re,” Cic. Leg. 3, 10, 24; Liv. 4, 6, 4; Quint. 5, 14, 12 al.: “adversus procuratores,” Tac. Agr. 9: “inter aliquos,” Cic. Sest. 21, 47; Quint. 10, 1, 47; Suet. Claud. 15 et saep.; cf.: “inter aliquos de aliquā re,” Cic. Ac. 2, 43, 132 et saep.: “contentionis cupidiores quam veritatis,” id. de Or. 1, 11, 47; Curt. 8, 4, 33.—

B. (Acc. to contendo, II. B. 3.) A comparison, contrast: “si contentio quaedam et comparatio fiat,” Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57; 1, 43, 152; cf. id. Inv. 1, 12, 17: “quaedam hominum ipsorum,” id. Planc. 2, 5; id. Inv. 2, 39, 114: “fortunarum,” id. Pis. 22, 51.—Hence,

2. T. t.

a. In rhetoric, a contrasting of one thought with another, antithesis, Auct. Her. 4, 15, 21; Cic. de Or. 3, 53, 203; Quint. 9, 1, 31; 9, 2, 2.—

b. In gram., comparison, Varr. L. L. 8, § 75 Müll.

119 ab-solvo , vi, ūtum, 3, v. a.,

I. to loosen from, to make loose, set free, detach, untie (usu. trop., the fig. being derived from fetters, qs. a vinculis solvere, like vinculis exsolvere, Plaut. Truc. 3, 4, 10).

I. Lit. (so very rare): “canem ante tempus,” Amm. 29, 3: “asinum,” App. M. 6, p. 184; cf.: “cum nodo cervicis absolutum,” id. ib. 9, p. 231: “valvas stabuli,” i. e. to open, id. ib. 1, p. 108 fin.: “absoluta lingua (ranarum) a gutture,” loosed, Plin. 11, 37, 65, § 172.

II. Trop.

A. To release from a long story, to let one off quickly: Paucis absolvit, ne moraret diutius, Pac. ap. Diom. p. 395 P. (Trag. Rel. p. 98 Rib.); so, “te absolvam brevi,” Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 30.

B. To dismiss by paying, to pay off: “absolve hunc vomitum ... quattuor quadraginta illi debentur minae,” Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 120; so Ter. Ad. 2, 4, 13 and 18.—Hence, in gen., to dismiss, to release: “jam hosce absolutos censeas,” Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 43; “and ironic.,” id. Capt. 3, 5, 73.

C. To free from (Ciceronian): ut nec Roscium stipulatione alliget, neque a Fannio judicio se absolvat, extricate or free himself from a lawsuit, Cic. Rosc. Com. 12: “longo bello,” Tac. A. 4, 23: caede hostis se absolvere, to absolve or clear one's self by murdering an enemy, id. G. 31.—With gen.: “tutelae,” Dig. 4, 8, 3; hence,

D. In judicial lang., t. t., to absolve from a charge, to acquit, declare innocent; constr. absol., with abl., gen., or de (Zumpt, § 446; “Rudd. 2, 164 sq.): bis absolutus,” Cic. Pis. 39: “regni suspicione,” Liv. 2, 8: judex absolvit injuriarum eum, Auct. ad Her. 2, 13; so Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 29 al.: “de praevaricatione absolutus,” id. Q. Fr. 2, 16.—In Verr. 2, 2, 8, § 22: hic (Dionem) Veneri absolvit, sibi condemnat, are dativi commodi: from the obligation to Venus he absolves him, but condemns him to discharge that to himself (Verres).—With an abstract noun: fidem absolvit, he acquitted them of their fidelity (to Otho), pardoned it, Tac. H. 2, 60.

E. In technical lang., to bring a work to a close, to complete, finish (without denoting intrinsic excellence, like perficere; the fig. is prob. derived from detaching a finished web from the loom; cf.: “rem dissolutam divulsamque,” Cic. de Or. 1, 42, 188).—So of the sacrificial cake: “liba absoluta (as taken from the pan),” ready, Varr. R. R. 2, 8; “but esp. freq. in Cic.: ut pictor nemo esset inventus, qui Coae Veneris eam partem, quam Apelles inchoatam reliquisset, absolveret,” Cic. Off. 3, 2 (cf. Suet. Claud. 3); id. Leg. 1, 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 45; cf. id. Fin. 2, 32, 105; id. Fam. 1, 9, 4; id. Att. 13, 19 al.—So in Sallust repeatedly, both with acc. and de, of an historical statement, to bring to a conclusion, to relate: “cetera quam paucissumis absolvam, J. 17, 2: multa paucis,” Cic. Fragm. Hist. 1, n. 2: “de Catilinae conjuratione paucis absolvam,” id. Cat. 4, 3; cf.: “nunc locorum situm, quantum ratio sinit, absolvam,” Amm. 23, 6.— Hence, absŏlūtus , a, um, P. a., brought to a conclusion, finished, ended, complete (cf. absolvo, E.).

A. In gen.: “nec appellatur vita beata nisi confecta atque absoluta,” when not completed and concluded, Cic. Fin. 2, 27, 87; cf.: “perfecte absolutus,” id. ib. 4, 7, 18; and: “absolutus et perfectus per se,” id. Part. Or. 26, 94 al.—Comp., Quint. 1, 1, 37.—Sup., Auct. ad Her. 2, 18, 28; Plin. 35, 10, 36, § 74; Tac. Or. 5 al.—

B. Esp.

1. In rhet. lang., unrestricted, unconditional, absolute: “hoc mihi videor videre, esse quasdam cum adjunctione necessitudines, quasdam simplices et absolutas,” Cic. Inv. 2, 57, 170.—

2. In gram.

a. Nomen absolutum, which gives a complete sense without any thing annexed, e. g.: “deus,” Prisc. p. 581 P.—

b. Verbum absolutum, in Prisc. p. 795 P., that has no case with it; in Diom. p. 333 P., opp. inchoativum.—

c. Adjectivum absolutum, which stands in the positive, Quint. 9, 3, 19.—Adv.: absŏlūtē , fully, perfectly, completely (syn. perfecte), distinctly, unrestrictedly, absolutely, Cic. Tusc. 4, 17, 38; 5, 18, 53; id. Fin. 3, 7, 26; id. Top. 8, 34 al.—Comp., Macr. Somn. Scip. 2, 15.

120 pŏsĭtīvus , a, um, adj. id.,

I. positive, in gram.

I. Settled by arbitrary appointment or agreement (opp. to natural): “nomina non positiva esse sed naturalia,” Gell. 10, 4 in lemm.—

II. Positivum nomen.

1. An adjective in the positive degree, Cledon. p. 1893 P.—

2. A substantive, Macr. S. 1, 4, 9.

121 prīmus , a, um,

I. adj. sup. [obsol. prep. pri (prei); whence also prior, priscus; cf.: privus, privo, etc., and v. pro], the first, first (properly only when three or more are referred to. The first, as opp. to the second, is prior; “but primus is rarely used for prior,” Cic. Sest. 19, 44 al.).

I. In gen.: “qui primus vulnus dicitur obligavisse,” Cic. N. D. 3, 22, 57: “primus sentio mala nostra: primus rescisco omnia: Primus porro obnuntio,” Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 7: “verum primum: verum igitur et extremum,” Cic. Off. 3, 6, 27: “primae litterae,” id. Att. 9, 6, 5: “primus inter homines nobilissimos,” id. Sest. 3, 6: “primi ex omnibus philosophis,” id. Fin. 4, 7, 17: “primus Graeciae in Thraciam introiit,” Nep. Alcib. 7, 4: “primus de mille fuisses,” Ov. H. 17, 105: “in primis,” among the first, in the foremost ranks, Nep. Paus. 5, 3: “in primis stetit,” id. Epam. 10, 3: “in primis pugnantes,” Sall. C. 60, 6: leonem primus, aut in primis ferire, id. J. 6, 1: utque pedum primis infans vestigia plantis institerat (= ut primum, etc., poet.), Verg. A. 11, 573: “primus post eos quos poëtae tradiderunt movisse aliqua circa rhetoricen Empedocles dicitur (= secundus or proximus ab iis),” Quint. 3, 1, 8.—

II. In partic.

A. In time or place, first, fore, foremost, the first part; sometimes to be translated, the end, extremity, etc.: “in primā provinciā,” at the entrance of the province, Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 2: “digitus,” the tip of the finger, Cat. 2, 3: “dentes,” the front teeth, Plin. 19, 2, 11, § 35: “ranis prima lingua cohaeret,” the end of the tongue, id. 11, 37, 65, § 172: “primā statim nocte,” at the beginning of the night, Col. 10, 190: “sol,” i. e. the rising sun, Verg. A. 6, 255: “luna,” i. e. the new moon, Plin. 2, 13, 10, § 56.—With quisque, the first possible, the very first: “primo quoque tempore,” at the very first opportunity, Cic. Fam. 13, 57, 1: “primo quoque die,” id. Phil. 8, 11, 33: “me tibi primum quidque concedente,” id. Ac. 2, 16, 49: “fluit voluptas et prima quaeque avolat,” id. Fin. 2, 32, 106.—Subst.: prīma , ōrum, n., the first part, the beginning: “quod bellum, si prima satis prospera fuissent,” Liv. 8, 3.—Of the first principles or elements of things, Lucr. 4, 186: “prima consiliorum (for prima consilia),” Tac. H. 2, 11: a primo, from the beginning, at first: “multum improbiores sunt quam a primo credidi,” Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 139; Ter. Phorm. 4, 2, 14; 4, 3, 37: “in illā pro Ctesiphonte oratione submissius a primo: deinde pressius,” Cic. Or. 8, 26: “suam vim retinere a primo ad extremum,” id. Fin. 4, 13, 32: “hoc a primo cogitavit,” id. Att. 8, 11, 2; id. Phil. 2, 30, 75 Halm ad loc.: “id a primo rectissime dicitur,” id. Fin. 3, 9, 32 Madv. ad loc.: in primo, in front, before, in the beginning, first: “equites in primo late ire jubet,” in the van, Sall. J. 68, 4: “qui numerus in primo viget, jacet in extremo,” Cic. Or. 64, 215. —

B. First in rank or station, chief, principal, most excellent, eminent, distinguished, noble (cf.: “princeps, primores): evocat ad se Massiliensium quindecim primos,” Caes. B. C. 1, 35: “sui municipii facile primus,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 15: “homo,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 17, § 37: “primis urbis placuisse,” Hor. Ep. 1, 20, 23: “juvenum primi,” Verg. A. 9, 785: “est genus hominum, qui esse primos se omnium rerum volunt Nec sunt,” Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 17: “quia sum apud te primus,” I am the first in your favor, id. ib. 1, 2, 10: “primus humani generis,” Sil. 17, 255: “urbem Italiae primam,” Petr. 116: “praedium,” Cato, R. R. 1: “suavia prima habere,” to give the first place to, think the most of, Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 9: “otium atque divitiae, quae prima mortales putant,” Sall. C. 36, 4: “cura,” a chief part, Plin. 5, 25, 21, § 88.—Also, most conspicuous, chief, in a bad sense: “peccatores, quorum primus ego sum,” Vulg. 1 Tim. 1, 15: “primas partes, or primas agere,” to play the first part, to occupy the first rank, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27: “primas in causis agebat Hortensius,” Cic. Brut. 90, 308; 47: primas dare, to give the first place, ascribe the greatest importance to a thing: “actioni primas dedisse Demosthenes dicitur, cum rogaretur, quid in dicendo esset primum: huic secundas, huic tertias,” Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 213: primas deferre, to transfer the first or principal part: “amoris erga me tibi primas defero,” i. e. I assign to you the first rank among those who love me, id. Att. 1, 17, 5: primas concedere, to yield the first place: “si Allienus tibi primas in dicendo partes concesserit,” id. Div. in Caecil. 15, 49: “primas tenere,” to play the first part, be the best, id. Brut. 95, 327: cum primis, and in primis (also written in one word, impri-mis ), with or among the first, chiefly, especially, principally, particularly: “homo domi suae cum primis locuples,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 69: “in primis lautus eques,” Nep. Att. 13, 1: “oppidum in primis Siciliae clarum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 35, § 86: “homo in primis improbissimus,” id. ib. 2, 3, 27, § “68: vir magnus in primis,” id. N. D. 1, 43, 120: “in primis hoc a se animadversum esse dicebat,” id. de Or. 3, 5, 17: “in primis nobis sermo de te fuit,” id. Att. 5, 1, 3: “in primis ... dein,” first, in the first place, Sall. J. 26, 3. —Hence, adv., primo and primum; also, ante- and post-class. and very rare, prime and primiter (the form primo is usually limited to that which is strictly first in time; primum in enumerations of contemporary facts, things, or arguments, where the order is at the speaker's choice; cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 920 sq.).

A. prīmō , at first, at the beginning, first, firstly.

1. In gen.: “aedes primo ruere rebamur,” Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 42: “neque credebam primo mihimet Sosiae,” id. ib. 2, 1, 50; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 9, § 26: “primo non accredidit,” Nep. Dat. 3, 4: “Themistocles solus primo profectus est,” id. Them. 6, 5: “contemptus est primo a tyrannis,” id. Thras. 2, 2; id. Ham. 2, 2.—

2. With dein, deinde, inde, post, postea, mox, denique, nunc: “primo Stoicorum more agamus, deinde nostro instituto vagabimur,” Cic. Tusc. 3, 6, 13: “primo pecuniae, dein imperii cupido crevit,” Sall. C. 10, 3: “primo ... deinde ... tum ... tum,” Cic. Fin. 1, 16, 50: “primo ... deinde,” Liv. 1, 27; Curt. 3, 12, 6; 4, 16, 21; 9, 10, 11: “primo abstinentiā utendum: deinde danda, etc.,” Cels. 5, 26, 34: “primo ... inde, ... hinc,” Liv. 30, 11, 6: “haec primo paulatim crescere: post, etc.,” Sall. C. 10, 6: “dissuadente primo Vercingetorige, post concedente,” Caes. B. G. 7, 15: “primo ... postea ... postremo, etc.,” Liv. 26, 39: “primo ... mox,” id. 1, 50: “primo ... mox deinde,” Just. 1, 3: “primo negitare, denique saepius fatigatus, etc.,” Sall. J. 111, 2: “neque illi credebam primo, nunc vero palam est,” Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 91.—

3. (Mostly post-Aug. for primum.) With iterum, rursus, secundo: “primo ... iterum,” Liv. 2, 51: “primo ... rursus,” Suet. Aug. 17: “primo ... secundo,” Phaedr. 4, 10, 16.—

B. prīmum , at first, first, in the first place, in the beginning (class.).

1. In enumerations, with a foll. deinde, tum: “Caesar primum suo, deinde omnium e conspectu remotis equis,” Caes. B. G. 1, 25: “primum ... deinde ... deinde,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 58, § 143: “primum ... deinde ... tum ... postremo,” id. N. D. 2, 1, 3: “primum ... deinde ... praeterea ... postremo,” id. Div. 2, 56, 116: “primum ... tum ... deinde ... post ... tum ... deinde ....,” id. Fin. 5, 23, 65; id. Font. 14, 31; cf.: “primum ... secundo loco ... deinde ... tum,” id. Leg. 1, 13, 35; id. Inv. 2, 27, 79; Curt. 3, 6, 16; 8, 10, 9; Liv. 1, 28; Nep. Them. 2, 3; id. Epam. 1, 3: “primum ... subinde,” Hor. Ep. 1, 8, 15: “primum ... mox,” id. ib. 2, 2, 93.—

2. Without other adverbs.

(a). In gen.: “quaerenda pecunia primum est,” Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 53: “te Quicumque primum Produxit,” id. C. 2, 13, 2; id. S. 2, 3, 41.—

(b). Strengthened with omnium, first of all, Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 13: “primum omnium ego ipse vigilo,” Cic. Cat. 2, 9, 19.—

3. With ut, ubi, simulac, cum.

(a). Ut primum, ubi primum, simul ac primum, cum primum, as soon as ever, as soon as: “ut primum potestas data est augendae dignitatis tuae, etc.,” Cic. Fam. 10, 13, 1: “ubi primum potuit, istum reliquit,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 20, § 48: “simul ac primum niti possunt, etc.,” id. N. D. 2, 48, 124: “tum affuerat, cum primum dati sunt judices,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 23, § 57.—

(b). Nunc primum, now first, now for the first time (cf.: nunc demum, now at last): “post illa nunc primum audio, Quid illo sit factum,” Ter. And. 5, 4, 33.—

(g). With dum (also by Plaut. joined in one word, pri-mumdum ), in the first place, first (anteclass.): “primum dum, si falso insimulas, etc. Iterum si id verum est, etc.,” Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 26: “omnium primumdum haed aedes jam face occlusae sicut,” id. Most. 2, 1, 53; 1, 2, 39; id. Capt. 1, 2, 57: “primum dum omnium male dictitatur tibi vulgo in sermonibus,” id. Trin. 1, 2, 61.—

(d). With adv. or other expression of time, for the first time: “hodie primum ire in ganeum,” Plaut. As. 5, 2, 37: “quo die primum convocati su mus,” Cic. Phil. 5, 11, 30.—*

C. prīmē , es pecially: fabula prime proba, Naev. ap. Charis. p. 188 P.; cf. Prisc. p. 603 P.—

D. prīmĭter , at first, first of all (ante- and post-class.): eripis primiter dapes, Pompon. ap. Non. 154, 26; Inscr. (of the beginning of the third century of Christ) Lab. Epigr. Lat. Scop. in Egitto.

 

122 compăro (conp- ), āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. compar,

I. to couple together in the same relation, to connect in pairs, to pair, match, unite, join; constr. aliquid cum aliquā re, alicui rei, aliqua inter se, or absol.

I. Lit. (rare but class.).

A. In gen.: “ut inter ignem et terram aquam deus animamque poneret, eaque inter se compararet et proportione conjungeret, ut, etc.,” Cic. Univ. 5 med.: “comparari postremo,” id. ib. 5: “ambo cum simul aspicimus, non possumus non vereri, ne male comparati sitis,” Liv. 40, 46, 4: “L. Volumnius cum Ap. Claudio consul est factus, priore item consulatu inter se conparati,” id. 10, 15, 12: “labella cum labellis,” Plaut. As. 3, 3, 78: quin meum senium cum dolore tuo conjungam et comparem, Att. ap. Non. p. 255, 31 (Trag. Rel. v. 90 Rib.).— Hence,

B. Esp. of combatants, for the usu. compono, to bring together to a contest, to match: “ut ego cum patrono disertissimo comparer,” Cic. Quint. 1, 2: “cum Aesernino Samnite Pacideianus comparatus,” id. Q. Fr. 3, 4, 2; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 257, 18: “Scipio et Hannibal, velut ad supremum certamen comparati duces,” Liv. 30, 28, 8: “hunc Threci comparavit,” Suet. Calig. 35.—

II. Trop.

A. To couple together in judgment.

1. To count one object fully equal to another, to place on the same footing, put on an equality with (rare but class.): neminem tibi profecto hominem ex omnibus aut anteposuissem umquam aut etiam comparassem, Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. p. 256, 4; cf. Nep. Iphic. 1, 1; Liv. 28, 28, 15; Quint. 10, 1, 98; Cat. 61, 65 al.: “cum quibus (hominibus) comparari sordidum,” Cic. Rep. 1, 5, 9; so id. Fam. 12, 30, 7: “et se mihi comparat Ajax?” Ov. M. 13, 338.—

2. In gen., to place together in comparison, to compare (the usu. signif. of the word in prose and poetry): “homo quod rationis est particeps similitudines comparat,” Cic. Off. 1, 4, 11: “majora, minora, paria,” id. de Or. 2, 40, 172; id. Top. 18, 68: “metaphora rei comparatur, quam volumus exprimere,” Quint. 8, 6, 8.—With dat.: “equi fortis et victoris senectuti, comparat suam,” Cic. Sen. 5, 14: “si regiae stirpi comparetur ignobilis,” Curt. 8, 4, 25: “restat ut copiae copiis conparentur vel numero vel, etc.,” Liv. 9, 19, 1: “se majori pauperiorum turbae,” Hor. S. 1, 1, 112: “Periclem fulminibus et caelesti fragori comparat,” Quint. 12, 10, 24; cf. id. 12, 10, 65: “necesse est sibi nimium tribuat, qui se nemini comparat,” id. 1, 2, 18: “nec tantum inutilibus comparantur utilia, sed inter se quoque ipsa,” id. 3, 8, 33; cf id. 3, 6, 87.—With cum and abl.: “hominem cum homine et tempus cum tempore et rem cum re,” Cic. Dom. 51, 130; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 54, § 121: “cum illo... ceteris rebus nullo modo comparandus es,” id. Phil. 2, 46, 117: “cum meum factum cum tuo comparo,” id. Fam. 3, 6, 1; id. Off. 3, 1, 2; 2, 6, 20: “corporis commoda cum externis et ipsa inter se corporis,” id. ib. 2, 25, 88: “longiorem orationem cum magnitudine utilitatis,” id. ib. 2, 6, 20: “victoria, quae cum Marathonio possit comparari tropaeo,” Nep. Them. 5, 3: “totam causam nostram cum tota adversarii causā,” Quint. 7, 2, 22; 12, 7, 3.—With ad: “nec comparandus hic quidem ad illum est,” Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 14: “sed nihil comparandi causā loquar,” I will institute no comparison, Cic. Pis. 1, 3.— Hence,

3. With rel.-clause, to reflect, consider, judge; or to prove, show, by comparing (rare): id ego semper mecum sic agito et comparo, quo pacto magnam molem minuam, Att. ap. Non. p. 256, 20: “cum comparetur, utrum, etc.,” Auct. Her. 2, 28, 45: “comparando quam intestina corporis seditio similis esset irae plebis in patres, etc.,” Liv. 2, 32, 12; cf. Tac. A. 3, 5: “deinde comparat, quanto plures deleti sint homines, etc.,” Cic. Off. 2, 5, 16.—

B. Comparare inter se, t. t., of colleagues in office, to agree together in respect to the division of duties, to come to an agreement (freq. in Liv., esp. of the consuls, who made an arrangement between themselves in respect to their provinces): “inter se decemviri comparabant, quos ire ad bellum, quos praeesse exercitibus oporteret,” Liv. 3, 41, 7: “senatusconsultum factum est, ut consules inter se provincias Italiam et Macedoniam compararent sortirenturve,” id. 42, 31, 1; 8, 20, 3; 32, 8, 1; 33, 43, 2; 26, 8, 8; “41, 6, 1: (consules) comparant inter se ut, etc.,” id. 8, 6, 13; 10, 15, 12: “ut consules sortirentur conparerentve inter se, uter, etc.,” id. 24, 10, 2; “of the tribunes of the people,” id. 29, 20, 9; “of the proprætors,” id. 40, 47, 1.—

C. (In acc. with I. B.) Si scias quod donum huic dono contra comparet, opposes to this, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 63.—Hence, * compărātē , adv., in or by comparison, comparatively: “quaerere (opp. simpliciter),” Cic. Top. 22, 84.

123 compărātīvus , a, um, adj. 1. comparo,

I. of or pertaining to comparison, depending on comparison, comparative.

I. In gen.: “judicatio,” Cic. Inv. 2, 25, 76 (cf. 1. comparatio, I.): “genus causae (opp. simplex),” Quint. 7, 4, 3: “vocabulum,” Gell. 5, 21, 13.—Subst.: compărātīva , ōrum, n., words in the comparative degree, comparatives, Quint. 9, 3, 19.—Adv.: compărā-tīvē , with comparison: “dicere,” Gell. 5, 21, 14; Ambros. de Fide, 5, 9, 71.—

II. Esp. in gram.

A. Gradus, or absol., the comparative, Don. p. 1745 P. et saep.—

B. Casus, the ablative, Prisc. p. 671 P.

124 mĕdĭus , a, um, adj. Sanscr. madhya, the same; Gr. μέσος; Angl. - Sax. midd; Germ. Mitte; cf. dimidius, meridies (medi-), etc.,

I. that is in the middle or midst, mid, middle (class.).

I. Adj.

A. Lit.: “terra complexa medium mundi locum,” Cic. Rep. 6, 18, 18; cf. id. ib. 6, 17, 17: “medium mundi locum petere,” id. Tusc. 5, 24, 69: “versus aeque prima, et media, et extrema pars attenditur,” id. de Or. 3, 50, 192: “ultimum, proximum, medium tempus,” id. Prov. Cons. 18, 43: “in foro medio,” in the midst of the forum, Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 3, 6; cf.: “medio foro,” in the open forum, Suet. Claud. 18 al.: “in solio medius consedit,” sat in the middle, Ov. F. 3, 359; Verg. A. 7, 169: “considit scopulo medius,” id. G. 4, 436: “concilio medius sedebat,” Ov. M. 10, 144: “ignes,” Verg. A. 12, 201: “medio tempore,” in the meantime, meanwhile, Suet. Caes. 76: vinum novum, vetus, medium, i. e. neither old nor new, Varr. ap. Gell. 13, 31, 14: “cum plenus fluctu medius foret alveus,” full to the middle, Juv. 12, 30.—With dat.: “Peloponnesii Megaram, mediam Corintho Athenisque urbem, condidere,” midway between Corinth and Athens, Vell. 1, 2, 4.—With abl.: “si medius Polluce et Castore ponar,” between, Ov. Am. 2, 16, 13.—With inter: “cum inter bellum et pacem medium nihil sit,” there is no medium, no middle course between, Cic. Phil. 8, 1, 4: “inter quos numeros duo medii inveniuntur (sc. numeri),” Mart. Cap. 7, § 737.—With gen.: “locus medius regionum earum,” half-way between, Caes. B. G. 4, 19: “locus medius juguli summique lacerti,” between, Ov. M. 6, 409; 5, 564: “et medius juvenum ibat,” id. F. 5, 67: “medius silentūm,” Stat. Th. 4, 683.—With ex: “medius ex tribus,” Sall. J. 11, 3: “medium arripere aliquem,” to seize one by the middle, around the body, Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 18: “juvenem medium complectitur,” Liv. 23, 9, 9: “Alcides medium tenuit,” held him fast by the middle, Luc. 4, 652: “medium ostendere unguem,” to point with the middle finger, Juv. 10, 53.—

2. Transf., half (ante- and postclass.): “hieme demunt cibum medium,” half their food, Varr. R. R. 3, 7, 9: “scrupulum croci,” Pall. Jan. 18: aurum ... Italicis totum, medium provincialibus reddidit, Capitol. Anton. Pius, 4 fin.—

B. Trop., of the middle, not very great or small, middling, medial, moderate.

1. Of age: “aetatis mediae vir,” of middle age, Phaedr. 2, 2, 3.—

2. Of plans, purposes, etc.: “nihil medium, nec spem nec curam, sed immensa omnia volventes animo,” Liv. 2, 49, 5: “medium quiddam tenere,” Plin. Ep. 4, 9, 9.—

3. Of intellect: “eloquentiā medius,” middling, tolerable, Vell. 2, 29, 2: “ingenium,” moderate, Tac. H. 1, 49.—

4. Undetermined, undecided: “medios esse,” i. e. neutral, Cic. Att. 10, 8, 4: “medium se gerere,” Liv. 2, 27: “se dubium mediumque partibus praestitit,” Vell. 2, 21, 1; cf.: “responsum,” indefinite, ambiguous, Liv. 39, 39: vocabula, that can be taken in a good or bad sense, ambiguous, Gell. 12, 9, 1. —

5. Indifferent, not imperative: officium, a duty which is not distinctly enjoined by the moral law, but is sustained by preponderant reasoning: “medium officium id esse dicunt (Graeci) quod cur factum sit, ratio probabilis reddi possit,” Cic. Off. 1, 3, 8; cf.: “ex quo intellegitur, officium medium quiddam esse, quod neque in bonis ponatur neque in contrariis,” id. Fin. 3, 17, 58; cf. “sqq. and Madv. ad loc.: artes,” which in themselves are neither good nor bad, indifferent, Quint. 2, 20, 1.—

6. Intermediate: “medium erat in Anco ingenium, et Numae et Romuli memor,” of a middle kind, resembling each in some degree, Liv. 1, 32, 4: “nihil habet ista res (actoris) medium, sed aut lacrimas meretur aut risum,” Quint. 6, 1, 45: “ille jam paene medius adfectus est ex amoribus et desideriis amicorum,” Quint. 6, 2, 17.—Hence, as subst.: mĕdĭus , i, m., one who stands or comes between, a mediator: “medium sese offert,” as a mediator, Verg. A. 7, 536: “pacator mediusque Syphax,” Sil. 16, 222: “pacis eras mediusque belli,” arbiter, Hor. C. 2, 19, 28; cf.: “nunc mediis subeant irrita verba deis,” oaths in which the gods were called upon to be mediators, Ov. R. Am. 678.—

7. Central, with ex or in: “ex factione media consul,” fully committed to it, Sall. H. 3, 61, 8; “so (nearly = intimus), viros fortīs et magnanimos eosdem bonos et simplicīs ... esse volumus: quae sunt ex media laude justititiae,” these qualities are clearly among those which make uprightness praiseworthy, Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63: “partitiones oratoriae, quae e media illa nostra Academia effloruerunt,” id. Part. Or. 40, 139: “ingressio e media philosophia repetita est,” id. Or. 3, 11; id. Leg. 2, 21, 53: “in medio maerore et dolore,” id. Tusc. 4, 29, 63; id. Q. Fr. 2, 15, 1: “in media dimicatione,” the hottest of the fight, Suet. Aug. 10; cf.: “in medio ardore certaminis,” Curt. 8, 4, 27: “in media solitudine,” the most profound, Sen. Brev. Vit. 12, 2: “in mediis divitiis,” in abundant wealth, id. Vit. Beat. 26, 1: “in medio robore virium,” Liv. 28, 35, 6: “in medio ardore belli,” id. 24, 45, 4: “in media reipublicae luce,” the full blaze of public life, Quint. 1, 2, 18: “media inter pocula,” Juv. 8, 217.—Hence,

II. Subst.: mĕdĭum , ii, n., the middle, midst.

A. Lit.

1. Of space (very rare in Cic.): “in medio aedium sedens,” Liv. 1, 57, 9: “maris,” id. 31, 45, 11; for which, without in, medio aedium eburneis sellis sedere, id. 5, 41, 2: “medio viae ponere,” id. 37, 13, 10: “in agmine in primis modo, modo in postremis, saepe in medio adesse,” Sall. J. 45, 2; for which, without in, medio sextam legionem constituit, Tac. A. 13, 38: “medio montium porrigitur planities,” id. ib. 1, 64: “medio stans hostia ad aras,” Verg. G. 3, 486: “medio tutissimus ibis,” Ov. M. 2, 137: “in medium geminos immani pondere caestus Projecit,” Verg. A. 5, 401: “in medium sarcinas coniciunt,” Liv. 10, 36, 1; 13: “equitatus consulem in medium acceptum, armis protegens, in castra reduxit,” id. 21, 46, 9.— Trop.: “tamquam arbiter honorarius medium ferire voluisse,” to cut through the middle, Cic. Fat. 17, 39: “intacta invidiā media sunt, ad summa ferme tendit,” Liv. 45, 35.—

2. Of time: “diei,” Liv. 27, 48: “medio temporis,” in the meantime, meanwhile, Tac. A. 13, 28; cf.: “nec longum in medio tempus, cum,” the interval, Verg. A. 9, 395; Ov. M. 4, 167; Plin. Ep. 7, 27, 13.—

B. Transf.

1. The midst of all, the presence of all, the public, the community (class.): “in medio omnibus palma est posita, qui artem tractant musicam,” lies open to all, Ter. Phorm. prol. 16: “tabulae sunt in medio,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 104: “rem totam in medio ponere,” publicly, id. ib. 2, 1, 11, § “29: ponam in medio sententias philosophorum,” id. N. D. 1, 6, 13: “dicendi ratio in medio posita,” lies open to all, id. de Or. 1, 3, 12: “rem in medium proferre,” to publish, make known, id. Fam. 15, 27, 6: vocare in medium, before the public, before a public tribunal: “rem in medium vocare coeperunt,” id. Clu. 28, 77: “in medio relinquere,” to leave it to the public, leave it undecided, id. Cael. 20, 48; Sall. C. 19, 16: pellere e medio, to expel, reject, Enn. ap. Cic. Mur. 14, 30 (Ann. v. 272 Vahl.); Cic. Off. 3, 8, 37: “cum jacentia verba sustulimus e medio,” adopt words from the people, common words, id. de Or. 3, 45, 177; cf.: munda sed e medio consuetaque verba puellae Scribite, Ov. A. A. 3, 479: tollere de medio, to do away with, abolish: “litteras,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 71, § 176: tollere de medio, to put out of the way, cut off, destroy: “hominem,” id. Rosc. Am. 7, 20: “de medio removere,” to put out of sight, id. ib. 8, 23: e medio excedere or abire, to leave the world, to die: “e medio excessit,” she is dead, Ter. Phorm. 5, 7, 74: “ea mortem obiit, e medio abiit,” id. ib. 5, 8, 30: “tollite lumen e medio,” Juv. 9, 106: recedere de medio, to go away, retire, withdraw: “cur te mihi offers? recede de medio,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 38, 112: “in medio esse,” to be present, Ter. Ad. 3, 5, 32: “in medium venire or procedere,” to appear, come forward, show one's self in public, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 71, § 175: in medium, before the public, for the public, for the community: “communes utilitates in medium afferre,” id. Off. 1, 7, 22: “consulere in medium,” to care for the public good, for the good of all, Verg. A. 11, 335; “so opp. separantem suas res a publicis,” Liv. 24, 22, 14 sq.; 26, 12, 7: “quaerere,” to make acquisitions for the use of all, Verg. G. 1, 127: cedere, to fall or devolve to the community, Tac. H. 4, 64: “conferre laudem,” i. e. so that all may have a share of it, Liv. 6, 6: “dare,” to communicate for the use of all, Ov. M. 15, 66: “in medium conferre, in gaming,” to put down, put in the pool, Suet. Aug. 71: in medio, for sub dio, in the open air: “scorpios fugari posse, si aliqui ex eis urantur in medio,” Pall. 1, 35, 12.—

2. A half (ante-class. and post-Aug.): “scillae medium conterunt cum aqua,” Varr. R. R. 2, 7: “scrobem ad medium completo,” Col. Arb. 4, 5.—Hence,

III. Adv.: mĕdĭē , in the middle, in a middling degree, moderately, tolerably (except once in Tac. only post-class.): “qui noluerant medie,” kept quiet, remained neutral, Tac. H. 1, 19: “nec plane optimi, nec oppido deterrimi sunt, sed quasi medie morati,” App. Dogm. Plat. 2, p. 22, 23; Eutr. 7, 13; Lact. 6, 15 fin.: “ortus medie humilis,” Aur. Vict. Caes. 20.—

2. Indefinitely, Ambros. in Luc. 8, 17, 34.

125 sŭpĕrus , a, um

I. nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages: “super inferque vicinus,” Cato, R. R. 149, 1: “totus super ignis,” Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superūm, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. super.

I. Posit.

A. Adj.

1. In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.: “at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi,” Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36: “omnes di deaeque superi, inferi,” Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6: “ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,” Cic. Lael. 3, 12: “limen superum inferumque salve,” Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1: “portae Phrygiae limen,” id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.): “carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes,” Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138: “di,” id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18: “superis deorum Gratus et imis,” id. ib. 1, 10, 19: “ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64: “spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium,” id. N. D. 2, 56, 140: “omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes,” Verg. A. 6, 788: “supera ad convexa,” to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.): “lumen,” Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48: “domus deorum,” Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44; “so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum,” Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.: “de supero, quom huc accesserit,” from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so, “ex supero,” Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248. —

2. In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions): “superā de parte,” i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855: “superas evadere ad auras,” Verg. A. 6, 128: “superum ad lumen ire,” id. ib. 6, 680: “aurae,” Ov. M. 5, 641: “orae,” Verg. A. 2, 91: “limen,” id. ib. 6, 680.—

B. Substt.

1. Sŭpĕri , ōrum, m.

(a). They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6: “multum fleti ad superos,” i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481: “(Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos,” the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.: “ut oblitos superum paterere dolores,” Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poët. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252: “epistula ad superos scripta,” i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.—

(b). (Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities: “quae Superi Manesque dabant,” Verg. A. 10, 34: “aspiciunt Superi mortalia,” Ov. M. 13, 70: “o Superi!” id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729; “pro Superi,” id. Tr. 1, 2, 59: “terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum,” Verg. A. 1, 4: “illa propago Contemptrix Superum,” Ov. M. 1, 161: “exemplo Superorum,” id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so, “Superorum,” id. P. 1, 1, 43: “postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis,” Verg. A. 3, 2: “scilicet is Superis labor est,” id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16: “superis deorum Gratus et imis,” id. ib. 1, 10, 19: “flectere Superos,” Verg. A. 7, 312: “te per Superos ... oro,” id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.—

2. sŭpĕra , ōrum, n.

(a). The heavenly bodies: “Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet,” Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.: “cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus,” id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motūs superūm atque inferūm, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).—

(b). Higher places (sc. loca): “supera semper petunt,” tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42: “(Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens,” the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.

II. Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor , ĭus.

A. Lit., of place, higher, upper: “inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant,” Caes. B. G. 7, 46: “dejectus quī potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus?” Cic. Caecin. 18, 50: “in superiore qui habito cenaculo,” Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3: “tota domus superior vacat,” the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10: “superior accumbere,” Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42: “de loco superiore dicere,” i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102: “agere,” i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14; “and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,” id. Fam. 3, 8, 2: “sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur,” id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so, “ex loco superiore,” id. ib. 3, 4: “loca,” id. ib. 1, 10, 4; “3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere,” id. B. C. 3, 98: “qui in superiore acie constiterant,” id. B. G. 1, 24: “ex superiore et ex inferiore scripturā docendum,” i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.: “posteriori superius non jungitur,” id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.—

B. Trop.

1. Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding: “superiores solis defectiones,” Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25: “quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,” id. Cat. 1, 1, 1: “refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant,” Caes. B. G. 7, 58: “superioribus aestivis,” Hirt. B. G. 8, 46: “superioribus temporibus,” Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1: “tempus (opp. posterius),” id. Dom. 37, 99: “tempora (opp. inferiora),” Suet. Claud. 41: “annus,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47: “anno superiore,” id. Har. Resp. 8, 15: “superioris anni acta,” Suet. Caes. 23: “in superiore vitā,” Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, Caes. B. G. 2, 20: “testimonium conveniens superiori facto,” Hirt. B. G. 8, 53: “superius facinus novo scelere vincere,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116: “superioris more crudelitatis uti,” Nep. Thras. 3, 1: “superius genus,” mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146: “nuptiae,” former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15: “vir,” first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.—

b. Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former: “omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis,” Caes. B. C. 2, 5: “aetate superiores,” Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1: “superior Africanus,” the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121: “Dionysius,” id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.: “quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur,” Cic. Or. 34, 120.—

2. Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior: “Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat,” Caes. B. G. 7, 65: “numero superiores,” Hirt. B. G. 8, 12: “hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum,” id. ib. 8, 19: “se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum,” Cic. Caecin. 1, 2: “semper discessit superior,” Nep. Hann. 1, 2: “si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset,” Sall. C. 39, 4: “ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint,” Caes. B. G. 5, 15: “multo superiores bello esse,” Nep. Alcib. 4, 7: “superiorem Appium in causā fecit,” Liv. 5, 7, 1.—

3. Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.

(a). With abl. respect.: “pecuniis superiores,” Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59: “loco, fortunā, famā superiores,” id. Lael. 25, 94: “habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem,” id. Fam. 2, 18, 2: “ordine,” id. ib. 13, 5, 2: “facilitate et humanitate superior,” id. Off. 1, 26, 90: “si superior ceteris rebus esses,” id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.—

(b). Absol.: “ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitiā, sic quodam modo inferiores extollere,” Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 20, 71: “ut quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,” id. Off. 1, 26, 90: “invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus ... sed etiam superioribus invidetur,” id. de Or. 2, 52, 209: “premendoque superiorem sese extollebat,” Liv. 22, 12, 12: “cui omnem honorem, ut superiori habuit,” Vell. 2, 101, 1.

III. Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.

A. ‡ sŭperrĭ-mus , assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Müll.; Charis. p. 130 P.—

B. sū^prēmus , a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.

1. Lit. (only poet.; cf. “summus, C. 1.): montesque sŭpremos Silvifragis vexat flabris,” the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so, “montes,” Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68: “rupes,” Sen. Oedip. 95: “arx,” Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.: “supremae Tethyos unda,” Mart. Spect. 3, 6.—

2. Trop.

a. Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).

(a). In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.—Hence, as subst.: suprēma , ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis; “sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo,” Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Müll.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212: “quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119: “supremo te sole domi manebo,” at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3: “jubare exorto jam nocte supremā, Col. poët. 10, 294: in te suprema salus,” last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114. —suprēmum , adverb., for the last time: “quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum,” Ov. M. 12, 526.—

(b). In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying: “supremo vitae die,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75: “dies,” id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13: “hora,” Tib. 1, 1, 59: “tempus,” Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151: “incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto,” i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22: “mors,” Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173: “finis,” id. ib. 2, 1, 12: “iter,” id. C. 2, 17, 11: “lumen,” Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so, “ore,” id. Tr. 3, 3, 87: “haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat,” Verg. A. 8, 583: “Nero in supremā irā duos calices crystallinos fregit,” in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29; “supremis suis annis,” in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58: “suprema ejus cura,” id. 7, 45, 46, § 150: “spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate,” Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61: “funera,” Ov. M. 3, 137: “oscula,” id. ib. 6, 278: “tori,” i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668: “ignis,” id. Am. 1, 15, 41: “ignes,” id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583: “officia,” Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so, “tabulae,” Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1: “tituli,” i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.—So of cities, etc.: “Troiae sorte supremā,” Verg. A. 5, 190: “dies regnis,” Ov. F. 2, 852. — suprēmum and suprēmō , adverb.: “animam sepulcro Condimus, et magnā supremum voce ciemus,” for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526: “anima exitura supremo,” Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.—Substt.

1. sŭ-prēmum , i, n., the last moment, end (very rare): “ventum ad supremum est,” Verg. A. 12, 803.—

2. suprēma , ōrum, n.

(a). The last moments, the close of life, death: “ut me in supremis consolatus est!” Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.: “statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae,” the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93: “circa suprema Neronis,” the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.—

(b). The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral: “supremis divi Augusti,” Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45: “suprema ferre (sc. munera),” Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.—

(g). A last will, testament: “nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti,” Tac. A. 1, 8: “miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc.,” Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.—

(d). The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.—

b. Of degree or rank, the highest, greatest, most exalted, supreme: “multa, quae appellatur suprema, instituta in singulos duarum ovium, triginta boum ... ultra quam (numerum) multam dicere in singulos jus non est, et propterea suprema appellatur, id est, summa et maxima,” Gell. 11, 1, 2 sq.: “macies,” Verg. A. 3, 590: “Juppiter supreme,” Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 55; id. Capt. 2, 3, 66; 5, 2, 23; id. Ps. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 42: Junonis supremus conjunx, Poët. ap. Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 115: “med antidhac Supremum habuisti com item consiliis tuis,” most intimate, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 15.—

C. summus , a, um from sup-ĭmus, sup-mus, uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).

1. Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.): “summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre,” the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Müll. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.): “summum jugum montis,” Caes. B. G. 1, 21: “summus mons,” the top of, id. ib. 1, 22: “feriunt summos fulmina montes,” the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poët. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48: “locus castrorum,” Caes. B. G. 2, 23: “in summā sacrā viā,” on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119: “in summā columnā conlocare,” id. Div. 1, 24, 48: “quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119: “Janus summus ab imo,” Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54: “ad aquam summam appropinquare,” Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10: “in aquā summā natare,” the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33: “apud summum puteum,” id. Mil. 4, 4, 16: “per summa volare aequora,” Verg. A. 5, 819: “summa cacumina linquunt,” id. ib. 6, 678: “mari summo,” id. ib. 1, 110: “prospexi Italiam summā ab undā,” id. ib. 6, 357: “summaque per galeam delibans oscula,” id. ib. 12, 434: “amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro,” Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83: “summam cutem novaculā decerpito,” Col. 12, 56, 1.—Of position, place, at table: “summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc.,” I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.—Hence, subst.: summus , i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table: “standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas,” Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so, “a summo dare (bibere),” Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.—

b. summum , i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.: “ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur,” Caes. B. G. 6, 26: “qui demersi sunt in aquā ... si non longe absunt a summo,” Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48: “leviter a summo inflexum bacillum,” id. Div. 1, 17, 30: “igitur discubuere . . . in summo Antonius,” Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch: “puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo,” Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25: “nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc.,” Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.—In mal. part.: “summa petere,” Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.—

2. Transf., of the voice: “jubeo te salvere voce summā,” Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.: “citaret Io Bacche! modo summā Voce, modo, etc.,” at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7: “vox (opp. ima),” Quint. 11, 3, 15: “summā voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare,” Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.: “summo haec clamore,” Plaut. Merc. prol. 59. —Adverb.: summum , at the utmost or farthest: “exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras,” Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2: “bis, terve summum,” id. Fam. 2, 1, 1: “triduo aut summum quatriduo,” id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.—

2. Trop.

a. Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.): “haec est praestituta summa argento dies,” Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so, “venit summa dies,” Verg. A. 2, 324: “ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc.,” Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31: “cum esset summā senectute,” id. Phil. 8, 10, 31: “in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi,” Luc. 2, 211: “summo carmine,” at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13: “eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur,” the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio; “quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus,” at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.— Adverb.: summum , for the last time: “nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque,” Albin. 1, 137. —

b. Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summā nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summā industriā, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.): “summi puerorum amores,” Cic. Lael. 10, 33: “spes civium,” id. ib. 3, 11: “fides, constantia justitiaque,” id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summāque inopiā, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72: “qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt,” id. ib. 6, 20: “non agam summo jure tecum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4: “tres fratres summo loco nati,” id. Fam. 2, 18, 2: “qui summo magistratui praeerat,” Caes. B. G. 1, 16: “concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia,” Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51: “quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit,” id. Inv. 1, 18, 26: “turpitudo,” id. Lael. 17, 61: “summum in cruciatum se venire,” Caes. B. G. 1, 31: “scelus,” Sall. C. 12, 5: “hiems,” the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2: “cum aestas summa esse coeperat,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80: “ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus,” id. Rep. 1, 34, 51: “summi ex Graeciā sapientissimique homines,” id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.: “summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti,” id. de Or. 1, 2, 6: “optimi et summi viri diligentia,” id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore'st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29: “summus Juppiter,” id. Cist. 2, 1, 40: “ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum,” id. Am. 1, 2, 6: “miles summi inperatoris,” Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68: “amicus summus,” the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.: “nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus,” id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.—Poet. in neutr. plur.: “summa ducum Atrides,” the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86: “summo rei publicae tempore,” at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46: “in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,” id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.: “summa salus rei publicae,” id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so, “res publica,” id. Planc. 27, 66; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2: “ad summam rem publicam,” Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.: “quo res summa loco, Panthu?” the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme: “non agam summo jure tecum,” deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumniā quādam et nimis callidā juris interpretatione; “ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium,” id. Off. 1, 10, 33. — Hence, summē , adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely: “quod me sollicitare summe solet,” Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295: “cupere aliquid,” id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15: “contendere,” Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2: “diffidere,” Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2: “admirari,” Quint. 10, 1, 70: “summe jucundum,” Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2: “officiosi,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63: “summe disertus vir,” Quint. 12, 1, 23: “summe munitus locus,” Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31: “summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda,” Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57: “mei summe observantissimus,” Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.

126 sŭperlātĭo , ōnis, f. superfero.

I. In rhet., an exaggerating, hyperbole: “veritatis superlatio atque trajectio,” Cic. de Or. 3, 53, 203; cf. Auct. Her. 4, 33, 44; Quint. 9, 2, 3; 9, 1, 29; 12, 10, 62: “malignitatis,” the highest degree, App. Dogm. Plat. 2, p. 20, 40.—

II. In gram., the superlative: “(soloecismus) per comparationes et superlationes,” Quint. 1, 5, 45; Charis. p. 88 sq. P.

127 sŭperlātīvus , a, um, adj. superlatus;

I. “in gram.: nomen,” superlative, in the superlative degree, Charis. p. 87 P.; Prisc. p. 605 ib.—

II. Hyperbolic, exaggerated: “sententiae,” Isid. 2, 21, 16. — Hence, adv.: sŭperlātīvē , superlatively, in the superlative, Charis. p. 87 P.

128 persōna , ae,

I. f [acc. to Gabius Bassus ap. Gell. 5, 7, 1 sq., from per-sŏno, to sound through, with the second syllable lengthened].

I. A mask, esp. that used by players, which covered the whole head, and was varied according to the different characters to be represented (syn. larva), Gell. 5, 7, 1: “personam tragicam forte vulpis viderat,” Phaedr. 1, 7, 1: “personam capiti detrahere,” Mart. 3, 43, 4: “persona adicitur capiti,” Plin. 12, 14, 32, § 59. The masks were usually made of clay: “cretea persona,” Lucr. 4, 297, cf. Mart. 14, 176, 1. And sometimes of the bark of wood: “oraque corticibus sumunt horrenda cavatis,” Verg. G. 2, 387: ut tragicus cantor ligno tegit ora cavato, Prud. adv Symm. 2, 646. The opening for the mouth was very large: “personae pallentis hiatum formidat infans,” Juv. 3, 175: “personis uti primus coepit Roscius Gallus praecipuus histrio, quod oculis obversis erat, nec satis decorus in personis nisi parasitus pronunciabat,” Diom. p. 486 P. Heads with such masks were used as ornaments for water-spouts, fountains, etc.: “Butades figulus primus personas tegularum extremis imbricibus imposuit, quae inter initia prostypa vocavit,” Plin. 35, 12, 43, § 152: “personae, e quarum rostris aqua salire solet,” Dig. 19, 1, 17 fin.: mulier nempe ipsa videtur, non personā loqui, a mask, a masked person, Juv 3, 96.—

II. Transf., a personage, character, part, represented by an actor: “parasiti persona,” Ter. Eun. prol. 26 sq.: “sub personā militis,” Gell. 13, 22, 11: “(tragici) nihil ex personā poëtae dixerunt,” Vell. 1, 3, 2.—Hence,

B. Also, transf. beyond the scenic lang., in gen., the part or character which any one sustains in the world (class.): “(ego), qui non heroum veteres casus fictosque luctus velim imitari atque adumbrare dicendo, neque actor sim alienae personae, sed auctor meae,” Cic. de Or. 2, 47, 194: “quam magnum est personam in re publicā tueri principis,” id. Phil. 8, 10, 29: “personam sustinere,” id. Pis. 11, 24: “personam, quam mihi tempus et res publica imposuit,” imposed upon me, id. Sull. 3, 8; cf.: “agenda est persona quam mihi miles imposuit,” Vop. Prob. 10, 7; Macr. S. 2, 7, 17: “partes lenitatis et misericordiae semper egi libenter: illam vero gravitatis severitatisque personam non appetivi, sed a re publicā mihi impositam sustinui,” Cic. Mur. 3, 6: “petitoris personam capere, accusatoris deponere,” id. Quint. 13, 46: “personam suscipere,” id. de Or. 1, 37, 169: “gravissimam personam sustinere,” id. Pis. 29, 71: “personam tenere,” id. de Or. 3, 14, 54: “personam gerere,” id. Off. 1, 32, 115: “abjectā quaestoriā personā comitisque assumptā,” id. Planc. 41, 100: “fateantur in Maeandrii personā esse expressam speciem civitatis,” id. Fl. 22, 53: “id Cicero suā ipsā personā frequentissime praecipit,” in his own name, Quint. 10, 5, 2: “cetera quae sunt a me in secundo libro de Oratore per Antonii personam disputata,” Cic. Fam 7, 32, 2 B. and K. (dub.; “al. ex personā): ex tuā personā enumerare possis, ut, etc.,” id. Inv. 1, 52, 99: “nihil ex personā poëtae disserunt,” Vell. 1, 3, 2; 1, 3, 3; so Col. 12, 3, 5; Gell. 10, 22, 1; Lact. Epit. 48, 7: “sub personā Paridis,” Suet. Dom. 10: so Gell. 10, 22, 24; 13, 22, 11: “alienam personam ferre,” Liv. 3, 36: non hominibus tantum, sed et rebus persona demenda est et reddenda facies sua, Sen. Ep. 24, 13: “hanc personam induisti: agenda est,” Sen. Ben. 2, 17, 2.—Hence,

2. A human being who performs any function, plays any part, a person, personage: “ut mea persona semper aliquid videretur habere populare,” Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, § “7: ecquae pacifica persona desideretur,” id. ib. 8, 12, 4: “hujus Staleni persona, populo jam nota atque perspecta,” id. Clu. 29, 78; id. Fam. 6, 6, 10: “induxi senem disputantem, quia nulla videbatur aptior persona,” id. Lael. 1, 4: “Laelii persona,” id. ib. 1, 4: “certis personis et aetatibus,” to people of a certain standing and of a certain age, Suet. Caes. 43: “minoribus quoque et personis et rebus,” to persons and things of less importance, id. Tib. 32; id. Aug. 27: “nulla distantia personarum,” Vulg. Deut. 1, 17: “personarum acceptio,” id. 2 Par. 19, 7; cf. id. Gal. 2, 6 al.: “ipse suā lege damnatus, cum, substituta filii personā, amplius quingentorum jugerum possideret,” Plin. 18, 3, 4, § 17: “denique haec fuit altera persona Thebis, sed tamen secunda, ita ut proxima esset Epaminondae,” the second chief personage, Nep. Pelop. 4, 3.—

(b). So of persons, opp. to things and actions: “ut rerum, ut personarum dignitates ferunt,” Cic. de Or. 3, 14, 53.—

(g). Law t. t., a being having legal rights and obligations (including the state, etc.; not including slaves; cf. Sandars ad Just. Inst. introd. § 37; “1, 3 prooem.): omne jus quo utimur, vel ad personas pertinet vel ad res vel ad actiones,” Dig. 1, 5, 1; Just. Inst. 1, 3 prooem.—

(d). A human being in gen., a person (post-Aug. and rare): “continuantes unum quodque (praenomen) per trinas personas,” Suet. Ner. 1: “cum dira et foedior omni Crimine persona est,” Juv. 4, 15.—

3. In the grammarians, a person: “quom item personarum natura triplex esset, qui loqueretur, ad quem, de quo,” Varr. L. L. 8, § 20 Müll.; so id. ib. 9, 24, § 32 et saep.

129 prīmus , a, um,

I. adj. sup. [obsol. prep. pri (prei); whence also prior, priscus; cf.: privus, privo, etc., and v. pro], the first, first (properly only when three or more are referred to. The first, as opp. to the second, is prior; “but primus is rarely used for prior,” Cic. Sest. 19, 44 al.).

I. In gen.: “qui primus vulnus dicitur obligavisse,” Cic. N. D. 3, 22, 57: “primus sentio mala nostra: primus rescisco omnia: Primus porro obnuntio,” Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 7: “verum primum: verum igitur et extremum,” Cic. Off. 3, 6, 27: “primae litterae,” id. Att. 9, 6, 5: “primus inter homines nobilissimos,” id. Sest. 3, 6: “primi ex omnibus philosophis,” id. Fin. 4, 7, 17: “primus Graeciae in Thraciam introiit,” Nep. Alcib. 7, 4: “primus de mille fuisses,” Ov. H. 17, 105: “in primis,” among the first, in the foremost ranks, Nep. Paus. 5, 3: “in primis stetit,” id. Epam. 10, 3: “in primis pugnantes,” Sall. C. 60, 6: leonem primus, aut in primis ferire, id. J. 6, 1: utque pedum primis infans vestigia plantis institerat (= ut primum, etc., poet.), Verg. A. 11, 573: “primus post eos quos poëtae tradiderunt movisse aliqua circa rhetoricen Empedocles dicitur (= secundus or proximus ab iis),” Quint. 3, 1, 8.—

II. In partic.

A. In time or place, first, fore, foremost, the first part; sometimes to be translated, the end, extremity, etc.: “in primā provinciā,” at the entrance of the province, Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 2: “digitus,” the tip of the finger, Cat. 2, 3: “dentes,” the front teeth, Plin. 19, 2, 11, § 35: “ranis prima lingua cohaeret,” the end of the tongue, id. 11, 37, 65, § 172: “primā statim nocte,” at the beginning of the night, Col. 10, 190: “sol,” i. e. the rising sun, Verg. A. 6, 255: “luna,” i. e. the new moon, Plin. 2, 13, 10, § 56.—With quisque, the first possible, the very first: “primo quoque tempore,” at the very first opportunity, Cic. Fam. 13, 57, 1: “primo quoque die,” id. Phil. 8, 11, 33: “me tibi primum quidque concedente,” id. Ac. 2, 16, 49: “fluit voluptas et prima quaeque avolat,” id. Fin. 2, 32, 106.—Subst.: prīma , ōrum, n., the first part, the beginning: “quod bellum, si prima satis prospera fuissent,” Liv. 8, 3.—Of the first principles or elements of things, Lucr. 4, 186: “prima consiliorum (for prima consilia),” Tac. H. 2, 11: a primo, from the beginning, at first: “multum improbiores sunt quam a primo credidi,” Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 139; Ter. Phorm. 4, 2, 14; 4, 3, 37: “in illā pro Ctesiphonte oratione submissius a primo: deinde pressius,” Cic. Or. 8, 26: “suam vim retinere a primo ad extremum,” id. Fin. 4, 13, 32: “hoc a primo cogitavit,” id. Att. 8, 11, 2; id. Phil. 2, 30, 75 Halm ad loc.: “id a primo rectissime dicitur,” id. Fin. 3, 9, 32 Madv. ad loc.: in primo, in front, before, in the beginning, first: “equites in primo late ire jubet,” in the van, Sall. J. 68, 4: “qui numerus in primo viget, jacet in extremo,” Cic. Or. 64, 215. —

B. First in rank or station, chief, principal, most excellent, eminent, distinguished, noble (cf.: “princeps, primores): evocat ad se Massiliensium quindecim primos,” Caes. B. C. 1, 35: “sui municipii facile primus,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 15: “homo,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 17, § 37: “primis urbis placuisse,” Hor. Ep. 1, 20, 23: “juvenum primi,” Verg. A. 9, 785: “est genus hominum, qui esse primos se omnium rerum volunt Nec sunt,” Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 17: “quia sum apud te primus,” I am the first in your favor, id. ib. 1, 2, 10: “primus humani generis,” Sil. 17, 255: “urbem Italiae primam,” Petr. 116: “praedium,” Cato, R. R. 1: “suavia prima habere,” to give the first place to, think the most of, Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 9: “otium atque divitiae, quae prima mortales putant,” Sall. C. 36, 4: “cura,” a chief part, Plin. 5, 25, 21, § 88.—Also, most conspicuous, chief, in a bad sense: “peccatores, quorum primus ego sum,” Vulg. 1 Tim. 1, 15: “primas partes, or primas agere,” to play the first part, to occupy the first rank, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27: “primas in causis agebat Hortensius,” Cic. Brut. 90, 308; 47: primas dare, to give the first place, ascribe the greatest importance to a thing: “actioni primas dedisse Demosthenes dicitur, cum rogaretur, quid in dicendo esset primum: huic secundas, huic tertias,” Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 213: primas deferre, to transfer the first or principal part: “amoris erga me tibi primas defero,” i. e. I assign to you the first rank among those who love me, id. Att. 1, 17, 5: primas concedere, to yield the first place: “si Allienus tibi primas in dicendo partes concesserit,” id. Div. in Caecil. 15, 49: “primas tenere,” to play the first part, be the best, id. Brut. 95, 327: cum primis, and in primis (also written in one word, impri-mis ), with or among the first, chiefly, especially, principally, particularly: “homo domi suae cum primis locuples,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 69: “in primis lautus eques,” Nep. Att. 13, 1: “oppidum in primis Siciliae clarum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 35, § 86: “homo in primis improbissimus,” id. ib. 2, 3, 27, § “68: vir magnus in primis,” id. N. D. 1, 43, 120: “in primis hoc a se animadversum esse dicebat,” id. de Or. 3, 5, 17: “in primis nobis sermo de te fuit,” id. Att. 5, 1, 3: “in primis ... dein,” first, in the first place, Sall. J. 26, 3. —Hence, adv., primo and primum; also, ante- and post-class. and very rare, prime and primiter (the form primo is usually limited to that which is strictly first in time; primum in enumerations of contemporary facts, things, or arguments, where the order is at the speaker's choice; cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 920 sq.).

A. prīmō , at first, at the beginning, first, firstly.

1. In gen.: “aedes primo ruere rebamur,” Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 42: “neque credebam primo mihimet Sosiae,” id. ib. 2, 1, 50; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 9, § 26: “primo non accredidit,” Nep. Dat. 3, 4: “Themistocles solus primo profectus est,” id. Them. 6, 5: “contemptus est primo a tyrannis,” id. Thras. 2, 2; id. Ham. 2, 2.—

2. With dein, deinde, inde, post, postea, mox, denique, nunc: “primo Stoicorum more agamus, deinde nostro instituto vagabimur,” Cic. Tusc. 3, 6, 13: “primo pecuniae, dein imperii cupido crevit,” Sall. C. 10, 3: “primo ... deinde ... tum ... tum,” Cic. Fin. 1, 16, 50: “primo ... deinde,” Liv. 1, 27; Curt. 3, 12, 6; 4, 16, 21; 9, 10, 11: “primo abstinentiā utendum: deinde danda, etc.,” Cels. 5, 26, 34: “primo ... inde, ... hinc,” Liv. 30, 11, 6: “haec primo paulatim crescere: post, etc.,” Sall. C. 10, 6: “dissuadente primo Vercingetorige, post concedente,” Caes. B. G. 7, 15: “primo ... postea ... postremo, etc.,” Liv. 26, 39: “primo ... mox,” id. 1, 50: “primo ... mox deinde,” Just. 1, 3: “primo negitare, denique saepius fatigatus, etc.,” Sall. J. 111, 2: “neque illi credebam primo, nunc vero palam est,” Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 91.—

3. (Mostly post-Aug. for primum.) With iterum, rursus, secundo: “primo ... iterum,” Liv. 2, 51: “primo ... rursus,” Suet. Aug. 17: “primo ... secundo,” Phaedr. 4, 10, 16.—

B. prīmum , at first, first, in the first place, in the beginning (class.).

1. In enumerations, with a foll. deinde, tum: “Caesar primum suo, deinde omnium e conspectu remotis equis,” Caes. B. G. 1, 25: “primum ... deinde ... deinde,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 58, § 143: “primum ... deinde ... tum ... postremo,” id. N. D. 2, 1, 3: “primum ... deinde ... praeterea ... postremo,” id. Div. 2, 56, 116: “primum ... tum ... deinde ... post ... tum ... deinde ....,” id. Fin. 5, 23, 65; id. Font. 14, 31; cf.: “primum ... secundo loco ... deinde ... tum,” id. Leg. 1, 13, 35; id. Inv. 2, 27, 79; Curt. 3, 6, 16; 8, 10, 9; Liv. 1, 28; Nep. Them. 2, 3; id. Epam. 1, 3: “primum ... subinde,” Hor. Ep. 1, 8, 15: “primum ... mox,” id. ib. 2, 2, 93.—

2. Without other adverbs.

(a). In gen.: “quaerenda pecunia primum est,” Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 53: “te Quicumque primum Produxit,” id. C. 2, 13, 2; id. S. 2, 3, 41.—

(b). Strengthened with omnium, first of all, Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 13: “primum omnium ego ipse vigilo,” Cic. Cat. 2, 9, 19.—

3. With ut, ubi, simulac, cum.

(a). Ut primum, ubi primum, simul ac primum, cum primum, as soon as ever, as soon as: “ut primum potestas data est augendae dignitatis tuae, etc.,” Cic. Fam. 10, 13, 1: “ubi primum potuit, istum reliquit,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 20, § 48: “simul ac primum niti possunt, etc.,” id. N. D. 2, 48, 124: “tum affuerat, cum primum dati sunt judices,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 23, § 57.—

(b). Nunc primum, now first, now for the first time (cf.: nunc demum, now at last): “post illa nunc primum audio, Quid illo sit factum,” Ter. And. 5, 4, 33.—

(g). With dum (also by Plaut. joined in one word, pri-mumdum ), in the first place, first (anteclass.): “primum dum, si falso insimulas, etc. Iterum si id verum est, etc.,” Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 26: “omnium primumdum haed aedes jam face occlusae sicut,” id. Most. 2, 1, 53; 1, 2, 39; id. Capt. 1, 2, 57: “primum dum omnium male dictitatur tibi vulgo in sermonibus,” id. Trin. 1, 2, 61.—

(d). With adv. or other expression of time, for the first time: “hodie primum ire in ganeum,” Plaut. As. 5, 2, 37: “quo die primum convocati su mus,” Cic. Phil. 5, 11, 30.—*

C. prīmē , es pecially: fabula prime proba, Naev. ap. Charis. p. 188 P.; cf. Prisc. p. 603 P.—

D. prīmĭter , at first, first of all (ante- and post-class.): eripis primiter dapes, Pompon. ap. Non. 154, 26; Inscr. (of the beginning of the third century of Christ) Lab. Epigr. Lat. Scop. in Egitto.

 

130 lŏquor , cātus (quūtus), lŏqui

I. inf. loquier, Naev. ap. Gell. 1, 24, 2), v. dep. n. and a. [Sanscr. lap-, to talk, whisper; Gr. λακ-, ἔλακον, λάσκω], to speak, talk, say (in the lang. of common life, in the tone of conversation; cf. Quint. 9, 4, 10; 11, 3, 45).

I. Lit.

A. Neutr.: “mitte male loqui,” Ter. And. 5, 3, 2: “Scipio mihi sane bene et loqui videtur et dicere,” Cic. Brut. 58, 212; id. Or. 32, 113: magistratum legem esse loquentem; “legem autem mutum magistratum,” id. Leg. 3, 1, 2: “male ... vere ac libere,” id. Rosc. Am. 48, 140: “cum loquimur terni, nihil flagitii dicimus,” id. Fam. 9, 22, 3: “quid tu, Epicure? loquere,” id. Ac. 2, 39, 123: “pure et Latine,” id. de Or. 1, 32, 144; id. Fin. 2, 4, 14; 2, 5, 15: “aliud esse Latine, aliud grammatice loqui,” Quint. 1, 6, 27: “Latine atque emendate,” id. 8, 1, 2: “aliā linguā,” Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61: “pro aliquo,” id. Att. 3, 1: “apud aliquem,” before any one, id. Fin. 2, 22, 74; so, “adversum aliquem,” before any one, Ter. And. 1, 5, 30: “secum,” Cic. Off. 3, 1, 1: “cum aliquo,” Ov. M. 6, 205: “bene de aliquo,” Sen. Contr. 2, 9, 63: “secus de aliquo,” Tac. A. 2, 50: “male de aliquo,” Vulg. Sirach, 8, 5; Capitol. Alb. 2: “de me male,” Suet. Aug. 51 fin. —

(b). With dat.: male loqui alicui, to speak evil of any one: “pergin male loqui, mulier, mihi,” Plaut. Truc. 2, 2, 10; Stat. Th. 12, 26: “vento et fluctibus loqui,” to express vain wishes, Luc. 4, 491.—

(g). Absol.: “neque loqui possumus, nisi e syllabis brevibus ac longis,” Quint. 9, 4, 61: “ut non loqui et orare, sed fulgurare ac tonare videaris,” id. 2, 16, 19.—

B. Act.

1. To speak out, to say, tell, talk about, mention, utter, name: “loquere tuum mihi nomen,” Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 7; id. Aul. 2, 1, 15: “deliramenta,” id. Am. 2, 2, 64: “quas tu mulieres quos tu parasitos loquere,” id. Men. 2, 2, 47: “si quid tu in illum bene voles loqui, id loqui licebit,” id. Most. 1, 3, 83: “adfirmat nihil a se cuiquam de te secus esse dictum,” Cic. Att. 1, 19, 11: “horribile est, quae loquantur,” id. ib. 14, 4, 1: “pugnantia,” id. Tusc. 1, 7, 13: “ne singulas loquar urbes,” mention, Liv. 5, 54, 5: “quid turres loquar,” id. 5, 5, 6: “quid ego legem loquar?” id. 3, 11, 13: “quid loquar marmora, etc.,” Sen. Ep. 90, 25: “proelia,” Hor. C. 4, 15, 1: “aliquem absentem,” Ov. Tr. 3, 3, 17.—

2. To talk of, speak about, to have ever on one's lips: “Dolabella merum bellum loquitur,” Cic. Fam. 9, 13, 8: “ne semper Curios et Luscinos loquamur,” id. Par. 6, 50: “multi etiam Catilinam atque illa portenta loquebantur,” id. Mil. 23, 63: “nil nisi classes loquens et exitus,” id. Att. 9, 2, 3: “qui de magnis majora loquuntur,” Juv. 4, 17.—

3. Loquuntur, they say, it is said, they talk of, the talk is of: “hic mera scelera loquuntur,” Cic. Att. 9, 13, 1; Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 30, § 78: “eodem die vulgo loquebantur Antonium mansurum esse Casilini,” id. Att. 16, 10, 1: “omnia magna loquens,” Hor. S. 1, 3, 13: “dare aliquem famae loquendum,” Mart. 5, 25, 5: “Juppiter, hospitibus nam te dare jura loquuntur,” Verg. A. 1, 731: de damnatione ferventer loqui est coeptum, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8.—

II. Transf.

A. To speak, declare, show, indicate or express clearly: “oculi nimis arguti quemadmodum animo affecti simus, loquuntur,” Cic. Leg. 1, 9, 27: “res loquitur ipsa, judices, quae semper valet plurimum,” id. Mil. 20, 53: “haec ipsae res loquuntur,” Tert. de Pud. 5: “ut fama loquitur,” Vell. 2, 93, 3: “cum chartā dextra locuta est,” has written upon it, Ov. H. 18, 20: “volucres mea fata loquentur,” Stat. Th. 8, 181; Luc. 6, 617: “rescriptum divi Marci sic loquitur, quasi, etc.,” Dig. 2, 14, 10.—

B. Poet., to rustle, murmur: “pini loquentes,” Verg. E. 8, 22; Cat. 4, 11: mollia discordi strepitu virgulta loquuntur, Petr. poët. Sat. 120, 73.

131 sĕcundus , a, um, adj. sequor,

I. following.

A. (Acc. to sequor, I. B. 2.)

1. Prop., the following in time or order, the next to the first, the second (cf.: alter, proximus); absol.: si te secundo lumine hic offendero, the next morning, Enn. ap. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1: de tribus unum esset optandum...optimum est facere; secundum, nec facere nec pati; “miserrimum digladiari semper, etc.,” the next best, Cic. Rep. 3, 14, 23; cf.: “id secundum erat de tribus,” id. Or. 15, 50: “aliquem obligare secundo sacramento, priore amisso, etc.,” id. Off. 1, 11, 36; cf.: “prioribus equitum partibus secundis additis,” id. Rep. 2, 20, 36: “Roma condita est secundo anno Olympiadis septimae,” id. ib. 2, 10, 18: “Olympias secunda et sexagesima,” id. ib. 2, 15, 28: “oriens incendium belli Punici secundi,” id. ib. 1, 1, 1: aliquem secundum heredem instituere, the second or substituted heir, if the first-named die or refuse the inheritance, id. Fam. 13, 61; so, “heres,” Hor. S. 2, 5, 48; Inscr. Orell. 3416: “mensa,” the second course, dessert, Cic. Att. 14, 6, 2; 14, 21, 4; Cels. 1, 2 fin.; Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120; 19, 8, 53, § 167; Verg. G. 2, 101; Hor. S. 2, 2, 121: “Germania,” Lower Germany, Amm. 15, 8, 19.—Subst.: sĕcundae , ārum, f. (sc. membranae), the after-birth, secundines: “partus,” Cels. 7, 29 fin.: “non magis pertinere quam secundas ad editum infantem,” Sen. Ep. 92, 34; Col. 7, 7, 4; Plin. 27, 4, 13, § 30; 30, 14, 43, § 123: “secundae partūs,” id. 9, 13, 15, § 41; 20, 6, 23, § 51; 20, 11, 44, § 115.—

2. Trop.

a. Following, next, second in rank, value, etc.; with ad: “quorum ordo proxime accedit, ut secundus sit ad regium principatum,” Cic. Fin. 3, 16, 52.—With ab: “potentiā secundus a rege,” Hirt. B. Alex. 66; “with which cf.: secundus a Romulo conditor urbis Romanae,” Liv. 7, 1 fin.; and: “Ajax, heros ab Achille secundus,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 193: “qui honos secundus a rege erat,” Just. 18, 4, 5.—Absol.: nil majus generatur ipso (Jove), Nec viget quicquam simile aut secundum, Hor. C. 1, 12, 18: “tu (Juppiter) secundo Caesare regnes,” id. ib. 1, 12, 51; corresp. to maxime: “maxime vellem...secundo autem loco, etc.,” Cic. Phil. 8, 10, 31; cf.: “me maxime consolatur spes, etc....facile secundo loco me consolatur recordatio, etc.,” id. Fam. 1, 6, 1 sq.: “cotes Creticae diu maximam laudem habuere, secundam Laconicae,” Plin. 36, 22, 47, § 164.—With dat.: “nulli Campanorum secundus vinctus ad mortem rapior,” Liv. 23, 10, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.: “regio spatio locorum nulli earum gentium secunda,” Curt. 5, 10, 3; Vell. 2, 76, 1: “secundus sibi, non par,” Just. 11, 12, 14: “secunda nobilitas Falerno agro,” id. 14, 6, 8, § 62: “bonitas amomo pallido,” id. 12, 13, 28, § 48.—With abl., Hirt. B. Alex. 66; cf. supra.—

b. With the prevailing idea of subjection or inferiority, secondary, subordinate, inferior; absol.: “secundae sortis ingenium,” only of the second grade, Sen. Ep. 52, 3: “moneri velle ac posse secunda virtus est,” id. Ben. 5, 25, 4; cf.: “(servi) quasi secundum hominum genus sunt,” Flor. 3, 20, 1: “vivit siliquis et pane secundo (i. e. secundario),” Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 123 (cf.: “secundarius panis,” Plin. 18, 10, 20, § 89; Suet. Aug. 76): “tenue argentum venaeque secundae,” Juv. 9, 31: “haec fuit altera persona Thebis, sed tamen secunda ita, ut proxima esset Epaminondae,” Nep. Pel. 4, 3. —With abl.: “haud ulli veterum virtute secundus,” inferior, Verg. A. 11, 441.—With inf.: “nec vertere cuiquam Frena secundus Halys,” Stat. Th. 2, 574.—Esp., in phrase partes secundae, second parts, inferior parts: “in actoribus Graecis, ille qui est secundarum aut tertiarum partium,” Cic. Div. in Caecil. 15, 48: “ut credas partis mimum tractare secundas,” Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 14.—With ab: “hic erit a mensis fine secunda dies,” the last day but one of the month, Ov. F. 1, 710. —As subst.: sĕcundae , ārum, f. (sc. partes), the second or inferior parts: “Spinther secundarum tertiarum Pamphilus,” Plin. 7, 12, 10, § 54; Inscr. Orell. 2644: “Q. Arrius, qui fuit M. Crassi quasi secundarum,” Cic. Brut. 69, 242; so, “secundas sortiri,” Sen. Ben. 2, 29, 3: “ferre,” Hor. S. 1, 9, 46: “deferre alicui,” Quint. 10, 1, 53: “agere,” Sen. Ira, 3, 8, 6.—

B. (Acc. to sequor, II.)

1. Prop., naut. t. t., of currents of water, etc., favorable, fair (as following the course of the vessel): “secundo flumine ad Lutetiam iter facere coepit,” i. e. down the stream, Caes. B. G. 7, 58; so, “Tiberi,” Liv. 5, 46: “amni,” Verg. G. 3, 447: “fluvio,” id. A. 7, 494: “aqua,” Liv. 21, 28; cf.: “totā rate in secundam aquam labente,” with the current, id. 21, 47: “et ventum et aestum uno tempore nactus secundum,” Caes. B. G. 4, 23 fin.; so, “aestu,” Liv. 23, 41: “mari,” id. 29, 7; and, poet.: “(Neptunus) curru secundo,” speeding along, Verg. A. 1, 156: “secundo amne,” Curt. 4, 7, 9: “navigatio,” Tac. A. 2, 8.—Esp., of winds: “in portum vento secundo, velo passo pervenit,” Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 45; cf.: “cum videam navem secundis ventis cursum tenentem suum,” Cic. Planc. 39, 94; so, “ventus,” Caes. B. G. 4, 23 fin.; Hor. C. 2, 10, 23; id. Ep. 2, 1, 102; cf. “aquilo,” id. ib. 2, 2, 201.—Sup.: “cum secundissimo vento cursum teneret,” Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 83.—Of sails (trop.): “des ingenio vela secunda meo,” Ov. F. 3, 790.—

2. Transf., with, according to any thing: austri anniversarii secundo sole flant, i. e. according to the course of the sun, Nigid. ap. Gell. 2, 22, 31: squama secunda (opp. adversa), as we say, with the grain, i. e. so as to offer no resistance to the hand when it is passed from the head to the tail, id. ap. Macr. S. 2, 12.—

3. Trop., favorable, propitious, fortunate (opp. adversus); absol.: “secundo populo aliquid facere,” with the consent of the people, Cic. Tusc. 2, 1, 4; so, “concio,” id. Agr. 2, 37, 101; cf.: “voluntas concionis,” id. Att. 1, 19, 4: “admurmurationes cuncti senatūs,” id. Q. Fr. 2, 1, 3: rumor, Enn. ap. Non. 385, 17 (Ann. v. 260 Vahl.); Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 9: “clamor,” Verg. A. 5, 491: “aures,” Liv. 6, 40; 33, 46; 42, 28: “praesentibus ac secundis diis,” id. 7, 26; so, “dis auspicibus et Junone secundā,” Verg. A. 4, 45; and: “secundo Marte ruat,” id. ib. 10, 21: “adi pede sacra secundo,” id. ib. 8, 302; “10, 255: auspicia,” Cic. Div. 1, 15, 27; cf. avis, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 82 Vahl.); and in poet. hypallage: “haruspex,” Verg. A. 11, 739: scitus, secunda loquens in tempore, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4, 3 (Ann. v. 251 Vahl.): res (opp. adversae), Cic. Off. 1, 26, 90; “so,” id. Lael. 5, 17; 6, 22; id. Att. 4, 2, 1; Hor. S. 2, 8, 74; cf. “fortunae (opp. adversae),” Cic. Sull. 23, 66; “and tempora (opp. adversi casus),” Auct. Her. 4, 17, 24; so, res, Enn. ap. Fest. p. 257 Müll. (Ann. v. 357 Vahl.); Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 1; Cic. N. D. 3, 36, 88 (with prosperitates); Verg. A. 10, 502; Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 30: fortunae, Cato ap. Fest. s. v. parsi, p. 242 Müll.; Plaut. Stich. 2, 1, 28: “proelia,” Caes. B. G. 3, 1: “motus Galliae,” successful, id. ib. 7, 59; and: “belli exitus,” Hor. C. 4, 14, 38: “consilium,” Caes. B. C. 3, 42: “labores,” Hor. C. 4, 4, 45.—Comp.: “reliqua militia secundiore famā fuit,” Suet. Caes. 2.—Sup.: “secundissima proelia,” Caes. B. G. 7, 62.— With dat.: “secunda (sc. verba) irae,” i. e. increasing, promoting it, Liv. 2, 38.—Comp.: “secundiore equitum proelio nostris,” Caes. B. G. 2, 9.—Sup.: “tres leges secundissimas plebei, adversas nobilitati tulit,” Liv. 8, 12: omnia secundissima nobis, adversissima illis accidisse videntur, Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 8, B.—As subst.: sĕcunda , ōrum, n., favorable circumstances, good fortune: “sperat infestis, metuit secundis Alteram sortem,” Hor. C. 2, 10, 13: “age, me in tuis secundis respice,” Ter. And. 5, 6, 11: “omnium secundorum adversorumque causes in deos vertere,” Liv. 28, 11, 1: “in secundis sapere et consulere,” id. 30, 42, 16: “nimius homo inter secunda,” Tac. H. 2, 59; 1, 10; Curt. 4, 6, 31: “nemo confidat nimium secundis,” Sen. Thyest. 615: “poscunt fidem secunda,” id. Agam. 934: “secunda non habent unquam modum,” id. Oedip. 694.

 

132 tertĭus , a, um,

I. num. ord. adj. [ter], the third.

I. Adj.: “vos duo eritis, atque amica tua erit tecum tertia,” Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 66: “tres video sententias ferri: unam, etc. ... alteram, etc. ... tertiam ut, etc.,” Cic. Lael. 16, 56; cf. Caes. B. G. 1, 1; Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 26: “sic disserunt: si quod sit in obscenitate flagitium, id aut in re esse aut in verbo: nihil esse tertium,” Cic. Fam. 9, 22, 1; cf. id. Phil. 2, 13, 31: “annus,” id. Rep. 2, 37, 62: “tertio illo anno,” id. ib. 3, 32, 44: “mancipia venibant Saturnalibus tertiis,” i.e. on the third day of the Saturnalia, id. Att. 5, 20, 5: “ab Jove tertius Ajax,” the third in descent, greatgrandson of Jupiter, Ov. M. 13, 28: “per tertia numina juro,” i.e. by the infernal gods, id. Tr. 2, 53: “regna,” the infernal regions, id. F. 4, 584: “tertius e nobis,” i.e. one of us three, id. M. 14, 237: “tertios creari (censores),” Liv. 6, 27, 5: “tertius dies est,” it is two days since, Plin. Ep. 4, 27, 1: “syllaba ab eā tertia,” Quint. 1, 5, 30: “diebus tertiis,” every three days, Gell. 9, 4, 7. —

II. Substt.

A. tertĭae , ārum, f. (sc. partes).

1. A third part: “miscentur argento tertiae aeris Cyprii,” Plin. 33, 9, 46, § 131; 34, 5, 11, § 20: “cum ad tertias subsederit coctura,” Col. 12, 20, 4; 12, 35; Plin. 21, 18, 71, § 119: “duae tertiae partes,” two thirds, Col. 5, 2, 11.—*

2. The third part in a play: “Spinther secundarum, tertiarumque Pamphilus,” Plin. 7, 12, 10, § 54. —

B. Tertĭus , ii, m., and Tertĭa , ae, f., proper names. The latter in a sarcastic pun: Tertiā deductā (after a third was deducted, or after Tertia was seduced), Cic. ap. Macr. S. 2, 2; Suet. Caes. 50.—Adv.

A. tertĭō .

1. For the third time: “non hercle veniam tertio,” Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 24: “ille iterum, ille tertio pecuniam dedit,” Cic. Deiot. 5, 14: “sanguis mittendus est iterum tertioque,” Cels. 4, 4, fin.: “cui ter proditae patriae: semel cum, etc. ... iterum cum, etc. ... tertio hodie, etc.,” Liv. 23, 9, 11; tertio consules esse, Plin. Pan. 60, 5; cf. Gell. 10, 1.—*

2. In the third place, thirdly: “haec spectans, etc. ... simul, ut, etc. ... tertio, ut, etc.,” Caes. B. C. 3, 43.—

3. Three times (post-class.): “parietes tertio obducere,” Pall. 1, 11, 2; Treb. Gall. 17. —

B. tertĭum , for the third time: “nemo est quin saepe jactans Venerium jaciat aliquando, non numquam etiam iterum ac tertium,” Cic. Div. 2, 59, 121: veniunt iterum atque tertium, Cato ap. Charis. p. 196 P.: “idque iterum tertiumque,” Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 139: “consules creati Q. Fabius Vibulanus tertium et L. Cornelius Maluginensis,” Liv. 3, 22, 1; 6, 27, 2: “mori consulem tertium oportuit,” id. 3, 67, 3; Front. Aquaed. 10; cf. Gell. 10, 1.

 

133 tempus , ŏris

I. abl. temp. tempori or temperi; v. infra), n. etym. dub.; perh. root tem-; Gr. τέμνω; prop. a section; hence, in partic., of time.

I. Lit., a portion or period of time, a time: “tempus diei,” daytime, Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 38; 1, 1, 116: “extremum diei,” Cic. de Or. 1, 7, 26; cf.: “matutina tempora,” morning hours, id. Fam. 7, 1, 1: “anni tempora,” the seasons, Lucr. 2, 33; 5, 1396; cf.: “quam (Ennam) circa sunt laetissimi flores omni tempore anni,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 48, § 107: “maturius paulo, quam tempus anni postulabat, in hiberna exercitum deduxit,” Caes. B. G. 1, 54: “erat hibernum tempus anni,” Cic. Rep. 1, 12, 18; Auct. B. Alex. 43, 1.—

2. Esp. of the time intervening between two events, etc., an interval, period, time: “longo post tempore,” Verg. E. 1, 68: “magno post tempore,” Just. 13, 4, 25; 16, 1, 1: “brevi post tempore,” id. 1, 7, 19; 4, 4, 4; 12, 2, 6: “parvo post tempore,” Val. Max. 8, 6, 1. — Plur.: “longis temporibus ante,” Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 5.—

B. Transf., time, in general.

1. Lit.

a. In gen.: “tempus est, id quo nunc utimur (nam ipsum quidem generaliter definire difficile est), pars quaedam aeternitatis cum alicujus annui, menstrui, diurni nocturnive spatii certā significatione,” Cic. Inv. 1, 26, 39: “tempus esse dicunt intervallum mundi motus: id divisum in partes aliquot, maxime ab solis et lunae cursu: itaque ab eorum tenore temperato tempus dictum,” Varr. L. L. 6, § 2 Müll.: hos siderum errores id ipsum esse, quod rite dicitur tempus, Cic. Univ. 9 fin.: “neque ut celari posset, tempus spatium ullum dabat,” Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 14; cf.: “nisi tempus et spatium datum sit,” Cic. Quint. 1, 4: “vix huic tantulae epistulae tempus habui,” id. Att. 1, 14, 1: “egeo tempore,” id. Q. Fr. 3, 5, 4: “unius horae tempus,” Liv. 44, 9, 4: “aliquot dierum tempus amisit,” Lact. Mort. Pers. 45, 5: “tempus duorum mensium petere ad delectus habendos,” Liv. 29, 5, 7: “triginta dierum tempus petens, ut, etc.,” id. 38, 37, 10: “tempus, pacis an belli, festinationis an otii,” Cic. de Or. 3, 55, 211: “ut tempora postulabant belli,” Liv. 24, 8, 7: “nec belli tantum temporibus, sed etiam in pace,” id. 35, 28, 1: “temporibus Punici belli,” Just. 30, 3, 1; 43, 4, 11: “mihi vero omne tempus est ad meos libros vacuum,” Cic. Rep. 1, 9, 14: “erit, erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet ille aliquando dies, cum, etc.,” id. Mil. 26, 69: “ex quo tempore tu me diligere coepisti,” id. Fam. 3, 4, 2: “eo tempore, quo promulgatum de multā ejus traditur,” Liv. 6, 38, 12; 23, 10, 13: “tempore, quo in homine non ut nunc omnia consentientia,” id. 2, 32, 9: “privatum eo tempore Quinctium fuisse, cum sacramento adacti sint,” id. 3, 20, 4: “per idem tempus,” Cic. Brut. 83, 286: “quos ad me id temporis venturos esse praedixeram,” at that time, id. Cat. 1, 4, 10: “scripta in aliquod tempus reponantur,” Quint. 10, 4, 2: “non tantulum Umquam intermittit tempus, quin, etc.,” Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 32: “uno et eodem temporis puncto nati . . . nascendi tempus,” Cic. Div. 2, 45, 95; cf.: “alienum tempus est mihi tecum expostulandi,” id. Fam. 3, 10, 6: “dare tempus exponendi de aliquā re,” id. ib. 1, 9, 3: “committendi proelii,” Caes. B. G. 2, 19: “edendi,” Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 22: “curandi,” id. ib. 1, 2, 39: “tyranno ad consultandum tempus datum est,” Liv. 34, 33, 5: “datum cum iis conloquendi tempus,” id. 26, 22, 11; 45, 24, 11.—In plur.: “id certis temporibus futurum,” Cic. Rep. 1, 15, 23: “si Athenienses quibusdam temporibus nihil nisi, etc., agebant,” id. ib. 1, 27, 43: “superioribus temporibus ad te nullas litteras misi,” id. Fam. 5, 17, 1: “illis temporibus,” id. Lael. 1, 5: “temporibus illis,” id. Arch. 3, 6. —

b. In partic., the time, i. e. the fitting or appointed time, the right season, proper period, opportunity, = καιρός: “nunc occasio est et tempus,” Plaut. Ps. 4, 2, 3: “tempus maximum est, ut, etc.,” id. Mil. 4, 3, 9: “spero ego, mihi quoque Tempus tale eventurum, ut tibi gratiam referam parem,” id. Merc. 5, 4, 39; cf.: “tempus habes tale, quale nemo habuit umquam,” Cic. Phil. 7, 9, 27: “dicas: tempus maxumum esse ut eat domum,” Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 8: “nunc hora, viri, nunc tempus: adeste,” Sil. 11, 194: “consul paulisper addubitavit, an consurgendi jam triariis tempus esset,” Liv. 8, 10, 1: “cum jam moriendi tempus urgueret,” was close at hand, Cic. Tusc. 1, 43, 103; Varr. R. R. 3, 16, 20: “verno inserentis tempus urguet,” Plin. 17, 14, 24, § 113: tempus est, with inf.: “sed jam tempus est, ad id quod instituimus accedere,” Cic. Top. 1, 5: “dicere aliquid de ordine argumentorum,” id. de Or. 2, 42, 181: “conari etiam majora,” Liv. 6, 18, 12: “nunc corpora curare tempus est,” id. 21, 54, 2: “tibi abire,” Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 215: “jam tempus agi res,” Verg. A. 5, 638: “tempus est jam hinc abire me,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99: “suo tempore,” at a fitting time, id. Lael. 3, 11; cf. id. Phil. 14, 6, 15; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 60, § 139; Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 44.—

(b). tempŏra , um (less freq. in the sing. tempus), after the Gr. τὰ καίρια (prop. the right place, the fatal spot), the temples of the head; plur.: “duae suturae super aures tempora a superiore capitis parte discernunt,” Cels. 8, 1; Plin. 20, 6, 23, § 54; Lucr. 1, 930; 4, 5; 6, 1194; Tib. 2, 2, 7; Verg. A. 5, 416; Hor. C. 1, 7, 23; 3, 25, 20; 4, 1, 32; 4, 8, 33 et saep.—Sing.: “contorquet brachium et Graccho percutit tempus,” Auct. Her. 4, 55, 68; Verg. A. 9, 418; Sil. 12, 414; Stat. Th. 10, 110; Vitr. 9, 6; Flor. 4, 12, 44 Duk. N. cr.; Vulg. Judic. 4, 21; 5, 26.—Poet., transf., the face, visage in gen., Prop. 2, 24 (3, 18), 3; 2, 18, 32 (3, 11, 10).—The head: “jacuit pulsus tria tempora ramo Cacus,” upon his three heads, Prop. 4 (5), 9, 15.— Sing.: “tremulum movens Cana tempus anilitas Omnia omnibus annuit,” Cat. 61, 162. —

2. Transf.

a. The time in its moral aspects; the state of the times, position, state, condition; in plur., the times, circumstances (esp. freq. of dangerous or distressful cir cumstances): “si ad tuum tempus perduci tur, facilis gubernatio est,” time of administration, consulship, Cic. Fam. 10, 1, 2: “omne meum tempus amicorum temporibus transmittendum putavi ... et meus labor in privatorum periculis versatus,” id. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1: “quid a me cujusque tempus poscat,” id. Planc. 32, 79: “tempori meo defuerunt,” my necessity, id. Sest. 58, 123; cf.: “qui tot annos ita vivo, ut a nullius umquam me tempore aut commodo aut otium meum abstraxerit aut, etc.,” id. Arch. 6, 12: “tempori cedere, id est necessitati parere, semper sapientis est habitum,” id. Fam. 4, 9, 2: “nisi forte temporis causā nobis adsentiebare,” id. Tusc. 4, 4, 8: “neque poëtae tempori meo defuerunt,” id. Sest. 58, 123; cf.: “suscipere onus laboris atque officii ex necessariorum tempore,” id. Div. in Caecil. 2, 5: “in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,” id. Fl. 3, 6: “tempore summo rei publicae,” id. Phil. 5, 17, 46; Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 1; cf.: “pecuniam conferre in rei publicae magnum aliquod tempus,” id. Off. 3, 24, 93: “pro tempore atque periculo exercitum conparare,” Sall. C. 30, 5: “o saepe mecum tempus in ultimum Deducte,” to the last extremity, Hor. C. 2, 7, 1: “eae (res) contra nos faciunt in hoc tempore,” at the present time, under the present circumstances, Cic. Quint. 1, 1; cf.: “nec miserae prodesse in tali tempore quibat,” Lucr. 1, 93: “indignatus, dici ea in tali tempore audirique,” Liv. 30, 37, 8; v. Zumpt, Gram. § 475.—In plur.: “incidunt saepe tempora, cum ea, etc.,” Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31: “omnes illae orationes causarum ac temporum sunt,” id. Clu. 50, 139: “tempora rei publicae, qualia futura sint, quis scit? mihi quidem turbulenta videntur fore,” id. Fam. 2, 18, 3: “scripsi versibus tres libros de temporibus meis,” id. ib. 1, 9, 23; cf. id. ib. § “11: dubia formidolosaque tempora,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 1, § 1: “cedere temporibus,” id. Mil. 1, 2: “animus secundis Temporibus dubiisque rectus,” Hor. C. 4, 9, 36: “Madates erat regionis praefectus, haud sane temporum homo,” Curt. 5, 3, 4.—

b. Time in poetry and rhetoric, i. e. measure, quantity: “idem facit in trochaeo, qui temporibus et intervallis est par iambo,” Cic. Or. 57, 194; cf.: “tempora certa modique,” Hor. S. 1, 4, 58: “rhythmi spatio temporum constant,” Quint. 9, 4, 46 sq.—

c. In gram., a tense of a verb, Varr. L. L. 9, § 32; 95 sq.; 10, § 47 Müll.; Quint. 1, 5, 47; 9, 1, 11; 9, 3, 11 et saep.—

II. Adverb. phrases.

A. tempŏrē , and more freq in adverb. form, tempŏrī or tempĕrī , at the right or fitting time, at the appointed time, in time, betimes, timely, seasonably: “rogat, satisne tempori opera sient confecta,” Cato, R. R. 2, 1; 3, 4; cf.: “qui vult sua tempori conficere officia,” Plaut. Rud. 4, 2, 16: reddere aliquid tempori, Titin. ap. Non. 369, 22: “sequimini, ut, quod imperatum est, veniam advorsum temperi,” Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 90; cf.: “temperi huic anteveni,” id. Trin. 4, 2, 66: “temperi ego faxo scies,” id. Ps. 1, 3, 153: “ut cenam coqueret temperi,” id. Stich. 5, 2, 6; id. Cas. 2, 6, 60.—In a punning allusion to the meaning temple (v. supra): Eu. Coquite, facite, festinate nunc jam, quantum lubet. Co. Temperi: “postquam implevisti fusti fissorum caput,” Plaut. Aul. 3, 3, 6: “ego renovabo commendationem, sed tempore,” Cic. Fam. 7, 18, 1: “temporis ars medicina fere est: data tempore prosunt, Et data non apto tempore vina nocent,” Ov. R. Am. 131 sq.: “tempore abest,” id. H. 4, 109.—Comp.: “memini te mihi Phameae cenam narrare: temperius fiat: cetera eodem modo,” Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 8: “modo surgis Eoo Temperius caelo, modo serius incidis undis,” more betimes, earlier, Ov. M. 4, 198: “ut propter cibi spem temporius ad officinam redeant,” Col. 8, 4, 3; 2, 8, 12; App.M. 9, p. 229, 22.—

B. Form tempore, in time, with the progress of time, gradually: “tempore ruricolae patiens fit taurus aratri, ... Tempore paret equus habenis,” Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 1 sqq. —

C. Ad tempus.

1. At the right or appointed time, in time: “ad tempus redire,” Cic. Att. 13, 45, 2: “ad tempus venire,” Liv. 38, 25: “ad tempus ei mendacium vestrum accommodavistis,” Cic. Cael. 7, 17.—

2. For some time, for the time being, for a while, for the moment: “quae (perturbatio animi) plerumque brevis est et ad tempus,” Cic. Off. 1, 8, 27: “coli ad tempus,” id. Lael. 15, 53: dux ad tempus lectus, Liv. 28, 42, 5; Tac. A. 1, 1; cf.: “ad breve (sc. tempus),” Suet. Tib. 68. —

D. Ante tempus, before the right time, too soon: “ante tempus mori miserum esse,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 39, 93; id. Lael. 3, 11: “ante tempus domo digressus,” Sall. J. 79, 7; Suet. Aug. 26; cf.: “sero post tempus venis,” Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 90.—

E. Ex tempore, instantaneously, forthwith, on the spur of the moment, extempore: “versus fundere ex tempore,” Cic. de Or. 3, 50, 194: “magnum numerum optimorum versuum dicere ex tempore,” id. Arch. 8, 18: “scribere,” Quint. 10, 3, 17; Sen. Contr. 3, praef.—

2. According to circumstances: “expedire rem et consilium ex tempore capere posse,” Cic. Off. 2, 9, 33: “haec melius ex re et ex tempore constitues,” id. Fam. 12, 19, 2.—

F. In tempore, at the right, proper, or appropriate time, in time: “in tempore ad eam veni,” Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 123: “in ipso tempore eccum ipsum,” in the nick of time, id. And. 3, 2, 52: “ni pedites equitesque in tempore subvenissent,” Liv. 33, 5, 2: “in tempore memorare,” Tac. A. 1, 58 fin.—

G. In tempus, for a time, temporarily: “scena in tempus structa,” Tac. A. 14, 20; cf.: “in omne tempus,” forever, Cic. Fam. 5, 15, 1.—

H. Per tempus, at the right time, in time: “non potuisti magis per tempus mihi advenire quam advenis,” Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 30; cf.: “per tempus subvenistis mihi,” id. Truc. 1, 2, 85.—

K. Pro tempore, according to circumstances: “consilium pro tempore et pro re capere,” Caes. B. G. 5, 8: “pauca pro tempore milites hortatus,” Sall. J. 49, 6; Verg. E. 7, 35; Ov. Tr. 4, 2, 23.

134 in-sto , stĭti, stātum

I. “instaturos,” Front. Strat. 2, 6, 10 al.), 1, v. n., to stand in or upon a thing (class.).

I. Lit.

A. In gen., constr. with dat., in and abl., or acc.

(a). With dat.: “jugis,” Verg. A. 11, 529.—

(b). With in and abl.: saxo in globoso, Pac. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 23, 36 (Trag. Fragm. v. 367 Rib.): “instans in medio triclinio,” Suet. Tib. 72.—

(g). Absol., to draw nigh, approach; to impend, threaten: “quibus ego confido impendere fatum aliquod, et poenas jam diu debitas aut instare jam plane, aut certe jam appropinquare,” Cic. Cat. 2, 5: “instant apparatissimi magnificentissimique ludi,” id. Pis. 27: “cum illi iter instaret,” id. Att. 13, 23: “quidquid subiti et magni discriminis instat,” Juv. 6, 520: “ante factis omissis, illud quod instet, agi oportere,” the subject in hand, Cic. Inv. 2, 11, 37. — “Of persons: cum legionibus instare Varum,” Caes. B. C. 2, 43.—

(d). With acc. (ante-class.): “tantum eum instat exitii,” Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 96.—

B. In partic., to press upon, harass, molest, menace, threaten.—With dat., acc., or absol.

(a). With dat.: “cedenti,” Liv. 10, 36: “vestigiis,” id. 27, 12, 9: “instantem regi cometen videre,” Juv. 6, 407.—

(b). With acc.: “si me instabunt (al. mi),” Plaut. Curc. 3, 1, 6.—

II. Trop.

A. To urge or press upon one, to insist; to pursue a thing (syn. urgeo): “quamobrem urge, insta, perfice,” Cic. Att. 13, 32, 1: “accusatori,” id. Font. 1: “ille instat factum (esse),” he insists upon the fact, Ter. And. 1, 1, 120.—To follow up eagerly, pursue; with dat. or acc.

(a). With dat.: “instant operi regnisque futuris,” Verg. A. 1, 504: “talibus instans monitis (parens),” Juv. 14, 210: “non ignarus instandum famae,” Tac. Agr. 18.—

(b). With acc., to urge forward, ply, transact with zeal or diligence: instant mercaturam, Nov. ap. Non. 212, 30 (Com. Rel. p. 223 Rib.): “parte aliā Marti currumque, rotasque volucres Instabant,” were hastening forward, working hard at, busily constructing, Verg. A. 8, 434: rectam viam, to go right, i. e. to be right, to hit the mark, Plaut. As. 1, 1, 40: “unum instare de indutiis vehementissime contendere,” Caes. B. C. 3, 17, 5; cf. Zumpt, Gram. § 385.—

(g). Absol.: “vox domini instantis,” Juv. 14, 63.—

B. To demand earnestly, solicit, insist upon: “satis est, quod instat de Milone,” Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 2: “quod profecto cum sua sponte, tum, te instante, faciet,” at your instance, your solicitation, id. Att. 3, 15.— With inf.: “instat Scandilius poscere recuperatores,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 59, § 136.—With ut or ne: “tibi instat Hortensius, ut eas in consilium,” Cic. Quint. 10: “uxor acriter tua instat, ne mihi detur,” Plaut. Cas. 2, 5, 33; cf.: “nunc nosmet ipsi nobis instemus, ut, etc.,” Auct. Her. 4, 56, 69.—Impers.: “profecto, si instetur, suo milite vinci Romam posse,” Liv. 2, 44.—Hence, instans , antis, P. a.

A. (Standing by, being near, i. e.) Present.

1. In gen.: “quae venientia metuuntur, eadem efficiunt aegritudinem instantia,” Cic. Tusc. 4, 6, 11: “ex controversia futuri, raro etiam ex instantis aut facti,” id. de Or. 2, 25, 105: “tempus,” Auct. Her. 2, 5, 8: “bellum,” Cic. Phil. 11, 10, 24.—

2. In partic., gram. t. t.: “tempus, i.q. praesens tempus,” the present tense, the present, Quint. 5, 10, 42; Charis. p. 147 P. et saep.—

B. Pressing, urgent, importunate (post-Aug.): “periculum,” Nep. Paus. 3, 5: “species terribilior jam et instantior,” Tac. H. 4, 83: “gestus acer atque instans,” Quint. 11, 3, 92 sq.; cf.: “argumentatio acrior et instantior,” id. ib. § 164: “admonitio instantior,” Gell. 13, 24, 19.—Adv.: instanter , vehemently, earnestly, pressingly: “intente instanterque pronuntiare,” Plin. Ep. 5, 19, 6: “petere,” id. ib. 5, 7, 22: “plura acriter et instanter incipere,” Quint. 9, 3, 30: “dicere,” id. 9, 4, 126.— Comp.: “instantius concurrere,” to fight more vehemently, Tac. A. 6, 35. — Sup.: “instantissime desiderare,” Gell. 4, 18.

135 prae-sum , fūi, esse, v. n.,

I. to be before a thing; hence, to be set over, to preside or rule over, to have the charge or command of, to superintend (class.).

(a). With dat.: “omnibus Druidibus praeest unus,” Caes. B. G. 6, 12: “qui oppido praeerat,” id. ib. 2, 6: “regionibus,” id. ib. 5, 22: “provinciae,” Sall. C. 42, 3: “censor factus, severe praefuit ei potestati,” Nep. Cat. 2, 3: “classi,” to have the command of the fleet, Caes. B. C. 3, 25: “exercitui,” id. ib. 3, 57: “alicui negotio,” to have charge of it, to carry it on, id. ib. 3, 61: “ei studio,” Cic. de Or. 1, 55, 235: “artificio,” id. Fin. 4, 27, 76: “vigiliis,” to superintend, Sall. C. 30, 6: “regiis opibus,” Nep. Con. 4, 3: “rebus regiis,” id. Phoc. 3, 4: “statuis faciendis,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 59, § 144: “aedibus, i. e. aedilem esse,” Dig. 1, 2, 2: mercimoniis, Cod. 5, 5, 7.—

(b). Absol.: “praeesse in provinciā,” to be governor, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 77, § 180.—

II. Transf.

A. To be the chief person, to take the lead in any thing: “non enim paruit ille Ti. Gracchi temeritati, sed praefuit,” Cic. Lael. 11, 37: “qui non solum interfuit his rebus, sed etiam praefuit,” id. Fam. 1, 8, 1: “illi crudelitati non solum praeesse, verum etiam interesse,” id. Att. 9, 6, 7.—

B. To protect, defend (poet.): “stant quoque pro nobis, et praesunt moenibus Urbis,” Ov. F. 5, 135.—Hence, praesens , entis (abl. sing. of persons usually praesente; of things, praesenti), adj.

A. That is before one, in sight or at hand, present, in person (rarely of the immediate presence of the speaker or writer, for which the proper case of hic is used; cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 908, and v. infra): “assum praesens praesenti tibi,” I am with you, Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 27: non quia ades praesens, dico hoc, because you happen to be present, Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 39: “quo praesente,” in whose presence, Cic. de Or. 1, 24, 112: “quod adest quodque praesens est,” id. Off. 1, 4, 11; so, “nihil nisi praesens et quod adest,” id. Fin. 1, 17, 55: “vivi atque praesentes,” id. Off. 1, 44, 156: “praesens tecum egi,” myself, in person, id. Fam. 2, 7, 4: “perinde ac si ipse interfuerit, et praesens viderit,” id. Inv. 1, 54, 104: “praesens sermo,” communication by word of mouth, id. Q. Fr. 2, 8, 1: “praesens in praesentem multa dixerat,” id. Att. 11, 12, 1; Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 34: praesente for praesentibus (ante-class.): praesente amicis, Pompon. ap. Don. ad Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 7; so, testibus, id. ap. Non. 154, 17: “his,” Att. ib. 154, 19: “suis,” Fenest. ib. 154, 20: “omnibus,” Nov. ib. 154, 23: legatis, Varr. ap. Don. Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 7: nobis, Ter. ib.—

2. Esp., of time: “narratio praeteritarum rerum aut praesentium,” Cic. Part. Or. 4, 13: “non solum inopia praesentis, sed etiam futuri temporis,” Caes. B. C. 1, 52 init.: “praesens tempus futuri metu perdere,” Sen. Ep. 24, 1: “tempus enim tribus partibus constat, praeterito, praesente, futuro,” id. ib. 124, 17.—Esp. in opp. to other times referred to: “quanta tempestas invidiae nobis si minus in praesens tempus ... at in posteritatem impendeat,” Cic. Cat. 1, 9, 22: “et reliqui temporis recuperandi ratio, et praesentis tuendi,” id. Att. 8, 9, 3: “et consiliorum superiorum conscientiā et praesentis temporis moderatione me consoler,” id. Fam. 9, 16, 6; id. Fl. 1, 3.—Very rarely alone, of the times of the writer or speaker. as opp. to the times of which he speaks: “quod pietas principis nostri praesentium quoque temporum decus fecit,” Quint. 3, 7, 9: “vive moribus praeteritis, loquere verbis praesentibus,” now in use, Gell. 1, 10, 4.—Also of a time spoken of, present to the mind, existing: “movit Scipionem cum fortuna pristina viri, praesenti fortunae conlata,” Liv. 30, 13, 8: “populo erat persuasum, et adversas superiores et praesentes secundas res accidisse, etc.,” Nep. Alcib. 6, 2: “praetor factus non solum praesenti bello,” id. Them. 2, 1: “et praesens aetas et posteritas deinde mirata est,” Curt. 9, 10, 28: “praesentem saevitiam melioris olim fortunae recordatione allevabant,” Tac. A. 14, 63: in praesens tempus, and more freq. absol., in praesens, for the present: “pleraque differat, et praesens in tempus omittat,” Hor. A. P. 44; so (opp. in posteritatem) Cic. Cat 1, 9, 22: “si fortuna in praesens deseruit,” Tac. H. 4, 58; cf.: “laetus in praesens animus,” Hor. C. 2, 16, 25: ad praesens tempus, or simply ad praesens, for the present: “Harpagus ad praesens tempus dissimulato dolore,” for the moment, Just. 1, 5, 7: “quod factum aspere acceptum ad praesens, mox, etc.,” at the time, Tac. A. 4, 31; 40: “munimentum ad praesens, in posterum ultionem,” id. H. 1, 44; Suet. Tit. 6: “vocem adimere ad praesens,” for a short time, Plin. 8, 22, 34, § 80: praesenti tempore and in praesenti, at present, now: “praesenti tempore,” Ov. F. 3, 478: “haec ad te in praesenti scripsi, ut speres,” Cic. Fam. 2, 10, 4: “in praesenti,” Nep. Att. 12, 5; Liv. 34, 35, 11.—Prov.: praesenti fortuna pejor est futuri metus, Ps.-Quint. Decl. 12, 15.— Subst.: praesentĭa , ĭum, n., present circumstances, the present state of affairs: “cum hortatur ferenda esse praesentia,” Suet. Aug. 87: “praesentia sequi,” Tac. H. 4, 59: “ex praeteritis enim aestimari solent praesentia,” Quint. 5, 10, 28: “sed penitus haerens amor fastidio praesentium accensus est,” Curt. 8, 3, 6.—Esp., in phrase in praesentia (sc. tempora), for the present, at this time, under present circumstances: “hoc video in praesentia opus esse,” Cic. Att. 15, 20, 4: “providere quid oneris in praesentia tollant,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 1, § 1: “quae in praesentia in mentem mihi venerunt,” id. Fam. 4, 5, 1; id. Fin. 5, 8, 21; Liv. 31, 22, 8; 33, 27, 10; 33, 28, 6; Tac. Agr. 31; 39; Suet. Tib. 22; id. Claud. 4; Ter. Phorm. 5, 2, 14; Plin. 12, 3, 7, § 14.—Very rarely in praesentia, at hand, on hand, on the spot: “id quod in praesentia vestimentorum fuit, arripuit,” Nep. Alcib. 10, 5; cf.: in re praesenti, infra: in rem praesentem venire, to go to the place itself, go to the very spot, for the sake of a closer examination, Cic. de Or. 1, 58, 250: “in rem praesentem venias oportet, quia homines amplius oculis quam auribus credunt,” Sen. Ep. 6, 5: in rem praesentem perducere audientes, to transport one's hearers to the very spot, Quint. 4, 2, 123: in re praesenti, in the place itself, on the spot: “in re praesenti, ex copiā piscariā consulere, quid emam, aequom est,” when I am on the spot, Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 65; Liv. 40, 9: “eodem anno inter populum Carthaginiensem et regem Masinissam in re praesenti disceptatores Romani de agro fuerunt,” id. 40, 17; Quint. 6, 2, 31: “praesenti bello,” while war is raging, Nep. Them. 2, 1; so sup.: “quod praesentissimis quibusque periculis desit,” Quint. 10, 7, 1; and comp.: “jam praesentior res erat,” Liv. 2, 36, 5.—

B. That happens or is done immediately, immediate, instant, prompt, ready, direct: “praesens poena sit,” the punishment might be instant, Cic. Div. 2, 59, 122: “preces,” immediate, not delayed, Prop. 2, 23, 64 (3, 28, 12): “mercari praesenti pecuniā,” with ready money, cash, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 8; Cic. Clu. 12, 34: “numerare praesentes denarios ducentos,” Petr. 109: “nummi,” id. 137: “supplicium,” instant execution, Tac. A. 1, 38: “Maelium praesenti morte multavit,” Flor. 1, 26: “praesens debitum,” Dig. 12, 1, 9; 20, 1, 13: praesenti die dari, in ready money: “quoties in obligationibus dies non ponitur, praesenti die pecunia debetur,” ib. 45, 1, 41: “libertatem aut praesenti die, aut sub condicione dare,” ib. 28, 7, 22.—Hence, adv.: prae-sens (opp. in diem), forthwith, immediately: “si, cum in diem mihi deberetur, fraudator praesens solverit,” in ready money, in cash, Dig. 42, 9, 10: “quod vel praesens vel ex die dari potest,” ib. 7, 1, 4.—

C. That operates immediately or quickly, instant, prompt, efficacious, powerful (i. q. valens): “praesens auxilium oblatum est,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 49, § 107: “non ulla magis praesens fortuna laborum est,” no more effective cure for their troubles, Verg. G. 3, 452: “quo non praesentius ullum, Pocula si quando saevae infecere novercae,” id. ib. 2, 127: “si quid praesentius audes,” more effective, bolder, id. A. 12, 152: “praesentissimum remedium,” Col. 6, 14; Plin. 28, 5, 14, § 53.—With objectclause: “o diva ... Praesens vel imo tollere de gradu Mortale corpus, vel, etc.,” mighty, able, Hor. C. 1, 35, 2.—

D. Of disposition or character, present, collected, resolute: “animo virili praesentique ut sis, para,” Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 64: “si cui virtus animusque in pectore praesens,” Verg. A. 5, 363: “animus acer et praesens,” Cic. de Or. 2, 20, 84: “non plures, sed etiam praesentioribus animis,” Liv. 31, 46: “praesentissimo animo pugnare, Auct. B. Alex. 40: Crassus, ut praesens ingenio semper respondit,” Plin. 17, 1, 1, § 4.—

E. Present, aiding, favoring, propitious: “Hercules tantus, et tam praesens habetur deus,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; id. N. D. 2, 2, 6; 3, 5, 11: “deus,” Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 31; cf.: “tu dea, tu praesens, nostro succurre labori,” Verg. A. 9, 404: “modo diva triformis Adjuvet, et praesens ingentibus adnuat ausis,” Ov. M. 7, 178.—Comp.: “nihil illo (praesagio) praesentius,” Flor. 4, 7, 9.—

F. Appropriate, pertinent, timely: “praesens hic quidemst apologus,” Plaut. Stich. 4, 1, 38; cf.: “en hercle praesens somnium,” id. Mil. 2, 4, 41.

136 imperfectus (inp- ), a, um, adj. 2. inperfectus,

I. unfinished, incomplete, imperfect (not freq. till after the Aug. per.): “quidam homines in capite meo solum elaborarunt, reliquum corpus imperfectum ac rude reliquerunt,” Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 15: “quaedam (animalia),” Ov. M. 1, 427; cf. “infans,” id. ib. 3, 310: “pars manebat,” Verg. A. 8, 428: “pons,” Caes. B. G. 6, 35, 6: “cibus,” i. e. undigested, Juv. 3, 233: “imperfecto adhuc bello,” Suet. Caes. 26: “qui imperfectum librum supple verit,” id. ib. 56; cf. “Hirt. B. G. prooem. § 2: librum reliquerat,” Suet. Gramm. 12: “opera reliquit,” id. Tib. 47: “quae rudia atque imperfecta adhuc erant,” Quint. 3, 1, 7: “causae (opp. perfectae),” id. 4, 2, 3: “sermo,” id. 9, 2, 57; 11, 3, 121: “vita,” Lucr. 3, 958.—Comp.: “insuavius hoc imperfectiusque est,” Gell. 1, 7, 20.—As subst.: imperfectum , i, n.: sunt omnia in quaedam genera partita aut incohata nulla ex parte perfecta; “imperfecto autem nec absoluto simile pulchrum esse nihil potest,” Cic. Univ. 4.—

II. Esp., morally imperfect; plur. as subst. (opp. sapientes): “ad imperfectos et mediocres et male sanos hic meus sermo pertinet,” Sen. Tranq. 11, 1.—Adv.: imperfectē , imperfectly, incompletely: “imperfecte atque praepostere syllogismo uti,” Gell. 2, 8, 1.

137 infectus , a, um, adj. 2. in-factus.

I. Not made or done, unwrought, unmade, undone, unperformed, unfinished (class.): “ubi cognovit, opera quae facta infectaque sient,” Cato, R. R. 2, 1: “ea, quae sunt facta, infecta refert,” Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 3: “et id, quod indicatum non sit, pro infecto haberi oportere,” Cic. Inv. 2, 27, 80: “omnia pro infecto sint,” let all be regarded as undone, Liv. 9, 11, 3: “infecta pace,” without having effected a peace, Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 8; Liv. 37, 1, 6; 32, 37, 5: damnum infectum, a loss which has not yet happened, but is only anticipated: “qui in pariete communi demoliendo damni infecti (nomine) promiserit,” Cic. Top. 4, 22; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 56, § 146; so, “damni infecti,” Plin. 36, 2, 2, § 6; cf. Dig. 39, 2, 2; 43, 15, 1, § 5; Gai. 4, 31 al. (for Verg. A. 6, 742, v. inficio): “infectis iis, quae agere destinaverat, ab urbe proficiscitur,” without having accomplished those things, Caes. B. C. 1, 33; so, “re infectā,” without accomplishing the matter, id. B. G. 7, 17, 5; Liv. 9, 32, 6; Quint. 9, 3, 73; cf.: “infecta dicta re eveniant tua,” Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 85: “infectis rebus,” Sall. J. 28, 4; Nep. Milt. 7, 5; and: “infecto negotio,” Sall. J. 58 fin.: “victoriā,” without having gained the victory, Liv. 9, 23, 11: “argentum,” uncoined, id. 34, 10, 4; cf. “aurum,” Verg. A. 10, 528: “infecta dona facere,” to render unmade, to revoke, Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 27: “infectum reddere,” to make void, of no effect, id. ib. 4, 3, 23: facta atque infecta, things done and not done, i. e. true and false, Verg. A. 4, 190; Stat. Th. 3, 430: “rudis atque infecta materies,” unwrought, Petr. 114: “telasque calathosque infectaque pensa reponunt,” unfinished, Ov. M. 4, 10.—

II. Impossible: “nihil jam infectum Metello credens,” Sall. J. 76, 1; so, “mira et paene infecta,” App. M. 1, p. 111, 25.

138 sum , fŭi, esse

I. pers. ĕs, but usu. ēs in Plaut and Ter; old forms, indic. pres. esum for sum, acc. to Varr. L. L. 9, § 100 Müll.: essis for es, Att. ap. Non. 200, 30, or Trag. Rel. p. 283 Rib.: simus for sumus, used by Augustus, acc. to Suet. Aug. 87; fut. escit for erit, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 20, 1, 25: “esit, XII. Tab. ap. Fest. s. v. nec, p. 162 Müll.: escunt for erunt,” Cic. Leg. 2, 24, 60, 3, 3, 9; Lucr. 1, 619; perf. fūvimus for fuimus, Enn. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 42, 168: “FVVEIT, C. I. L. 1, 1051: fūit,” Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 23; id. Mil. 3, 1, 159: “fūerim,” id. ib. 4, 8, 54: “fūerit,” id. As. 4, 1, 37; subj. pres. siem, sies, siet, etc., very freq., esp. in Plaut.; e. g. siem, Am. prol. 57; Ter. And. 3, 4, 7: “sies,” Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 43; Ter. And. 2, 5, 13: “siet,” Plaut. Am. prol. 58; Ter. And. 1, 4, 7; Lucr. 3, 101: “sient,” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 54; Ter. And. 2, 3, 16; cf. Cic. Or. 47, 157; also, “fuam, fuas, etc., regarded by G. Curtius, de Aorist. Lat. Rel. in Studien zur Gr. u. Lat. Gram. 1, 431 sqq., as an aorist: fuam,” Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 48; id. Mil. 2, 6, 112: fuas, Liv. Andron. ap. Non 111, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 71; 2, 3, 83; id. Pers. 1, 1, 52; id. Trin. 2, 1, 32: fuat, Pac. ap. Non. 111, 8; Carm. ap. Liv. 25, 12; Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 2; id. Aul. 2, 2, 56; id. Capt. 2, 2, 10 et saep.; Ter. Hec. 4, 3, 4; Lucr. 4, 639; Verg. A. 10, 108: “fuant,” Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 110; id. Ep. 5, 1, 13; id. Ps. 4, 3, 12: fuvisset, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4, 4; part. pres. ens, used by Cæsar, acc. to Prisc. p. 1140 P.; and by Sergius Flavius, acc. to Quint. 8, 3, 33; fut. inf. fŏre for futurum esse, very freq., and so always with partt.; cf. Madv. Gram. § 108; whence, subj. imperf. forem fores, etc., for essem; esp. in conditional sentences and in the histt., but very rare in Cic.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, 597 sqq.), v. n. root es; Sanscr. as-mi, and the Greek εσ-μι, whence εὶμί; perf. fui; root in Sanscr. bhū, to become; bhāvas, condition; Gr. φύω, to beget; cf.: fetus, futuo, etc., to be, as a verb substantive or a copula.

I. As a verb substantive, to be.

A. In gen.

1. Asserting existence, to be, exist, live: “definitionum duo sunt genera prima: unum earum rerum quae sunt: alterum earum quae intelleguntur. Esse ea dico, quae cerni tangive possunt, ut fundum, aedes, parietem, cetera. Non esse rursus ea dico, quae tangi demonstrarive non possunt, cerni tamen animo atque intellegi possunt, ut si usucapionem, si tutelam, etc. ... definias,” Cic. Top. 5, 26 sq.: “si abest, nullus est,” Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 16: “nunc illut est, quom me fuisse quam esse nimio mavelim,” id. Capt. 3, 3, 1: “ita paene nulla sibi fuit Phronesium ( = paene mortuus est),” id. Truc. 1, 2, 95: “omne quod eloquimur sic, ut id aut esse dicamus aut non esse,” Cic. de Or. 2, 38, 157: “non statim, quod esse manifestum est, etiam quid sit apparet,” Quint. 3, 6, 81: est locus, Hesperiam quam mortales perhibebant, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 23 Vahl.): “flumen est Arar, quod, etc.,” Caes. B. G. 1, 12: “homo nequissimus omnium qui sunt, qui fuerunt, qui futuri sunt!” Cic. Fam. 11, 21, 1; cf. id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43: “si quos inter societas aut est aut fuit aut futura est,” id. Lael. 22, 83: “nec enim, dum ero, angar ullā re, cum omni vacem culpā: et, si non ero, sensu omnino carebo,” id. Fam. 6, 3, 4: “si modo futuri sumus, erit mihi res opportuna,” id. Att. 11, 4, 1: “si quando erit civitas, erit profecto nobis locus: sin autem non erit, etc.,” id. Fam. 2, 16, 6: “nolite arbitrari, me cum a vobis discessero, nusquam aut nullum fore,” id. Sen. 22, 79: “si erit ulla res publica ... sin autem nulla erit,” id. Fam. 2, 16, 5: “fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium,” Verg. A. 2, 325: “sive erimus seu nos fata fuisse volunt,” Tib. 3, 5, 32: per quinquennia decem fuimus, Prud. Cath. praef. 2.—

2. Of events, to be, happen, occur, befall, take place: “illa (solis defectio) quae fuit regnante Romulo,” Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25: “neque enim est periculum, ne, etc.,” id. ib. 1, 23, 37: “amabo, quid tibi est?” Ter. Heaut. 2, 4, 24: “quid se futurum esset,” Liv. 33, 27. —

3. Of location, to be present, to be at a place.

(a). With adv., or other expressions of place: “cum non liceret quemquam Romae esse, qui, etc.,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 41, § 100: “cum Athenis decem ipsos dies fuissem,” id. Fam. 2, 8, 3; id. de Or. 2, 7, 27: “cum Africanus constituisset in hortis esse,” id. Rep. 1, 9, 14: “cum essemus in castris,” id. ib. 1, 15: “nonne mavis sine periculo tuae domi esse quam cum periculo alienae?” id. Fam. 4, 7, 4: “vos istic commodissime sperem esse,” id. ib. 14, 7, 2: te hic tutissime puto fore, Pompon. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 11, A.—

(b). Of passages in a book or writing, with in and abl., to be, stand, be written, etc.: “deinceps in lege est, ut, etc.,” Cic. Leg. 2, 16, 40: “quid enim in illis (litteris) fuit praeter querelam temporum,” id. Fam. 2, 16, 1.—

(g). Of personal relations, with ad or apud and acc., or cum and abl. of person: “cum esset (Sulpicius Gallus) casu apud M. Marcellum,” Cic. Rep. 1, 14, 21: “eram cum Stoico Diodoto: qui cum habitavisset apud me mecumque vixisset, etc.,” id. Brut. 90, 309: “erat nemo, quīcum essem libentius quam tecum et pauci, quibuscum essem aeque libenter,” id. Fam. 5, 21, 1: “qui me admodum diligunt multumque mecum sunt,” id. ib. 4, 13, 6; cf. with simul: “Smyrnae cum simul essemus complures dies,” id. Rep. 1, 8, 13.—Hence, esp.: esse cum aliquo (aliquā), to be with, i. e. live with, associate with, as husband or wife: “cujus soror est cum P. Quintio,” Cic. Quint. 24, 77: “eā nocte mecum illa hospitis jussu fuit,” Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 101; Ov. A. A. 3, 664: “cum hac (meretrice) si qui adulescens forte fuerit,” Cic. Cael. 20, 49; Ov. Am. 2, 8, 27: tum ad me fuerunt, qui, etc., Varr. ap. Non. 133, 28: “Curio fuit ad me sane diu,” Cic. Att. 10, 4, 8: “cum ad me bene mane Dionysius fuit,” id. ib. 10, 16, 1; cf.: “esse sub uno tecto atque ad eosdem Penates,” Liv. 28, 18.—

4. Of relations analogous to place, of dress, condition, position, office, etc., to be, live, be found, etc., with in and abl.: “cum est in sagis civitas,” Cic. Phil. 8, 11, 32: “in laxā togā,” Tib. 2, 3, 78: sive erit in Tyriis, Tyrios laudabis amictus; “Sive erit in Cois, Coa decere puta,” Ov. A. A. 2, 297: hominem non modo in aere alieno nullo, sed in suis nummis multis esse et semper fuisse, Cic. Verr 2, 4, 6, § “11: in servitute,” id. Clu. 7, 21: “in illā opinione populari,” id. ib. 51, 142: “in magno nomine et gloriā,” id. Div. 1, 17, 31: “in spe,” id. Fam. 14, 3, 2: “in tantā moestitiā,” id. Phil. 2, 15, 37: “in odio,” id. Att. 2, 22, 1: “in probris, in laudibus,” id. Off. 1, 18, 61: “in officio,” id. ib. 1, 15, 49: “in injustitiā,” id. ib. 1, 14, 42: “in vitio,” id. ib. 1, 19, 62; id. Tusc. 3, 9, 19: “ne in morā quom opus sit, sies,” Ter. And. 2, 5, 13: “ne in morā illi sis,” id. ib. 3, 1, 9: “hic in noxia'st,” id. Phorm. 2, 1, 36: “quae (civitas) una in amore atque in deliciis fuit,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 1, § 3: “in ingenti periculo,” Liv. 5, 47: “in pace,” id. 31, 29.—So with abl. without in, when qualified by an adj.: “(statua) est et fuit totā Graeciā summo propter ingenium honore et nomine,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 35, § 87: “si quis asperitate eā est et inmanitate naturae,” id. Lael. 23, 87: “ne quo periculo proprio existimares esse,” id. Fam. 4, 15, 2 (B. and K. ex conj.: “in periculo): ego sum spe bonā,” id. ib. 12, 28, 3: “res nunc difficili loco mihi videtur esse,” id. ib. 12, 28, 3: “incredibili sum sollicitudine de tuā valetudine,” id. ib. 16, 15, 1; esp. in phrase periculo alicujus esse, to be at the risk of any one: “rem illam suo periculo esse,” id. Att. 6, 1, 6: “ut quae in naves inposuissent, ab hostium tempestatisque vi publico periculo essent,” Liv. 23, 49, 2 Weissenb. ad loc.: “dare nummos meo periculo,” Dig. 46, 1, 24: “communi periculo,” ib. 13, 6, 21, § 1 (cf. II. B. 1. β. infra).—

5. To depend upon, rest with, with in and abl.: “res erat non in opinione dubiā,” Cic. Dom. 5, 11: “sed totum est in eo, si, etc.,” id. Att. 2, 22, 5: “omnem reliquam spem in impetu esse equitum,” Liv. 10, 14, 12: “quoniam totum in eo sit, ne contrectentur pocula,” Col. 12, 4, 3. —

B. In partic.

1. Esse (est, sunt, etc.) often stands without a subject expressed, or with an indef. subj., as antecedent of a rel.-clause, whose verb may be in the indic. or subj.; the former only when the subject is conceived as particular or limited, and actually existing; the latter always when it is conceived as indefinite; cf. Zumpt, Gram. § 562 sq.; Roby, Gram. § 1686 sq.; Madv. Gram. § 365; but the distinctions usually drawn by grammarians are not always observed by the best writers; and the subjunctive is always admissible, being the prevailing construction after sunt qui in class. prose, and nearly universal in postAug. writers: sunt, qui (quae), there are those (people or things) who (that), or simply some.

a. With indic.

(a). Without subject expressed: “mulier mane: sunt Qui volunt te conventam,” Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 37: “sunt hic quos credo inter se dicere,” id. Cas. prol. 67: “sunt quae te volumus percontari,” id. Ps. 1, 5, 47: “quid est, quod tu gestas tabellas?” id. ib. 1, 1, 10: “quid est, quod tu me nunc optuere?” id. Most. 1, 1, 69; cf.: “quid hoc est, quod foris concrepuit?” id. ib. 5, 1, 15: “tun' is es, Qui in me aerumnam obsevisti?” id. Ep. 4, 1, 34: “quid est, quod tuo animo aegre est?” id. Cas. 2, 2, 9; id. Cist. 4, 1, 3: “at ego est quod volo loqui,” id. As. 1, 3, 79: “est quod te volo secreto,” id. Bacch. 5, 2, 30: “sunt quos scio amicos esse, sunt quos suspicor,” id. Trin. 1, 2, 54: “ita subitum'st, quod eum conventum volo,” id. ib. 5, 2, 51: “sunt quae ego ex te scitari volo,” id. Capt. 2, 2, 13: “sed est quod suscenset tibi,” Ter. And. 2, 6, 17: “est quod me transire oportet,” id. Hec. 2, 2, 31: “quid sit quapropter te jussi, etc.,” id. ib. 5, 1, 7: “sunt item quae appellantur alces,” Caes. B. G. 6, 27 init.: “(nationes) ex quibus sunt qui ovis vivere existimantur,” id. ib. 4, 10 fin.: “sunt qui putant posse te non decedere,” Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 25: “sunt autem, qui putant non numquam complexione oportere supersederi,” id. Inv. 1, 40, 72: “quamquam sunt, qui propter utilitatem modo petendas putant amicitias,” id. ib. 2, 55, 167: “sunt autem quae praeterii,” id. Att. 10, 4, 11: “sunt, qui abducunt a malis ad bona, ut Epicurus. Sunt, qui satis putant ostendere, nihil inopinati accidisse ... Sunt etiam qui haec omnia genera consolandi colligunt,” id. Tusc. 3, 31, 76 Kühn. N. cr.: “sunt, qui, quod sentiunt, non audent dicere,” id. Off. 1, 24, 84: “Argiletum sunt qui scripserunt ab Argolā, etc.,” Varr. L. L. 5, § 157 Müll.: “sunt qui ita dicunt,” Sall. C. 19, 4: “sunt qui spiritum non recipiunt sed resorbent,” Quint. 11, 3, 55: “sunt, quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum Collegisse juvat,” Hor. C. 1, 1, 3; cf. id. S. 1, 4, 24: sunt quibus unum opus est, etc., id. C. 1, 7, 5: “sunt quibus in satirā videor nimis acer,” id. S. 2, 1, 1: “sunt quorum ingenium nova tantum crustula promit,” id. ib. 2, 4, 47.—

(b). With a subject expressed by an indefinite word or clause: “sunt alii qui te volturium vocant,” Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 64: “est genus hominum qui se primos omnium esse volunt,” Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 17: “multae sunt causae, quam ob rem cupio abducere,” id. ib. 1, 2, 65 Fleck. (Ussing, cupiam): “erat quidam eunuchus, quem mercatus fuerat,” id. ib. 3, 5, 21: “multaeque res sunt in quibus de suis commodis viri boni multa detrahunt,” Cic. Lael. 16, 57: “sunt ejus aliquot orationes, ex quibus lenitas ejus perspici potest,” id. Brut. 48, 177: “fuerunt alia genera philosophorum, qui se omnes Socraticos esse dicebant,” id. de Or. 3, 17, 62: “nonnulli sunt, qui aluerunt, etc.,” id. Cat. 1, 12, 301: “sunt quidam, qui molestas amicitias faciunt, cum ipsi se contemni putant,” id. Lael. 20, 72: “sunt vestrum, judices, aliquam multi, qui L. Pisonem cognoverunt,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 56: “multae et pecudes et stirpes sunt, quae sine procuratione hominum salvae esse non possunt,” id. N. D. 2, 52, 130: “sunt bestiae quaedam, in quibus inest aliquid simile virtutis, etc.,” id. Fin. 5, 14, 38: “permulta sunt, quae dici possunt, quare intellegatur, etc.,” id. Rosc. Am. 33, 94; cf. id. Div. in Caecil. 7, 22; id. Off. 1, 14, 43; 1, 20, 69; id. Div. 1, 54, 123: “fuere complures, qui ad Catilinam initio profecti sunt,” Sall. C. 39, 5: haec sunt, quae clamores et admirationes in bonis oratoribus efficiunt. Cic. de Or. 1, 33, 152: “alia fuere, quae illos magnos fecere,” Sall. C. 52, 21.—

b. With. subj.: sunt, qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem; “sunt qui nullum censeant fieri discessum,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18: “sunt qui in rebus contrariis parum sibi constent,” id. Off. 1, 21, 71: “de impudentiā singulari sunt qui mirentur,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 2, § 6: “est eisdem de rebus quod dici potest subtilius,” id. Tusc. 3, 15, 32: “praesto est qui neget rem ullam percipi esse sensibus,” id. Ac. 2, 32, 101: “quicquid est quod deceat, id, etc.,” id. Off. 1, 27, 94: “sunt qui nolint tetigisse nisi illas, etc.,” Hor. S. 1, 2, 28: “sunt qui Crustis et pomis viduas venentur avaras,” id. Ep. 1, 1, 78: “vestes Gaetulo murice tinctas Sunt qui non habeant, est qui non curet habere,” id. ib. 2, 2, 182 et saep.—

(b). With a more or less indefinite expression of the subject: “sunt quidam e nostris, qui haec subtilius velint tradere et negent satis esse, etc.,” Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 31: “rarum est quoddam genus eorum, qui se a corpore avocent,” id. Div. 1, 49, 111: “quotus igitur est quisque qui somniis pareat?” id. ib. 2, 60, 125; id. de Or. 2, 50, 196: “solus est hic, qui numquam rationes ad aerarium referat,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 38, § 98: “quae quibusdam admirabilia videntur, permulti sunt, qui pro nihilo putent,” id. Lael. 23, 86: “erat nemo in quem ea suspicio conveniret,” id. Rosc. Am. 23, 65, cf.: “quis enim miles fuit, qui Brundisii illam non viderit? quis, qui nescierit, etc.,” id. Phil. 2, 25, 61: “sit aliquis, qui nihil mali habeat,” id. Tusc. 1, 35, 85: “sunt nonnullae disciplinae, quae officium omne pervertant,” id. Off. 1, 2, 5: “est quaedam animi sanitas quae in insipientem quoque cadat,” id. Tusc. 4, 13, 30: “Syracusis lex est de religione, quae jubeat,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 51, § 126: “unus est qui curet constantiā magis quam consilio,” id. Att. 1, 18, 7: “si est una ex omnibus quae sese moveat,” id. Rep. 6, 26, 28: “multi sunt, qui non acerbum judicent vivere, sed supervacuum,” Sen. Ep. 24, 26: “erant sententiae quae castra Vari oppugnanda censerent,” Caes. B. C. 2, 30: “fuere cives qui seque remque publicam obstinatis animis perditum irent,” Sall. C. 36, 4: “sunt verba et voces, quibus hunc lenire dolorem Possis,” Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 34: “sunt delicta tamen, quibus ignovisse velimus,” id. A. P. 347.— *

c. Poet.: est, quibus (acc. to the Gr. ἔστιν οἷς): “est quibus Eleae concurrit palma quadrigae: est quibus in celeres gloria nata pedes,” Prop. 3, 9 (4, 8), 17.—

2. With dat., to belong or pertain to; or, rendering the dative as the subject of the verb, to have (possess, = the Fr. ētre à used of property, and of permanent conditions or characteristics, not of temporary states, feelings, etc.; cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 417 sq.): aliquid reperiret, fingeret fallacias, Unde esset adulescenti, amicae quod daret, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 23: “nomen Mercurio'st mihi, Plaut Am. prol. 19: nisi jam tum esset honos elo quentiae,” Cic. Brut. 10, 40: “est igitur homini cum deo similitudo,” id. Leg. 1, 8, 25: “familiaritas, quae mihi cum eo est,” id. Att. 8. 3, 2: “privatus illis census erat brevis,” Hor. C. 2, 15, 13; cf.: “Trojae et huic loco nomen est,” Liv. 1, 1, 5: “Hecyra est huic nomen fabulae,” Ter. Hec. prol. 1: “cui saltationi Titius nomen esset,” Cic. Brut. 62, 225: “cui (fonti) nomen Arethusa est,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 118: “Scipio, cui post Africano fuit cognomen,” Liv. 25, 2, 6.—With ellips. of dat. (poet.): “nec rubor est emisse palam (sc. ei),” nor is she ashamed, Ov. A. A. 3, 167: “neque testimonii dictio est (sc. servo),” has no right to be a witness, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 63.—

b. Esse alicui cum aliquo, to have to do with, to be connected with a person: “tecum nihil rei nobis, Demipho, est,” Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 74: “sibi cum illā mimā posthac nihil futurum,” Cic. Phil. 2, 31, 77: “jussit bona proscribi ejus, quīcum familiaritas fuerat, societas erat,” id. Quint. 6, 25: “si mihi tecum minus esset, quam est cum tuis omnibus,” id. Fam. 15, 10, 2.—

3. Esse with certain prepp. and their cases (cf. also I. A. 2. 3. 4. supra).

(a). Esse ab aliquo, to be of a person, to be the servant, disciple, adherent, partisan, etc., of: “es ne tu an non es ab illo milite e Macedoniā?” do you belong to? Plaut. Ps. 2, 2, 21: “ab Andriā est ancilla haec,” Ter. And. 3, 1, 3; 4, 4, 17: “erat enim ab isto Aristotele,” Cic. de Or. 2, 38, 160: “sed vide ne hoc, Scaevola, totum sit a me,” makes for me, id. de Or 1, 13, 55 (cf. ab, I. B. 3., II. B. 2. o.). —

(b). Esse pro aliquo, to be in favor of, make for: “(judicia) partim nihil contra Habitum valere, partim etiam pro hoc esse,” Cic. Clu. 32, 88.—

(g). Esse ex aliquā re, to consist of, be made up of: “(creticus) qui est ex longā et brevi et longā,” Cic. de Or. 3, 47, 183; cf.: “duo extremi chorei sunt, id est, e singulis longis et brevibus,” id. Or. 63, 212: “etsi temeritas ex tribus brevibus et longā est,” id. ib. 63, 214; 64, 215 (v. also 6. infra). —

4. Euphem., in perf. tempp., of one who has died or a thing that has perished, to be no more, to be gone, departed, dead (poet.): “horresco misera, mentio quoties fit partionis: Ita paene tibi fuit Phronesium,” i. e. had almost died, Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 92: “nunc illud est, cum me fuisse quam esse nimio mavelim,” id. Capt. 3, 3, 1: “sive erimus, seu nos fata fuisse velint,” Tib. 3, 5, 32: “fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium et ingens Gloria Teucrorum,” Verg. A. 2, 325: “certus in hospitibus non est amor: errat ut ipsi, Cumque nihil speres firmius esse, fuit,” Ov. H. 16, (17), 192.—

5. Pregn., to be real or a fact, to be the case; so esp.: est, esto, it is even so, be it so, such is or let such be the case, granted, well, etc.: “quid tibi vis dicam, nisi quod est?” Plaut. Ep. 1, 1, 17: “sunt ista, Laeli,” Cic. Lael. 2, 6: “ista esse credere,” id. Tusc. 1, 6, 10: est vero, inquit, Africane, id. Fragm. ap. Lact. 1, 18: “est ut dicis, inquam,” id. Fin. 3, 5, 19: “sit quidem ut sex milia seminum intereant,” Col. 3, 3, 13: “esto: ipse nihil est, nihil potest,” Cic. Div. in Caecil. 15, 47; cf.: “verum esto,” id. Fin. 2, 23, 75: “esto,” Verg. A. 7, 313; 10, 67; Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 81; 1, 17, 37 al.—Hence,

b. The connections est ut, ubi, cum, quod, or with a subject-clause, it happens or chances that, it is the case that, there is cause or reason why, there is a time when, it is allowed or permissible that, one may, etc.

(a). Est ut, it is the case or fact, that, etc.: “sin est, ut velis Manere illam apud te, dos hic maneat,” Ter. Phorm. 5, 7 (8), 32: “si est, ut dicat velle se, Redde,” id. Hec. 4, 1, 43: “si est, culpam ut Antipho in se admiserit,” id. Phorm. 2, 1, 40: “est, ut id maxime deceat,” Cic. Or. 59, 199: “quando fuit, ut, quod licet, non liceret?” id. Cael. 20, 48: “non est igitur, ut mirandum sit, ea praesentiri, etc.,” id. Div 1, 56, 128: “non erat, ut fieri posset, mirarier umquam,” Lucr. 5, 979: “futurum esse ut omnes pellerentur,” Caes. B. G. 1, 31: “non est, ut copia major Ab Jove donari possit tibi,” Hor. Ep. 1, 12, 2: “est ut viro vir latius ordinet Arbusta sulcis,” id. C. 3, 1, 9; Dig. 38, 7, 2.—Cf. esse after a neg., with quin: “numquam est enim, quin aliquid memoriae tradere velimus,” Auct. Her. 3, 24, 40.—Also, est ut, there is reason, that, etc.: “magis est ut ipse moleste ferat errasse se, quam ut, etc.,” Cic. Cael. 6, 14 fin.: ille erat ut odisset primum defensorem salutis meae, he had good reason for hating id. Mil. 13, 35; cf.: “quid erat cur Milo optaret,” id. ib. 13, 34: “neque est ut putemus ignorari ea ab animalibus,” Plin. 18, 1, 1, § 3. —

(b). Est ubi, sometime or another, sometimes: “erit, ubi te ulciscar, si vivo,” Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 26: “est, ubi id isto modo valeat,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 8, 23.—

(g). Est cum, sometimes: “est cum non est satius, si, etc.,” Auct. Her. 4, 26, 36.—

(d). Est quod, there is reason to, I have occasion: “est quod visam domum,” Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 26: “etsi magis est, quod gratuler tibi quam quod te rogem,” I have more reason to, Cic. Att. 16, 5, 2: “est quod referam ad consilium: sin, etc.,” Liv. 30, 31, 9: “quod timeas non est,” Ov. H. 19, 159: “nil est illic quod moremur diutius,” Ter. Heaut. 4, 7, 6: “non est quod multa loquamur,” Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 30.—Cf. with cur: “non est cur eorum spes infragatur,” Cic. Or. 2, 6: “nihil est cur,” id. Fam. 6, 20, 1.—(ε) Est, sit, etc., with infin. in Gr. constr., it is possible, is allowed, permitted, one may, etc. (mostly poet. and post-class.): “est quādam prodire tenus, si non datur ultra,” Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 32: “Cato, R. R. prooem. § 1: scire est liberum Ingenium atque animum,” Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 42: “nec non et Tityon terrae omniparentis alumnum Cernere erat,” Verg. A. 6, 596; 8, 676; Sil. 2, 413: “neque est te fallere quicquam,” Verg. G. 4, 447: “unde Plus haurire est,” Hor. S. 1, 2, 79: “est Gaudia prodentem vultum celare,” id. ib. 2, 5, 103: “quod versu dicere non est,” id. ib. 1, 5, 87: “quod tangere non est,” Ov. M. 3, 478: “quae verbo objecta, verbo negare sit,” Liv. 42, 41, 2 Weissenb. ad loc.: “ut conjectare erat intentione vultus,” Tac. A. 16, 34: “est videre argentea vasa,” id. G. 5; Val. Max. 2, 6, 8; v. Zumpt, Gram. § 227.— With dat.: “ne tibi sit frigida saxa adire,” Prop. 1, 20, 13; Tib. 1, 6, 24 (32): “tu procul a patriā (nec sit mihi credere tantum!) Alpinas nives Me sine vides,” Verg. E. 10, 46: “fuerit mihi eguisse aliquando amicitiae tuae,” Sall. J. 110, 3; Dig. 46, 3, 72, § 4.—(ζ) In eo ease ut, etc., to be in a condition to reach the point that, to be possible, etc., to be about to, on the point of, etc. (impers. or with res, etc., as subj.): “cum jam in eo esset, ut in muros evaderet miles,” Liv. 2, 17, 5: “si viderent in eo jam esse ut urbs caperetur,” id. 28, 22, 8: “jamque in eo rem fore, ut Romani aut hostes aut domini habendi sint,” id. 8, 27, 3: “cum res non in eo essent ut, etc.,” id. 33, 41, 9: “non in eo esse Carthaginiensium res, ut, etc.,” id. 30, 19, 3; 34, 41. —With person. subj. (late Lat.): “cum ab Ulixe adducta Iphigenia in eo esset, ut immolaretur,” Hyg. Fab. 261. —

6. Like the Engl. to be, for to come, fall, reach, to have arrived, etc. (hence also with in and acc.): “ecquid in mentem est tibi, Patrem tibi esse?” Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 54: “nam numero mi in mentem fuit,” id. Am. 1, 1, 26: “ex eo tempore res esse in vadimonium coepit,” Cic. Quint. 5, 22: “portus in praedonum fuisse potestatem sciatis,” id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33: “ut certior fieret, quo die in Tusculanum essem futurus,” id. Att. 15, 4, 2: “qui neque in provinciam cum imperio fuerunt,” id. Fam. 8, 8, 8: “quae ne in potestatem quidem populi Romani esset,” Liv. 2, 14, 4: “nec prius militibus in conspectum fuisse,” Suet. Aug. 16: “esse in amicitiam populi Romani dicionemque,” Cic. Div. in Caecil. 20, 66; cf.: “in eorum potestatem portum futurum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 38, § 98; v. Gell. 1, 7, 16 sq.; Zumpt, Gram. § 316.—

7. Of time, to pass, elapse (rare but class.): “diem scito nullum esse, quo, etc.,” Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 3, 1.

II. As a copula, to be any thing or in any manner.

A. In gen.

1. With an adj., subst., or pron.: “et praeclara res est et sumus otiosi,” Cic. Lael. 5, 17: “quod in homine multo est evidentius,” id. ib. 8, 27: “sperare videor Scipionis et Laelii amicitiam notam posteritati fore,” id. ib. 4, 15: “non sum ita hebes, ut istud dicam,” id. Tusc. 1, 6, 12: “cum, ignorante rege, uter esset Orestes, Pylades Orestem se esse diceret, Orestes autem ita ut erat, Orestem se esse perseveraret,” id. Lael. 7, 24: “consul autem esse qui potui? etc.,” id. Rep. 1, 6, 10: “nos numerus sumus et fruges consumere nati,” are a mere number, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 27: “pars non minima triumphi est victimae praecedentes,” Liv. 45, 49: “nobile erit Romae pascua vestra forum,” Prop. 4 (5), 9, 20. “sanguis erant lacrimae,” Luc. 9, 811: “ego tu sum, tu es ego: unanimi sumus,” Plaut. Stich. 5, 4, 49: “tuos sum,” id. Bacch. 1, 1, 60: domus non ea est, quam parietes nostri cingunt, Cic. Rep. 1, 13, 19: “is enim fueram, cui, etc.,” id. ib. 1, 4, 7.—

2. Less freq. with adv. (esp. in colloq. language): Am. Satin' tu sanus es? Sos. Sic sum ut vides, Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 57: “sic, inquit, est,” Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 60: “est, inquit, ut dicis,” id. ib. 1, 40, 63: “quod ita cum sit,” id. ib. 1, 45, 69: “quia sunt haud procul ab hujus aetatis memoriā,” id. ib. 1, 1, 1 B. and K.: “nec vero habere virtutem satis est,” id. ib. 1, 2, 2: frustra id inceptum Volscis fuit. Liv. 2, 25: “dato qui bene sit: ego, ubi bene sit, tibi locum lepidum dabo,” Plaut. Bacch. 1, 1, 51: “apud matrem recte est,” Cic. Att. 1, 7: “cum in convivio comiter et jucunde fuisses,” id. Deiot. 7, 19: “omnes hanc quaestionem haud remissius sperant futuram,” id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11: “dicta impune erant,” Tac. A. 1, 72.—Esp.: facile alicubi (in aliquā re) esse, with pleasure, glad to be: “quod in maritimis facillime sum,” Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 2: “locum habeo nullum ubi facilius esse possum,” id. Att. 13, 26, 2 (on esse with an adverb, v. Haase ap. Reisig, Vorles. p. 394; cf. also bene under bonus fin.).—

B. In partic.

1. With gen. part., to be of, belong to a class, party, etc.: “in republicā ita est versatus, ut semper optimarum partium et esset et existimaretur,” Nep. Att. 6, 1: “qui ejusdem civitatis fuit,” id. Them. 9, 1: “qui Romanae partis erant, urbe excesserunt,” Liv. 35, 51, 7: ut aut amicorum aut inimicorum Campani simus; “si defenditis, vestri, si deseritis, Samnitium erimus,” id. 7, 30, 9 sq.—

2. With gen. or abl. denoting quality.

(a). With gen.: “nimium me timidum, nullius animi, nullius consilii fuisse confiteor,” Cic. Sest. 16, 36: “disputatio non mediocris contentionis est,” id. de Or. 1, 60, 257: “magni judicii, summae etiam facultatis esse debebit,” id. Or. 21, 70: “(virtus) nec tantarum virium est, ut se ipsa tueatur,” id. Tusc. 5, 1, 2; id. Fin. 5, 12, 36: “Sulla gentis patriciae nobilis fuit,” Sall. J. 95, 3: “summi ut sint laboris,” Caes. B. G. 4, 2: “civitas magnae auctoritatis,” id. ib. 5, 54: “refer, Cujus fortunae (sit),” Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 54: “se nullius momenti apud exercitum futurum,” Nep. Alcib. 8, 4: “qui ejusdem aetatis fuit,” id. ib. 11, 1: “invicti ad laborem corporis erat,” Liv. 9, 16: “nec magni certaminis ea dimicatio fuit,” id. 21, 60: “somni brevissimi erat,” Suet. Claud. 33.—So of extent, number, etc.: “classis centum navium,” Nep. Them. 2, 2; 2, 5: “annus trecentarum sexaginta quinque dierum,” Suet. Caes. 40.—

(b). With abl.: “bono animo es,” Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4: “jam aetate eā sum, ut, etc.,” id. Hec. 5, 1, 11: “bellum variā victoriā fuit,” Sall. J. 5, 1: “L. Catilina nobili genere natus fuit magna vi et animi et corporis, set ingenio malo,” id. C. 5, 1: “Sulla animo ingenti,” id. J. 95, 3: “esse magnā gratiā,” Caes. B. G. 1, 8: “tenuissimā valetudine esse,” id. ib. 5, 40: “si fuerit is injustus, timidus, hebeti ingenio atque nullo,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 15, 45: “mirā sum alacritate ad litigandum,” id. Att. 2, 7, 2: “bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,” id. Fam. 6, 18, 1: “ut bono essent animo,” id. Rep. 1, 17, 29: “ut uxores eodem jure sint quo viri,” id. ib. 1, 43, 67: “qui capite et superciliis semper est rasis,” id. Rosc. Com. 7, 20: “abi, quaere, unde domo quis, Cujus fortunae, quo sit patre quove patrono,” Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 54 (cf. I. A. 4. supra). —

3. With gen. or abl. of price or value.

(a). With gen.: “pluris est oculatus testis quam auriti decem,” Plaut. Truc. 2, 6, 8: “videtur esse quantivis pretii,” Ter. And. 5, 2, 15: “a me argentum, quanti (servus) est, sumito,” id. Ad. 5, 9, 20: “si ullo in loco frumentum tanti fuit, quanti iste aestimavit,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 194: “ager nunc multo pluris est, quam tunc fuit,” id. Rosc. Com. 12, 33: “ut quisque, quod plurimi sit, possideat, ita, etc.,” id. Par. 6, 2, 48: “magni erunt mihi tuae litterae,” id. Fam. 15, 15, 4: “parvi sunt foris arma, nisi, etc.,” id. Off. 1, 22, 76: “an emat denario quod sit mille denariūm,” id. ib. 3, 23, 92: “parvi pretii est quod nihili est,” id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 4: “mea mihi conscientia pluris est quam omnium sermo,” is worth more to me, weighs more with me, id. Att. 12, 28, 2: “neque pluris pretii cocum quam vilicum habeo,” Sall. J. 85, 39: “erat (agellus) centum milium nummūm,” Plin. Ep. 6, 3, 1. —

(b). With abl.: sextante sal et Romae et per totam Iialiam erat, was worth, stood at, Liv. 29, 37.—

4. With gen. of possession, etc., it belongs, pertains to; or it is the part, property, nature, mark, sign, custom, or duty of, etc.

(a). In gen.: “audiant eos, quorum summa est auctoritas apud, etc.,” who possess, Cic. Rep. 1, 7, 12: “ea ut civitatis Rhodiorum essent,” Liv. 37, 55, 5: “teneamus eum cursum, qui semper fuit optimi cujusque,” Cic. Rep. 1, 2, 3: “quamobrem neque sapientis esse accipere habenas,” id. ib. 1, 5, 9; id. de Or. 2, 20, 86: “sapientis est consilium explicare suum, etc.,” id. ib. 2, 81, 333: “temeritas est florentis aetatis, prudentia senescentis,” id. Sen. 6, 20: “est adulescentis majores natu vereri,” id. Off. 1, 34, 122: “Aemilius, cujus tum fasces erant,” Liv. 8, 12, 13: “tota tribuniciae potestatis erat,” id. 3, 48: “alterius morientis prope totus exercitus fuit,” id. 22, 50: “jam me Pompeii totum esse scis,” Cic. Fam. 2, 13, 2: “hominum, non causarum, toti erant,” Liv. 3, 36: “plebs novarum, ut solet, rerum atque Hannibalis tota esse,” were devoted to, favored, id. 23, 14: “Dolopes numquam Aetolorum fuerant: Philippi erant,” id. 38, 3: “Ptolemaeus propter aetatem alieni arbitrii erat,” id. 42, 29: “est miserorum ut malevolentes sint,” Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 51: “quod alterum divinitatis mihi cujusdam videtur,” Cic. de Or. 2, 20, 86: “negavit moris esse Graecorum, ut, etc.,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66: “non est gravitatis ac sapientiae tuae, ferre immoderatius casum incommodorum tuorum,” id. Fam. 5, 16, 5: “est hoc Gallicae consuetudinis, uti, etc.,” Caes. B. G. 4, 5.—Rarely with pronom. posses.: “est tuum, Cato, videre quid agatur,” Cic. Mur. 38, 83: “fuit meum quidem jam pridem rem publicam lugere,” id. Att. 12, 28, 2.—

(b). Esp., with gerundive, to denote tendency, effect, etc.: “quae res evertendae rei publicae solerent esse,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 53, § 132: “regium inperium, quod initio conservandae libertatis fuerat,” Sall. C. 6, 7: “qui utilia ferrent, quaeque aequandae libertatis essent,” Liv. 3, 31, 7: “ea prodendi imperii Romani, tradendae Hannibali victoriae esse,” id. 27, 9, 12: “nihil tam aequandae libertatis esse quam potentissimum quemque posse dicere causam,” id. 38, 51, 8: “frustrationem eam legis tollendae esse,” id. 3, 24, 1 Weissenb. ad loc.; 3, 39, 8; 5, 3, 5; 40, 29, 11.—

5. With dat. of the end, object, purpose, etc.: “vitam hanc rusticam tu probro et crimini putas esse oportere,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 17, 48: “etiam quae esui potuique non sunt, contineri legato,” Dig. 33, 9, 3; Gell. 4, 1, 20: “ut divites conferrent, qui essent oneri ferendo,” Liv. 2, 9: “magis vis morbi curae esset, maxime quod, etc.,” id. 4, 21, 5: “cum solvendo aere (i. e. aeri) alieno res publica non esset,” id. 31, 13: “iniciuntur ea, quae umori extrahendo sunt,” Cels. 4, 10 fin.— Esp. in phrase solvendo esse, to be solvent, able to pay: “tu nec solvendo eras,” Cic. Phil. 2, 2, 4: “cum solvendo civitates non essent,” id. Fam. 3, 8, 2 (v. solvo).—

6. With predicative dat. sing., denoting that which the subject is, becomes, appears to be, etc.

(a). Without second dat. of pers.: “auxilio is fuit,” Plaut. Am. prol. 94: “magis curae'st,” id. Bacch. 4, 10, 3; id. Curc. 4, 2, 15; id. As. 1, 3, 23; id. Capt. 5, 2, 13 sq.: “cui bono fuerit,” Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35: “eo natus sum ut Jugurthae scelerum ostentui essem,” Sall. J. 24, 10: cupis me esse nequam; “tamen ero frugi bonae,” Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 51: “magnoque esse argumento, homines scire pleraque antequam nati sint, quod, etc.,” Cic. Sen. 21, 78: “multi Indicioque sui facti persaepe fuere, Lucr 4, 1019: ejus rei ipsa verba formulae testimonio sunt,” Cic. Rosc. Com. 4, 11: “haec res ad levandam annonam impedimento fuit,” Liv. 4, 13: “cujus rei Demosthenes atque Aeschines possunt esse documento,” Quint. 7, 1, 2.—

(b). With second dat. of pers.: “obsecro vos ego mi auxilio sitis,” Plaut. Aul. 4, 9, 5; id. Ep. 5, 2, 11; id. Most. 1, 2, 68: “ne quid Captioni mihi sit,” id. ib. 3, 3, 19: “mihi cordi est,” id. Cist. 1, 1, 110: “ubi eris damno molestiae et dedecori saepe fueris,” id. As. 3, 2, 25: “metuo illaec mihi res ne malo magno fuat,” id. Mil. 2, 6, 12: “nec Salus nobis saluti jam esse potest,” id. Most. 2, 1, 4: “bono usui estis nulli,” id. Curc. 4, 2, 15: “quae sint nobis morbo mortique,” Lucr. 6, 1095: “quo magis quae agis curae sunt mihi,” Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 46: “omitto innumerabiles viros, quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt,” Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: ut mihi magnae curae tuam vitam ac dignitatem esse scires, Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 8, A fin.: “accusant ei, quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13: haec tam parva civitas praedae tibi et quaestui fuit, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 37, § 85: “ea dictitare, quae detrimento, maculae, invidiae, infamiae nobis omnibus esse possint,” id. ib. 2, 3, 62, § “144: minus ea bella curae patribus erant, quam, etc.,” Liv. 35, 23, 1: “sciant patribus aeque curae fuisse, ne, etc.,” id. 4, 7, 6: “si hoc perinde curae est tibi quam illud mihi,” Plin. Ep. 6, 8, 9: “quantaeque curae tibi fuit, ne quis, etc.,” id. Pan. 25, 3: “quantae sit mihi curae,” id. Ep. 6, 8, 2: “si judicibus ipsis aut gloriae damnatio rei aut deformitati futura absolutio,” Quint. 6, 1, 12.—Rarely with dat. gerund: “nec tamen impedimento id rebus gerundis fuit,” Liv. 26, 24 (for a full account of this dative, v. Roby, Gram. 2, praef. pp. xxv.-lvi., and § 1158 sq.).—

7. Esse ad aliquid, to be of use for, to serve for: “vinum murteum est ad alvum crudam,” Cato, R. R. 125: “completae naves taedā et pice reliquisque rebus quae sunt ad incendia,” Caes. B. C. 3, 101: “valvae, quae olim ad ornandum templum erant maxime,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 56, § 124.—

8. Id est or hoc est, with predic.-clause by way of explanatory addition, that is, that is to say; sometimes also with a climax in the sense, which is as much as to say, or which is the same thing: “sed domum redeamus, id est ad nostros revertamur,” Cic. Brut. 46, 172: “quodsi in scenā, id est in contione verum valet, etc.,” id. Lael. 26, 97: “meos amicos, in quibus est studium, in Graeciam mitto, id est ad Graecos ire jubeo,” id. Ac. 1, 2, 8: “si Epicurum, id est si Democritum probarem,” id. ib. 1, 2, 6: “ut (sapiens) aegritudine opprimatur, id est miseriā,” id. Tusc. 3, 13, 27: a parte negotiali, hoc est πραγματικῇ, Quint. 3, 7, 1: “cum in bona tua invasero, hoc est, cum te docuero,” id. 8, 3, 89.—

9. Poet., with Greek inf. pleonastically: “esse dederat monumentum,” Verg. A. 5, 572 (cf.: δῶκε ξεινη̈ιον εὶ̂ναι, Hom. Il. 10, 269).

139 in-sĕquor , cūtus (quūtus), 3,

I. v. dep. n. and a., to follow, to follow after or upon a person or thing (class.).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: “proximus huic, longo sed proximus intervallo Insequitur Salius,” Verg. A. 5, 321: “fugientem lumine pinum,” with her eyes follows the flying ship, Ov. M. 11, 468.—

B. In partic., to pursue, follow up, press upon: gens eadem quae te bello Insequitur, Verg. A. 8, 146: “hostem,” Curt. 4, 9, 13; 7, 9, 13; Suet. Claud. 1: “ad hostem insequendum,” Liv. 26, 6, 7: “reliquias Troiae cineres atque ossa peremptae,” Verg. A. 5, 786: “aliquem gladio stricto,” Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 21; so Caes. B. G. 1, 15; 1, 23 fin. al.—

C. Of time, to follow, succeed (in verb. fin. rare; cf. P. a. infra): “hunc proximo saeculo Themistocles insecutus est,” Cic. Brut. 10, 41; Quint. 3, 1, 8.—

II. Trop.

A. In gen.: “improborum facta suspicie insequitur,” Cic. Fin. 1, 16, 50. —

B. In partic.

1. To strive after, endeavor: “nec vero te rhetoricis quibusdam libris insequor, ut erudiam,” Cic. de Or. 2, 3, 10.—

2. To proceed: “pergam atque insequar longius,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 20, § 51.—Poet. with inf.: “rursus et alterius lentum convellere vimen Insequor,” Verg. A. 3, 32.—

3. To overtake: “at mors insecuta est Gracchum,” Cic. Div. 2, 29, 62. —

4. To pursue in a hostile manner with words, to censure, reproach, etc.: “homines benevolos contumeliā,” Cic. Att. 14, 14, 5: “irridendo,” id. Sest. 11, 25: “clamore ac minis,” id. Clu. 8, 24: “turpitudinem vitae,” Cic. Sull. 29, 81: “dissimiles,” Plin. Pan. 53, 2.—

5. Of order or succession, to follow, come next: “postremam litteram detrahebant, nisi vocalis insequebatur,” Cic. Or. 48, 161: “praesagium insequentis casus,” Suet. Galb. 6.—Hence, insĕquens , entis, P. a., of time, following: “annus,” Hirt. B. G. 8, 48, 10; Liv. 2, 18, 1: “diei insequentis pars,” id. 26, 14, 5: “nocte insequenti,” Hirt. B. G. 8, 23, 1: “anno,” Plin. 18, 28, 67, § 259: “tempore,” Vell. 1, 6: “insequentium aetatum principes,” Suet. Aug. 31.—

2. Of logical order: “ex prioribus geometria probat insequentia,” Quint. 1, 10, 37; cf. id. 8, 4, 17 al. — * Adv.: insĕquenter , i. q. protinus, deinceps, thereupon, immediately, Non. 376, 19.

140 per-fĭcĭo , fēci, fectum, 3, v. a. facio,

I. to achieve, execute, carry out, accomplish, perform, despatch, bring to an end or conclusion, finish, complete (class.; syn.: absolvo, conficio, exsequor).

I. Lit.: “comitiis perficiendis undecim dies tribuit,” Caes. B. C. 3, 2: “iis comitiis perfectis,” Liv. 24, 43, 9: “bellum,” id. 22, 38, 7: “aliquid absolvi et perfici,” Cic. N. D. 2, 13, 35: “multa,” id. Or. 30, 105: “scelus,” to perpetrate, id. Clu. 68, 194: “cogitata,” id. Deiot. 7, 21: “instituta,” id. Div. 2, 5: “poëma,” id. Q. Fr. 2, 8: “conata,” Caes. B. G. 1, 3: “nihil est simul et inventum et perfectum,” Cic. Brut. 18, 71: “centum annos,” to complete, live, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 39.—So of commissions, orders, to execute: “munus,” Verg. A. 6, 629; 6, 637; Cic. Fam. 6, 7: “jussa,” Val. Fl. 7, 61: “mandata,” Sil. 13, 343.—

II. Transf.

A. To bring to completion, finish, perfect (opp. inchoare): “candelabrum perfectum e gemmis clarissimis,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 28, § 64: “murum,” Liv. 25, 11: “loricam,” Sil. 2, 403: “aedem,” Suet. Aug. 60: “cibos ambulatione,” to digest, Plin. 11, 53, 118, § 283: “cucumeres,” id. 19, 5, 23, § 65: coria, to dress or curry, id. 23, 1, 16, § 22: “lanas,” id. 35, 15, 52, § 190: “minium,” id. 33, 7, 40, § 118.—

B. To make perfect, to perfect: “aliquem citharā,” Ov. A. A. 1, 11: expleta et perfecta forma honestatis, Cic. Fin. 2, 15, 48: “artem,” Suet. Ner. 41.—

C. To bring about, to cause, effect; with ut, Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 24; Cic. Agr. 1, 9, 127: “perfice ut putem,” convince me, id. Tusc. 1, 8, 15; id. Fam. 11, 27, 2: “eloquentia perfecit, ut, etc.,” Nep. Ep. 6, 4.—With ne and subj.: “omnia perfecit, quae senatus salvā re publicā ne fieri possent perfecerat,” Cic. Phil. 2, 22, 55. —

D. In mal. part., = ἐνεργεῖν, Mart. 3, 79, 2; cf. Ov. A. A. 1, 389; Capitol. Max. 4, 7.— perfectus , a, um, P. a., finished, complete, perfect, excellent, exquisite (class.).

A. Of persons: “oratorem plenum atque perfectum esse, etc.,” Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 59: “homines in dicendo,” id. ib. 1, 13, 58: “perfectis et absoluti philosophi,” id. Div. 2, 72, 150: “homines,” id. Off. 1, 15, 46; id. Brut. 30, 114: “in geometriā,” id. Fin. 1, 6, 20: “in arte,” Ov. A. A. 2, 547.—In a religious sense, righteous (eccl. Lat.): “cor perfectum,” Vulg. 3 Reg. 11, 4; id. Matt. 5, 48.—Perfectissimus, a title of honor under the later emperors, Cod. Const. 12, tit. 33; Am. 21, 16 init.; Lact. 5, 14, 18.—

B. Of inanim. and abstr. things: “naturae,” Cic. N. D. 2, 12, 33: “ratio,” id. ib. 13, 34: “pulchriora etiam Polycliti et iam plane perfecta (signa),” id. Brut. 18, 70: “perfectum atque absolutum officium,” id. Off. 3, 3, 14: “perfecta cumulataque virtus,” id. Sest. 40, 86: aetas, full or ripe age, the age of fiveand-twenty, Dig. 4, 4, 32 init.—Comp.: “valvae perfectiores,” Cic. Verr. 2, 56: “aliquid perfectius,” id. de Or. 1, 2, 5; id. Brut. 18, 69; Hor. Epod. 5, 59; Quint. 12, 1, 21: “ad perfectiora,” Vulg. Heb. 6, 1.—Sup.: “quod ego summum et perfectissimum judicem,” Cic. Or. 1, 3; 15, 47; id. Brut. 31, 118; Juv. 2, 5.—Adv.: perfectē , fully, completely, perfectly (class.): “eruditus,” Cic. Brut. 81, 282; id. de Or. 1, 28, 130: “veritatem imitari,” id. Div. 1, 13, 23.—Comp., App. Flor. p. 357, 1; Tert. Apol. 45.—Sup., Gell. 11, 16 fin.

141 praetĕr-ĕo , īvi, and more freq. ĭi, ĭtum, īre

I. fut. praeteriet, Vulg. Sap. 1, 8; id. Ecclus. 39, 37; Juvenc. 4, 159), v. n. and a.

I. Neutr.

A. To go by or past, to pass by: “si nemo hac praeteriit,” Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 15: “ut arbitri sint, qui praetereant per vias,” id. Merc. 5, 4, 46: “praeteriens modo,” in passing by, Ter. And. 1, 5, 18: “quasi praeteriens satisfaciam universis,” Cic. Div. in Caecil. 15, 50; cf. id. Brut. 54, 200: “te praetereunte,” Juv. 3, 275.—Of impers. and abstract subjects: nec, quae praeteriit, iterum revocabitur unda nec quae praeteriit hora; “redire potest,” Ov. A. A. 3, 63: “nocte hac, quae praeteriit, proxima,” Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 3.—So of time: “biennium praeteriit cum ille cubitum nullum processerit,” Cic. Att. 13, 12, 3: “tertius jam praeteriit annus, cum interim, etc.,” Sen. Cons. ad Marc. 1, 7.—

B. To be lost, disregarded, perish, pass away, pass without attention or fulfilment (late Lat.): “aut unus apex non praeteribit de lege,” Vulg. Matt. 5, 8: “figura hujus mundi,” id. 1 Cor. 7, 31; id. Eccl. 1, 4; 7, 1.—

II. Act., to go by or past, to pass by, overtake, pass a person or thing.

A. Lit.: “praeterire pistrinum,” Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 27: “jam hunc non ausim praeterire,” id. As. 3, 4, 15: “hortos,” Cic. Fin. 5, 1, 3: “jam hos cursu, jam praeterit illos,” Verg. A. 4, 157: “Maura Pudicitiae cum praeterit aram,” Juv. 6, 308.—Pass.: “praeterita est virgo,” Ov. M. 10, 680.—Of inanim. subjects: “ripas Flumina praetereunt,” flow past their banks, Hor. C. 4, 7, 3.—

B. Trop.

1. To pass by an evil, to escape a danger: “nescis, quid mali Praeterieris,” Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 4.—

2. With neutr. adj., or a clause as subject, to escape one, i. e. to escape one's knowledge, be unknown to one: “non me praeterit ... me longius prolapsum esse,” Cic. Caecin. 35, 101: “sed te non praeterit, quam sit difficile,” id. Fam. 1, 8, 2: nec dubitamus multa esse, quae et nos praeterierint, Plin. H. N. praef. § 18.—

3. To pass by or over, i. e.

a. To pass over, leave out, omit, not mention: “quae nunc ego omnia praetereo ac relinquo,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 44, § 106: “ut hoc praeteream, quod, etc.,” id. ib. 2, 3, 77, § “178: omitto jurisdictionem contra leges, caedes relinquo, libidines praetereo,” id. Prov. Cons. 3, 6: “et quod paene praeterii, Bruti tui causā feci omnia,” what I had nearly failed to mention, id. Att. 6, 3, 5: “aliquid silentio,” id. Brut. 22, 88: “praeteream, referamne tuum ... Dedecus?” Ov. F. 6, 319: “ut nihil praeteream,” Plin. 2, 98, 101, § 220: “ne quid praetereatur,” id. 16, 10, 20, § 50.—

b. To pass over, omit, make no use of: “locus, qui praeteritus neglegentiā est,” Ter. Ad. prol. 14.—

c. To pass over, to omit, leave out, in reading or writing, Mart. 13, 3, 8: “litteras non modo, sed syllabas praeterit,” Suet. Aug. 88.—

d. To neglect or forget to do a thing, to omit, leave out, in action; with inf.: “verum, quod praeterii dicere, neque illa matrem, etc.,” Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 68: “quod sciscitari paene praeterivi,” App. M. 3, p. 139, 22.—With acc.: “nullum genus crudelitatis praeterire,” to leave unpractised, Cic. Phil. 3, 2, 4.—Pass.: “tantā vi dixisse ut nulla pars orationis silentio praeteriretur,” left without applause, Cic. Brut. 22, 88.—

e. In elections. legacies, invitations, donations, etc., to pass over, take no notice of, to neglect, reject, exclude any one: “populus solet nonnumquam dignos praeterire: nec, si a populo praeteritus est, etc.,” Cic. Planc. 3, 8: “cum sapiens et bonus vir suffragiis praeteritur,” id. Tusc. 5, 19, 54: “Philippus et Marcellus praetereuntur,” were passed by, received no appointment, Caes. B. C. 1, 6: “fratris filium praeteriit,” has passed by, bequeathed nothing to, Cic. Phil. 2, 16, 41: “me quoque Romani praeteriere patres,” neglected me, forgot me, Ov. F. 5, 312: “quid repente factum, Quod sum praeteritus vetus sodalis?” Mart. 7, 86, 5: “si eum (filium) silentio praeterierit, inutiliter testabitur,” Gai. Inst. 2, 123.—

f. To go beyond, to surpass, excel: “hos nobilitate Mago Carthaginiensis praeteriit,” Varr. R. R. 1, 1: “virtus alios tua praeterit omnes,” Ov. P. 4, 7, 51: “ut Ajax praeteriit Telamonem,” Juv. 14, 214.—

g. To transgress: “justum praeterit ira modum,” due limits, Ov. F. 5, 304. —Hence,

A. praetĕrĕunter , adv., in passing, cursorily (eccl. Lat.): “loqui,” Aug. Tractat. 118, in Joann.—

B. praetĕrĭ-tus , a, um, P. a., gone by, past, past and gone, departed: “nec praeteritum tempus unquam revertitur,” Cic. Sen. 19, 69: “aetas,” id. ib. 2, 4: “anni,” Verg. A. 8, 560: “nox, Prop 2, 11 (3, 6), 9: culpa,” Ov. H. 20, 187: “labor,” Quint. 10, 7, 4: “secula,” id. 12, 4, 2: “vita,” Just. 42, 1: “viri,” dead and gone, departed, Prop. 2, 10, 52 (3, 5, 36): “negotiantes veniā in praeteritum donavit,” for the past, for their past conduct, Suet. Dom. 9: “praeteritā noc. te,” last night, Juv. 10, 235.—In gram.: tempus praeteritum, the past or preterit tense: “quaedam verba etiam mutantur, ut fero in praeterito,” Quint. 1, 4, 29.—Subst.: prae-tĕrĭta , ōrum, n., things gone by, the past: “sevocatus animus a contagione corporis meminit praeteritorum, praesentia cernit, futura praevidet,” Cic. Div. 1, 30, 63; id. Fat. 7, 14: “monet ut in reliquum tempus omnes suspiciones vitet: praeterita se fratri condonare dicit,” Caes. B. G. 1, 20: “invidiam praeteritorum contemptu praesentium demere,” Just. 21, 5, 10.—Prov.: “praeterita mutare non possumus,” Cic. Pis. 25, 59 init. —In partic., Praetĕrĭta , ōrum, n., things passed over (Gr. παραλειπόμενα), a name of the books of Chronicles, because they contain what had been omitted in the books of Kings, Hier. Ep. 18, n. 1.

142 contrārĭus , a, um, adj. contra,

I. lying or being over against, opposite.

I. In gen.

A. Prop., of places (syn. adversus): “collis adversus huic et contrarius,” Caes. B. G. 2, 18; cf.: “contraria tigna iis (tignis),” id. ib. 4, 17, 5; and: “gemma soli,” Plin. 37, 9, 47, § 131: “contrario amne,” against the stream, id. 21, 12, 43, § 73: “tellus,” Ov. M. 1, 65; cf. id. ib. 13, 429: “ripa,” Dig. 41, 1, 65: “auris,” Plin. 24, 10, 47, § 77: “contraria vulnera ( = adversa vulnera),” in front, on the breast, Tac. H. 3, 84: “in contrarias partes fluere,” Cic. Div. 1, 35, 78; cf.: “tignis in contrariam partem revinctis,” Caes. B. G. 4, 17; cf.“. si pelles utriusque (hyaenae et pantherae) contrariae suspendantur,” Plin. 28, 8, 27, § 93: “contrario ictu uterque transfixus,” by a blow from the opposite direction, Liv. 2, 6, 9.— With inter se, Plin. 4, 11, 18, § 49.—With atque, Cic. Rep. 6, 17, 17.—Far more freq. and class. in prose and poetry,

B. Transf., of other objects.

1. In gen., opposite, contrary, opposed (syn. diversus); constr. with the gen., dat., inter se, atque, or absol.

(a). With gen.: “hujus virtutis contraria est vitiositas,” Cic. Tusc. 4, 15, 34; id. Inv. 2, 54, 165; id. Fin. 4, 24, 67 Madv. N. cr.; Quint. 5, 10, 49 al.—

(b). With dat.: “voluptas honestati,” Cic. Off. 3, 33, 119: “fortuna rationi et constantiae,” id. Div. 2, 7, 18; cf. id. Top. 11, 46 sq.: “vitium illi virtuti,” Quint. 11, 3, 44: “rusticitas urbanitati,” id. 6, 3, 17: “pes bacchio,” id. 9, 4, 102: “color albo,” Ov. M. 2, 541: “aestus vento,” id. ib. 8, 471 et saep. —

(g). With inter se: “orationes inter se contrariae Aeschinis Demosthenisque,” Cic. Opt. Gen. 5, 14; so id. de Or. 2, 55, 223; Quint. prooem. § 2; 1, 10, 6; 10, 1, 22.—

(d). With atque: “versantur retro contrario motu atque caelum,” Cic. Rep. 6, 17, 17.—(ε) Absol.: “aut bono casu aut contrario,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 12, 36: “monstrum ex contrariis diversisque inter se pugnantibus naturae studiis conflatum,” id. Cael. 5, 12: “ardor,” Lucr. 3, 252: “exemplum,” Quint. 5, 11, 7: “jus,” id. 5, 11, 32: “leges,” conflicting, id. 3, 6, 43; Dig. 1, 3, 28: actiones, cross-suits, Gai Inst. 4, 174 al.: “latitudo quā contrariae quinqueremes commearent,” going in opposite directions, Suet. Ner. 31: “disputandum est de omni re in contrarias partis,” on both sides, Cic. de Or. 1, 34, 158: “ex contrariā parte dicere,” id. Inv. 1, 18, 26: “in contrariam partem adferre aliquid,” id. de Or. 2, 53, 215 al.—

2. Esp., subst.: contrārĭum , ii, n., the opposite, contrary, reverse.

a. In gen.: “contrarium decernebat ac paulo ante decreverat,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 46, § 120: “si ea rex vult, quae Thebanis sint utilia ... sin autem contraria, etc.,” Nep. Epam. 4, 2: “dum vitant stulti vitia, in contraria currunt,” Hor. S. 1, 2, 24; cf.: diversaeque vocant animum in contraria curae, in opposite directions, Verg A. 12, 487: “ut auctoris sortem in contraria mutet,” Ov. M. 3, 329: “in contraria versus,” transformed, id. ib. 12, 179.—With gen.: “contraria earum (artium) ... vitia quae sunt virtutum contraria,” Cic. Fin. 4, 24, 67: “fidentiae contrarium est diffidentia,” id. Inv. 2, 54, 165; cf. Quint. 5, 10, 49.—With dat.: “quis non diversa praesentibus contrariaque exspectatis aut speret aut timeat,” Vell. 2, 75, 2: qui contraria Deo faciat, Lact. de Ira, 3, 3.—With quam: “qui contraria faciat quam Deus,” Lact. 3, 29, 13; Aug. Civ. Dei, 8, 24; Claud. in Eutr. 2, 267.—

b. As rhet. fig., the antithesis, contrast, opposite, Cic. Inv. 1, 28, 42; Auct. Her. 4, 19, 27; Jul. Ruf. Schem. Lex. § 11.—

c. Adverb. phrases: “ex contrario,” on the conirary, on the other hand, Caes. B. G. 7, 30; Cic. Rosc. Com. 16, 47; id. Inv. 2, 8, 25; Quint. 6, 1, 16: “e contrario,” Nep. Iphicr. 1, 4; id. Ham. 1, 2; id. Att. 9, 3; id. Eum. 1, 5 (al. contrario without e); Quint. 1, 5, 43; “rarely ex contrariis,” Quint. 8, 5, 9; 8, 5, 18; 10, 1, 19; “11, 3, 39 al.—In the same sense, but more rarely, in contrarium,” Plin. 18, 24, 54, § 197: “per contrarium,” Dig. 2, 4, 8, § 1; 2, 15, 8; 28, 1, 20 al.—

II. In partic.

1. Of weight: aes contrarium, weighed against, = ἀντίρροπον, Paul. ex Fest. p. 64, 12 Müll.; cf. Scalig. ad Plaut. Ep. 3, 3, 30.—

2. Of hostile opposition, inimical, hostile, hurtful, pernicious, etc. (more rare than adversarius, and mostly poet. or in post-Aug. prose): “contrariis dis,” Varr. L. L. 5, § 70 Müll.: “Averna avibus cunctis,” dangerous, destructive, Lucr. 6, 741; cf.: “usus lactis capitis doloribus,” Plin. 28, 9, 33, § 130: “hyssopum stomacho,” id. 25, 11, 87, § 136: “quam (sc. perspicuitatem) quidam etiam contrariam interim putaverunt,” injurious, disadvantageous, Quint. 4, 2, 64 Spald.; cf.: “philosophia imperaturo,” Suet. Ner. 52: “exta,” unfavorable, id. Oth. 8: “saepe quos ipse alueris, Tibi inveniri maxime contrarios,” hostile, Phaedr. 4, 11, 17: “litora litoribus contraria, fluctibus undas Imprecor,” Verg. A. 4, 628; cf. id. ib. 7, 293.—Subst.: contrārĭus , ii, m., an opponent, antagonist; plur., Vitr. 3, praef. 2.—Adv.: con-trārĭē , in an opposite direction, in a different manner: “sidera procedentia,” Cic. Univ 9 med.: “scriptum,” id. Part. Or. 31, 108: “relata verba,” id. de Or. 2, 65, 263: “dicere,” Tac. Or. 34.

143 gĕnus , ĕris, n. = γένος, root GEN, gigno, gens,

I. birth, descent, origin; and concr., a race, stock, etc. (cf.: familia, gens, stirps).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: bono genere gnati, Cato ap. Gell. 10, 3, 17; cf.: “ii, qui nobili genere nati sunt,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 70, § 180: “amplissimo genere natus,” Caes. B. G. 4, 12, 4: “genere regio natus,” Cic. Rep. 1, 33: “C. Laelius, cum ei quidam malo genere natus diceret, indignum esse suis majoribus, at hercule, inquit, tu tuis dignus,” id. de Or. 2, 71, 286: “genere et nobilitate et pecunia sui municipii facile primus,” id. Rosc. Am. 6, 15: “esse genere divino,” id. Rep. 2, 2: “contempsisti L. Murenae genus, extulisti tuum,” id. Mur. 7, 15: “hic sacra, hic genus, hic majorum multa vestigia,” id. Leg. 2, 1, 3; cf. id. Brut. 58, 212; id. Rep. 1, 18: “adulescens, cujus spei nihil praeter genus patricium deesset,” Liv. 6, 34, 11: “in famam generis ac familiae,” Quint. 3, 11, 12; 5, 10, 24: “genus Lentulorum,” id. 6, 3, 67: “Atys, genus unde Atii duxere Latini,” Verg. A. 5, 568: “fortuna non mutat genus,” Hor. Epod. 4, 6: “virginem plebei generis petiere juvenes, alter virgini genere par, alter, etc.,” Liv. 4, 9, 4: “qui sibi falsum nomen imposuerit, genus parentesve finxerit, etc.,” Plaut. Sent. 5, 25, 11.—Plur.: “summis gnati generibus,” Plaut. Most. 5, 2, 20.—

B. In partic., birth, for high or noble birth (mostly poet.): “cum certi propter divitias aut genus aut aliquas opes rem publicam tenent, est factio,” Cic. Rep. 3, 14: pol mihi fortuna magis nunc defit quam genus, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 19, 44 (Trag. v. 394 Vahl.): “et genus et virtus, nisi cum re vilior alga est,” Hor. S. 2, 5, 8; cf.: “et genus et formam regina pecunia donat,” id. Ep. 1, 6, 37: “non, Torquate, genus, non te facundia, non te Restituet pietas,” id. C. 4, 7, 23: “jactes et genus et nomen inutile,” id. ib. 1, 14, 13; cf.: “cui genus et quondam nomen natique fuissent,” Verg. A. 5, 621: “nunc jam nobis patribus vobisque plebei promiscuus consulatus patet, nec generis, ut ante, sed virtutis est praemium,” Liv. 7, 32, 14; cf. id. 4, 4, 7.

II. Transf.

A. Like gens and stirps, a descendant, offspring, child; and collect., descendants, posterity, race (poet.): neve tu umquam in gremium extollas liberorum ex te genus, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 46, 155 (Trag. v. 347 Vahl.): “credo equidem, genus esse deorum,” Verg. A. 4, 12: “Uraniae genus, Hymen,” i. e. her son, Cat. 61, 2: “audax Iapeti,” i. e. his son Prometheus, Hor. C. 1, 3, 27: “Jovis,” i. e. Perseus, Ov. M. 4, 609; cf. also Prop. 2, 2, 9; Hor. C. 2, 14, 18: “genus Adrasti,” i. e. Diomede, grandson of Adrastus, Ov. F. 6, 433; “so of a grandson,” id. M. 2, 743; cf. “nepotum,” Hor. C. 3, 17, 4: “Tantali genus,” id. ib. 2, 18, 37: “Danai,” id. ib. 2, 14, 18: “Messi clarum genus Osci,” id. S. 1, 5, 54: “ab alto Demissum genus Aenea,” i. e. Octavianus, as the adopted son of Julius Cœsar, id. ib. 2, 5, 63: “sive neglectum genus et nepotes Respicis auctor,” i. e. the Romans, id. C. 1, 2, 35; cf. ib. 3, 6, 18: “regium genus,” id. ib. 2, 4, 15. —

B. Of an assemblage of objects (persons, animals, plants, inanimate or abstract things) which are related or belong together in consequence of a resemblance in natural qualities; a race, stock, class, sort, species, kind (in this signif. most freq. in all periods and kinds of writing).

1. In gen.

a. Of living things: ne genus humanum temporis longinquitate occideret, propter hoc marem cum femina esse coniunctum, Cic. ap. Col. 12, 1 (Fragm. Cic. 1, 5 Baiter): “quod ex infinita societate generis humani ita contracta res est, etc.,” of the human race, Cic. Lael. 5, 20; cf. id. Rep. 1, 2 fin.: “o deorum quicquid in caelo regit Terras et humanum genus,” Hor. Epod. 5, 2; “for which: consulere generi hominum,” Cic. Rep. 3, 12; cf.: “cum omni hominum genere,” id. ib. 2, 26; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 7: “solivagum genus,” Cic. Rep. 1, 25: potens vir cum inter sui corporis homines tum etiam ad plebem, quod haudquaquam inter id genus contemptor ejus habebatur, i. e. among the Plebeians, Liv. 6, 34, 5: Graium genus, the Grecian race, Enn. ap. Prob. ad Verg. E. 6, 31 (Ann. v. 149 Vahl.): “virtus est propria Romani generis atque seminis,” Cic. Phil. 4, 5, 13; cf. id. Ac. 2, 27, 86: “Ubii, paulo quam sunt ejusdem generis et ceteris humaniores,” Caes. B. G. 4, 3, 3; cf. “also: impellit alios (Aeduos) iracundia et temeritas, quae maxime illi hominum generi est innata,” race of men, id. ib. 7, 42, 2; so, like gens, of nations, peoples, tribes: ferox, Sall. Fragm. ap. Arus. Mess. s. v. insolens, p. 241 Lind. (Hist. 1, 14 Gerl.); Liv. 34, 7, 6: “implacidum (Genauni),” Hor. C. 4, 14, 10: “durum ac velox (Ligures),” Flor. 2, 3, 4: “omne in paludes diffugerat,” id. 3, 10, 14: “Graecorum,” Cic. Fl. 4, 9: “Numidarum,” Liv. 30, 12, 18: “genus omne nomenque Macedonum,” id. 13, 44, 6; Nep. Reg. 2: “Italici generis multi mortales,” Sall. J. 47, 1: “Illyriorum,” Liv. 27, 32, 4; 27, 48, 10; 42, 47 fin.: “Scytharum,” Just. 2, 3, 16; Tac. H. 2, 4; Suet. Ner. 37; Vell. 2, 118, 1.—In plur.: “conventus is, qui ex variis generibus constaret,” Caes. B. C. 2, 36, 1: “olim isti fuit generi quondam quaestus apud saeclum prius ... est genus hominum, qui se primos esse omnium rerum volunt,” class of men, profession, Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 15 and 17: “firmi et stabiles et constantes (amici), cujus generis est magna penuria,” Cic. Lael. 17, 62: “saepius genus ejus hominis (sc. procuratoris rei publicae) erit in reliqua nobis oratione tractandum,” id. Rep. 2, 29 fin.; cf.: “genus aliud tyrannorum,” id. ib. 1, 44: “judicum genus et forma,” id. Phil. 5, 5, 13: “istius generis asoti,” id. Fin. 2, 8, 23; cf.: “omnium ejus generis poëtarum haud dubie proximus,” Quint. 10, 1, 85: “liberrimum hominum,” id. 10, 12, 2, § 22: “irritabile vatum,” Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 102: “hoc omne (ambubajarum, etc.),” id. S. 1, 2, 2: “hominum virile, muliebre,” Cic. Inv. 1, 24, 35: “equidem fabulam et fictam rem ducebam esse, virorum omne genus in aliqua insula conjuratione muliebri ab stirpe sublatum esse,” Liv. 34, 2, 3: “cedat consulari generi praetorium,” Cic. Planc. 6, 15: “ad militare genus = ad milites,” Liv. 24, 32, 2: “alia militaris generis turba,” id. 44, 45, 13: “castellani, agreste genus,” id. 34, 27, 9 Weissenb. ad loc.—Sing. with plur. predicate: “Ministrantibus sibi omni genere turpium personarum,” Capitol. Ver. 4.—In plur.: “eorum hominum ... genera sunt duo,” Caes. B. G. 6, 13, 1: “tria auditorum,” Quint. 3, 4, 6.— Repeated in the relative-clause: “duo genera semper in hac civitate fuerunt ... quibus ex generibus,” Cic. Sest. 45, 96.—In the acc., of description (v. Roby's Gram. 2, p. 42 sq.): “quot et quod genus pastores habendi,” of what kind, Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1: “quod genus ii sunt, etc.,” Auct. Her. 2, 30, 48; cf. in the foll.—

(b). Of animals, plants, etc.: genus altivolantum, the race of birds, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 84 Vahl.); cf.: genu' pennis condecoratum, id. Fragm. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 59: “lanigerum, id. Fragm. ap. Paul. ex Fest. s. v. Cyprio, p. 59 Müll.: squamigerum,” Lucr. 1, 162; cf. “piscium,” Hor. C. 1, 2, 9: “silvestre,” Lucr. 5, 1411: “omne ferarum,” id. 5, 1338: “acre leonum,” id. 5, 862: “malefici generis plurima animalia,” Sall. J. 17, 6: “diversum confusa genus panthera camelo,” Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 195: “animantūm propagare genus,” to propagate the race, Lucr. 1, 195: “ad genus faciendum,” Just. 2, 9 fin.: “juxta genus suum,” Vulg. Gen. 1, 11 saep.— Plur.: “quae vero et quam varia genera bestiarum vel cicurum vel ferarum!” Cic. N. D. 2, 39, 99: “piscium genera,” Quint. 5, 10, 21.—In the acc., of description: “porticus avibus omne genus oppletae,” Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 11: “pascuntur omne genus objecto frumento,” id. ib. 3, 6: “boves et id genus pecua,” App. M. 2, p. 115, 4; id. Flor. p. 37. —

b. Of inanim. and abstr. things, kind, sort, description, class, order, character: “genus ullum materiaï,” Lucr. 2, 304: “cum is (sol) quoque efficiat, ut omnia floreant et in suo quaeque genere pubescant,” Cic. N. D. 2, 15, 41: “naves omni genere armorum ornatissimae,” Caes. B. G. 3, 14, 2: “cibi genus,” id. ib. 4, 1, 9: “cum omni genere commeatus,” Liv. 30, 36, 2: “frugum,” id. 38, 15, 9: “hoc sphaerae genus,” Cic. Rep. 1, 14: “hoc triplex rerum publicarum genus,” id. ib. 2, 23: “regale civitatis,” id. ib.; cf.: “totum regiae civitatis,” id. ib. 2, 29: “novum imperii,” id. ib. 2, 32: “ipsum istud genus orationis exspecto,” id. ib. 1, 24 fin.; cf.: dulce orationis, id. Or. 13, 42: “qua re esset hoc bellum genere ipso necessarium,” id. de Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; cf.: “genus hoc erat pugnae, quo, etc.,” Caes. B. G. 1, 48, 4: “potestas annua (consulum) genere ipso ac jure regia,” Cic. Rep. 2, 32: “genus vitae ... genus aetatis,” id. Off. 1, 32, 117: “optimum emendandi,” Quint. 10, 4, 2: “dicendi,” Cic. Off. 1, 1, 3; Quint. 8, 3, 56; 12, 10, 69: “simplex rectumque loquendi,” id. 9, 3, 3: “omnis generis tormenta,” Liv. 32, 16, 10: “praeda ingens omnis generis,” id. 27, 5, 9; so, “omnis generis, with tela,” id. 38, 26, 4; “with naves,” id. 34, 8, 5; “with eloquentia,” id. 39, 40, 7, etc.—Repeated in the relative-clause: “erat haec (ratio) ex eodem genere, quod ego maxime genus ex sociorum litteris reperire cupiebam,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 74, § 183.—In plur.: “Caesar haec genera munitionis instituit,” Caes. B. G. 7, 72, 1: “disserere de generibus et de rationibus civitatum,” Cic. Rep. 2, 11; cf. id. ib. 1, 26; “28: genera juris institutorum, morum consuetudinumque describere,” id. ib. 3, 10: “genera furandi,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 7, § 18.—In the acc., of description: omne, hoc, id, quod genus, for omnis, ejus, hujus, cujus generis, of every, of this, of which kind: “sub urbe hortum omne genus, coronamenta omne genus,” Cato, R. R. 8, 2; Varr. R. R. 1, 29, 1: “omne genus simulacra feruntur,” Lucr. 4, 735: “si hoc genus rebus non proficitur,” Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 23; id. L. L. 9, § 110 Müll.; Lucr. 6, 917 and Hor. S. 2, 6, 44: “in id genus verbis,” Varr. L. L. 10, § 79; 8, 7, 108, § 17: “in id genus libris,” Gell. 3, 8, 1: “scis me ante orationes aut aliquid id genus solitum scribere,” Cic. Att. 13, 12, 3: “vitanda sunt illa, quae propinqua videntur: quod genus, fidentiae contrarium est diffidentia, etc.,” for example, id. Inv. 2, 54, 165; so ib. 2, 52, 157; 2, 54, 162; 2, 57, 172; Lucr. 4, 271; 6, 1058: “lege jus est id quod populi jussu sanctum est, quod genus: ut in jus eas cum voceris,” Auct. Her. 2, 13, 19; cf. “ib. sqq.— In gen.: i. q. res or aliquid: ut in omni genere hujus populi (Graeci) consuetudinem videretur imitatus,” in all respects, in everything, Cic. Rep. 2, 20; cf.: “innumerabiles res sunt, in quibus te quotidie in omni genere desiderem,” id. Q. Fr. 2, 2 fin.: “incredibile est, quam me in omni genere delectarit,” id. Att. 16, 5, 2: “medici assiduitas et tota domus in omni genere diligens,” id. ib. 12, 33, 2; “7, 1, 2: qui in aliquo genere aut inconcinnus aut multus est, is ineptus dicitur,” in any respect whatever, id. de Or. 2, 4, 17: “qua de re et de hoc genere toto pauca cognosce,” id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 2, § 4.—Adverb.: in genus, in general, generally: “sermones in genus communes,” Gell. 4, 1 fin.—

2. In partic.

a. In philos. lang., opp. partes, and comprising them within itself, a general term, logical genus: “genus est id, quod sui similes communione quadam, specie autem differentes, duas aut plures complectitur partes,” Cic. de Or. 1, 42, 189; cf.: genus est, quod plures partes amplectitur, ut animal; “pars est, quae subest generi, ut equus. Sed saepe eadem res alii genus, alii pars est: nam homo animalis pars est, Thebani aut Trojani genus,” id. de Inv. 1, 22, 32: genus est, quod partes aliquas amplectitur, ut cupiditas; “pars est, quae subest generi, ut cupiditati amor, avaritia,” id. ib. 1, 28, 42; cf. “also: genus est notio ad plures differentias pertinens,” id. Top. 7, 31: “nec vero sine philosophorum disciplina genus et speciem cujusque rei cernere neque eam definiendo explicare nec tribuere in partes possumus, etc.,” id. Or. 4, 16; cf. ib. 33, 117: “formae dicendi specie dispares, genere laudabiles,” id. de Or. 3, 9, 34: “perturbationes sunt genere quatuor, partibus plures,” id. Tusc. 3, 11, 24; cf. ib. 5, 25, 71: “et conjuncta quaeremus, et genera et partes generibus subjectas, et similitudines, etc.,” id. de Or. 2, 39, 166; “opp. species and pars,” Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 3.—

b. In gram., gender: transversi sunt (ordines) qui ab recto casu obliqui declinantur, ut albus, albi, albo; “directi sunt, qui ab recto casu in rectos declinantur, ut albus, alba, album. Transversorum ordinum partes appellantur casus, directorum genera: utrisque inter se implicatis forma,” Varr. L. L. 10, § 22 Müll.: “quod ad verborum temporalium rationem attinet, cum partes sint quatuor: temporum, personarum, generum, divisionum, etc.,” ib. 9, § 95: “in nominibus tria genera,” Quint. 1, 4, 23: “barbarismum fieri per numeros aut genera,” id. 1, 5, 16; “9, 3, 6: in verbis quoque quis est adeo imperitus, ut ignoret genera et qualitates, etc.,” id. 1, 4, 27.

 

144 actīvus , a, um, adj. ago.

I. Active: philosophia, practical (opp. to contemplativa): philosophia et contemplativa est et activa; “spectat simul agitque,” Sen. Ep. 95, 10: “(opp. to spectativus) thesin a causa sic distinguunt, ut illa sit spectativae partis, haec activae,” Quint. 3, 5, 11: “(rhetorice) quia maximus ejus usus actu continetur, dicatur activa,” id. 2, 18, 5.—

II. In gramm.: verba activa, which designate transitive action (opp. neutra or intransitiva), Charis. p. 138; Diom. p. 326 P. al.—Adv.: actīve , in gramm., actively, like a verb active, Prisc. pp. 794, 799 P.

145 ăgo , ēgi, actum, 3, v. a.

I. “axit = egerit,” Paul. Diac. 3, 3; “AGIER = agi,” Cic. Off. 3, 15; “agentūm = agentium,” Vulc. Gall. Av. Cass. 4, 6) [cf. ἄγω; Sanscr. aǵ, aghāmi = to go, to drive; agmas = way, train = ὄγμος; agis = race, contest = ἀγών; perh. also Germ. jagen, to drive, to hunt], to put in motion, to move (syn.: agitare, pellere, urgere).

I. Lit.

A. Of cattle and other animals, to lead, drive.

a. Absol.: agas asellum, Seip. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 258: “jumenta agebat,” Liv. 1, 48: “capellas ago,” Verg. E. 1, 13: “Pars quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu etc.,” Ov. F. 1, 323: “caballum,” Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 36.—

b. With acc. of place, prep., sup., or inf.: “agere bovem Romam,” Curt. 1, 45: “equum in hostem,” id. 7, 4: “Germani in amnem aguntur,” Tac. H. 5, 21: “acto ad vallum equo,” id. A. 2, 13: “pecora per calles,” Curt. 7, 11: “per devia rura capellas,” Ov. M. 1, 676: “pecus pastum,” Varr. L. L. 6, 41, p. 88 Müll.: “capellas potum age,” Verg. E. 9, 23: “pecus egit altos Visere montes,” Hor. C. 1, 2, 7.—

B. Of men, to drive, lead, conduct, impel.

a. Absol.: “agmen agens equitum,” Verg. A. 7, 804.—

b. With prep., abl., or inf.: “vinctum ante se Thyum agebat,” Nep. Dat. 3: “agitur praeceps exercitus Lydorum in populos,” Sil. 4, 720: “(adulteram) maritus per omnem vicum verbere agit,” Tac. G. 19; Suet. Calig. 27: “captivos prae se agentes,” Curt. 7, 6; Liv. 23, 1: “acti ante suum quisque praedonem catenati,” Quint. 8, 3, 69: “captivos sub curribus agere,” Mart. 8, 26: “agimur auguriis quaerere exilia,” Verg. A. 3, 5; “and simple for comp.: multis milibus armatorum actis ex ea regione = coactis,” Liv. 44, 31.— In prose: agi, to be led, to march, to go: “quo multitudo omnis consternata agebatur,” Liv. 10, 29: si citius agi vellet agmen, that the army would move, or march on quicker, id. 2, 58: “raptim agmine acto,” id. 6, 28; so id. 23, 36; 25, 9.—Trop.: “egit sol hiemem sub terras,” Verg. G. 4, 51: “poëmata dulcia sunto Et quocumque volent animum auditoris agunto,” lead the mind, Hor. A. P. 100. —Hence, poet.: se agere, to betake one's self, i. e. to go, to come (in Plaut. very freq.; “also in Ter., Verg., etc.): quo agis te?” where are you going? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 294: “unde agis te?” id. Most. 1, 4, 28; so id. ib. 3, 1, 31; id. Mil. 3, 2, 49; id. Poen. 1, 2, 120; id. Pers. 4, 3, 13; id. Trin. 4, 3, 71: “quo hinc te agis?” where are you going, Ter. And. 4, 2, 25: “Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat,” was moving along, Verg. A. 6, 337: “Aeneas se matutinus agebat,” id. ib. 8, 465: “is enim se primus agebat,” for he strode on in front, id. ib. 9, 696.—Also without se: “Et tu, unde agis?” Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 20: “Quo agis?” id. Pers. 2, 2, 34: “Huc age,” Tib. 2, 5, 2 (unless age is here to be taken with veni at the end of the line).—

C. To drive or carry off (animals or men), to steal, rob, plunder (usually abigere): “Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves,” Ov. F. 3, 64.—So esp. freq. of men or animals taken as booty in war, while ferre is used of portable things; hence, ferre et agere (as in Gr. ἄγειν καὶ φέρειν, Hom. Il. 5, 484; and reversed, φέρειν καὶ ἄγειν, in Hdt. and Xen.; cf.: “rapiunt feruntque,” Verg. A. 2, 374: “rapere et auferre,” Cic. Off. 1, 14), in gen., to rob, to plunder: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, Liv. 22, 3: “ut ferri agique res suas viderunt,” id. 38, 15; so id. 3, 37; “so also: rapere agereque: ut ex alieno agro raperent agerentque,” Liv. 22, 1, 2; but portari atque agi means to bear and carry, to bring together, in Caes. B. C. 2, 29 (as φέρειν καὶ ἄγειν in Plat. Phaedr. 279C,): “ne pulcram praedam agat,” Plaut. Aul. 4, 2, 3: “urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere,” Sall. J. 20, 8; 32, 3: “pecoris et mancipiorum praedas,” id. ib. 44, 5; “so eccl. Lat.: agere praedas de aliquo,” Vulg. Jud. 9, 16; ib. 1 Reg. 27, 8; cf. Gron. Obs. 3, 22, 633.—

D. To chase, pursue, press animals or men, to drive about or onwards in flight (for the usual agitare).

a. Of animals: “apros,” Verg. G. 3, 412: “cervum,” id. A. 7, 481; cf. id. ib. 4, 71: “citos canes,” Ov. H. 5, 20: “feros tauros,” Suet. Claud. 21.—

b. Of men: “ceteros ruerem, agerem,” Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 21 (= prosequerer, premerem, Don.): “ita perterritos egerunt, ut, etc.,” Caes. B. G. 4, 12: “Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat,” Verg. A. 5, 265; cf. id. ib. 1, 574: “aliquem in exsilium,” Liv. 25, 2; so Just. 2, 9, 6; 16, 4, 4; 17, 3, 17; “22, 1, 16 al.: aliquem in fugam,” id. 16, 2, 3.—

E. Of inanimate or abstract objects, to move, impel, push forwards, advance, carry to or toward any point: “quid si pater cuniculos agat ad aerarium?” lead, make, Cic. Off. 3, 23, 90: “egisse huc Alpheum vias,” made its way, Verg. A. 3, 695: “vix leni et tranquillo mari moles agi possunt,” carry, build out, Curt. 4, 2, 8: “cloacam maximam sub terram agendam,” to be carried under ground, Liv. 1, 56; “so often in the histt., esp. Cæs. and Livy, as t. t., of moving forwards the battering engines: celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis,” pushed forwards, up, Caes. B. G. 2, 12 Herz.; so id. ib. 3, 21; 7, 17; id. B. C. 2, 1; Liv. 8, 16: “accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci,” Verg. A. 9, 505 al.: “fugere colles campique videntur, quos agimus praeter navem, i. e. praeter quos agimus navem,” Lucr. 4, 391: “in litus passim naves egerunt,” drove the ships ashore, Liv. 22, 19: “ratem in amnem,” Ov. F. 1, 500: “naves in advorsum amnem,” Tac. H. 4, 22.— Poet.: agere navem, to steer or direct a ship, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 114; so, “agere currum,” to drive a chariot, Ov. M. 2, 62; 2, 388 al.—

F. To stir up, to throw out, excite, cause, bring forth (mostly poet.): “scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam,” to throw out sparks and scatter ashes far around, Lucr. 2, 675: “spumas ore,” Verg. G. 3, 203; so Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66: “piceum Flumen agit,” Verg. A. 9, 814: “qui vocem cubantes sensim excitant, eandemque cum egerunt, etc.,” when they have brought it forth, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251. —Hence, animam agere, to expel the breath of life, give up the ghost, expire: “agens animam spumat,” Lucr. 3, 493: “anhelans vaga vadit, animam agens,” Cat. 63, 31: “nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19: “Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat,” id. Fam. 8, 13, 2; so Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 13: “eodem tempore et gestum et animam ageres,” Cic. Rosc. Com. 8: “Est tanti habere animam ut agam?” Sen. Ep. 101, 12; and with a play upon words: semper agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper. Est, non est, quod agas, Attale, semper agis. Si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas; “Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam,” Mart. 1, 80.—

G. Of plants, to put forth or out, to shoot, extend: “(salices) gemmas agunt,” Varr. R. R. 1, 30: “florem agere coeperit ficus,” Col. R. R. 5, 10, 10: “frondem agere,” Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 45: “se ad auras palmes agit,” Verg. G. 2, 364: “(platanum) radices trium et triginta cubitorum egisse,” Varr. R. R. 1, 37, 15: “per glebas sensim radicibus actis,” Ov. M. 4, 254; so id. ib. 2, 583: “robora suas radices in profundum agunt,” Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127.—Metaph.: “vera gloria radices agit,” Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43: “pluma in cutem radices egerat imas,” Ov. M. 2, 582.

II. Trop.

A. Spec., to guide, govern: “Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur,” Verg. A. 1, 574; cf. Forbig. ad h. 1., who considers it the only instance of this use, and compares a similar use of ἄγω; v. L. and S. s. v. II. 2.—

B. In gen., to move, impel, excite, urge to a thing, to prompt or induce to: “si quis ad illa deus te agat,” Hor. S. 2, 7, 24: “una plăga ceteros ad certamen egit,” Liv. 9, 41; 8, 7; 39, 15: quae te, germane, furentem Mens agit in facinus? Ov. M. 5, 14: “totis mentibus acta,” Sil. 10, 191: “in furorem agere,” Quint. 6, 1, 31: “si Agricola in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur,” Tac. Agr. 41: “provinciam avaritia in bellum egerat,” id. A. 14, 32.—

C. To drive, stir up, excite, agitate, rouse vehemently (cf. agito, II.): “me amor fugat, agit,” Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 8: “agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum,” Cic. Verr. 1, 3: “perpetua naturalis bonitas, quae nullis casibus neque agitur neque minuitur,” Nep. Att. 9, 1 Brem.: “opportunitas, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae transvorsos agit,” i. e. leads astray, Sall. J. 6, 3; 14, 20; so Sen. Ep. 8, 3.—To pursue with hostile intent, to persecute, disturb, vex, to attack, assail (for the usu. agitare; mostly poet.): “reginam Alecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi,” Verg. A. 7, 405: “non res et agentia (i. e. agitantia, vexantia) verba Lycamben,” Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 25: “acerba fata Romanos agunt,” id. Epod 7, 17: “diris agam vos,” id. ib. 5, 89: “quam deus ultor agebat,” Ov. M. 14, 750: “futurae mortis agor stimulis,” Luc. 4, 517; cf. Matth. ad Cic. Mur. § 21.—

D. To drive at something, to pursue a course of action, i. e. to make something an object of action; either in the most general sense, like the Engl. do and the Gr. πράττειν, for every kind of mental or physical employment; or, in a more restricted sense, to exhibit in external action, to act or perform, to deliver or pronounce, etc., so that after the act is completed nothing remains permanent, e. g. a speech, dance, play, etc. (while facere, to make, ποιεῖν, denotes the production of an object which continues to exist after the act is completed; and gerere, the performance of the duties of an office or calling).—On these significations, v. Varr. 6, 6, 62, and 6, 7, 64, and 6, 8, 72.—For the more restricted signif. v. Quint. 2, 18, 1 sq.; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 7, 12; Hab. Syn. 426.

1. In the most gen. signif., to do, act, labor, in opp. to rest or idleness.

a. With the gen. objects, aliquid, nihil, plus, etc.: “numquam se plus agere quam nihil cum ageret,” Cic. Rep. 1, 17 (cf. with this, id. Off. 3, 1: numquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus esset): mihi, qui nihil agit, esse omnino non videtur. id. N. D. 2, 16, 46: “post satietatem nihil (est) agendum,” Cels. 1, 2.—Hence,

b. Without object: “aliud agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi,” Cic. N. D. 2, 53, 132; Juv. 16, 49: “agendi tempora,” Tac. H. 3, 40: “industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo,” Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 29.—

c. In colloquial lang., to do, to fare, get on: quid agis? what are you doing? M. Tulli, quid agis? Cic. Cat. 1, 11: “Quid agis?” What's your business? Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 9; also, How goes it with you? How are you? τι πράττεις, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 20; Cic. Fam. 7, 11 al.; Hor. S. 1, 9, 4: “vereor, quid agat,” how he is, Cic. Att. 9, 17: “ut sciatis, quid agam,” Vulg. Ephes. 6, 21: “prospere agit anima tua,” fares well, ib. 3 Joan. 2: “quid agitur?” how goes it with you? how do you do? how are you? Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 17; 1, 5, 42; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40: “Quid intus agitur?” is going on, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 20; id. Ps. 1, 5, 42 al.—

d. With nihil or non multum, to do, i. e. to effect, accomplish, achieve nothing, or not much (orig. belonging to colloquial lang., but in the class. per. even in oratorical and poet. style): nihil agit; “collum obstringe homini,” Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 29: “nihil agis,” you effect nothing, it is of no use, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 12: “nihil agis, dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum,” Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 61 Kühn.; Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 10: cupis, inquit, abire; sed nihil agis; “usque tenebo,” Hor. S. 1, 9, 15: “[nihil agis,] nihil assequeris,” Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15 B. and K.: “ubi blanditiis agitur nihil,” Ov. M. 6, 685: egerit non multum, has not done much, Curt. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 29; cf. Ruhnk. ad Rutil. Lup. p. 120.—

e. In certain circumstances, to proceed, do, act, manage (mostly belonging to familiar style): Thr. Quid nunc agimus? Gn. Quin redimus, What shall we do now? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 41: “hei mihi! quid faciam? quid agam?” what shall I do? how shall I act? id. Ad. 5, 3, 3: “quid agam, habeo,” id. And. 3, 2, 18 (= quid respondeam habeo, Don.) al.: “sed ita quidam agebat,” was so acting, Cic. Lig. 7, 21: a Burro minaciter actum, Burrus proceeded to threats, Tac. A. 13, 21.—

2. To pursue, do, perform, transact (the most usual signif. of this word; in all periods; syn.: facere, efficere, transigere, gerere, tractare, curare): cui quod agat institutumst nullo negotio id agit, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10, 12 (Trag. v. 254 Vahl.): ut quae egi, ago, axim, verruncent bene, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 114 Rib.): “At nihil est, nisi, dum calet, hoc agitur,” Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 92: “Ut id agam, quod missus huc sum,” id. Ps. 2, 2, 44: homines quae agunt vigilantes, agitantque, ea si cui in somno accidunt, minus mirum est, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45: “observabo quam rem agat,” what he is going to do, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 114: “Id quidem ago,” That is what I am doing, Verg. E. 9, 37: “res vera agitur,” Juv. 4, 35: “Jam tempus agires,” Verg. A. 5, 638: “utilis rebus agendis,” Juv. 14, 72: “grassator ferro agit rem,” does the business with a dagger, id. 3, 305; 6, 659 (cf.: “gladiis geritur res,” Liv. 9, 41): “nihil ego nunc de istac re ago,” do nothing about that matter, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 8: “postquam id actumst,” after this is accomplished, id. Am. 1, 1, 72; so, “sed quid actumst?” id. Ps. 2, 4, 20: “nihil aliud agebam nisi eum defenderem,” Cic. Sull. 12: “ne quid temere ac fortuitu, inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,” id. Off. 1, 29: “agamus quod instat,” Verg. E. 9, 66: “renuntiaverunt ei omnia, quae egerant,” Vulg. Marc. 6, 30; ib. Act. 5, 35: “suum negotium agere,” to mind one's business, attend to one's own affairs, Cic. Off. 1, 9; id. de Or. 3, 55, 211; so, “ut vestrum negotium agatis,” Vulg. 1 Thess. 4, 11: “neque satis Bruto constabat, quid agerent,” Caes. B. G. 3, 14: “postquam res in Africā gestas, quoque modo actae forent, fama divolgavit,” Sall. J. 30, 1: “sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis an per litteras agere quae cogitas,” Nep. Con. 3, 8 al.—With the spec. idea of completing, finishing: jucundi acti labores, a proverb in Cic. Fin. 2, 32, 105.—

3. To pursue in one's mind, to drive at, to revolve, to be occupied with, think upon, have in view, aim at (cf. agito, II. E., volvo and voluto): “nescio quid mens mea majus agit,” Ov. H. 12, 212: “hoc variis mens ipsa modis agit,” Val. Fl. 3, 392: “agere fratri proditionem,” Tac. H. 2, 26: “de intrandā Britanniā,” id. Agr. 13.—

4. With a verbal subst., as a favorite circumlocution for the action indicated by the subst. (cf. in Gr. ἄγω with verbal subst.): “rimas agere (sometimes ducere),” to open in cracks, fissures, to crack, Cic. Att. 14, 9; Ov. M. 2, 211; Luc. 6, 728: vos qui regalis corporis custodias agitis, keep watch over, guard, Naev. ap. Non. 323, 1; so Liv. 5, 10: “vigilias agere,” Cic. Verr. 4, 43, 93; Nep. Thras. 4; Tac. H. 3, 76: “excubias alicui,” Ov. F. 3, 245: “excubias,” Tac. H. 4, 58: “pervigilium,” Suet. Vit. 10: “stationem agere,” to keep guard, Liv. 35, 29; Tac. H. 1, 28: “triumphum agere,” to triumph, Cic. Fam. 3, 10; Ov. M. 15, 757; Suet. Dom. 6: “libera arbitria agere,” to make free decisions, to decide arbitrarily, Liv. 24, 45; Curt. 6, 1, 19; 8, 1, 4: “paenitentiam agere,” to exercise repentance, to repent, Quint. 9, 3, 12; Petr. S. 132; Tac. Or. 15; Curt. 8, 6, 23; Plin. Ep. 7, 10; Vulg. Lev. 5, 5; ib. Matt. 3, 2; ib. Apoc. 2, 5: “silentia agere,” to maintain silence, Ov. M. 1, 349: “pacem agere,” Juv. 15, 163: “crimen agere,” to bring accusation, to accuse, Cic. Verr. 4, 22, 48: “laborem agere,” id. Fin. 2, 32: “cursus agere,” Ov. Am. 3, 6, 95: “delectum agere,” to make choice, to choose, Plin. 7, 29, 30, § 107; Quint. 10, 4, 5: “experimenta agere,” Liv. 9, 14; Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18: “mensuram,” id. 15, 3, 4, § 14: “curam agere,” to care for, Ov. H. 15, 302; Quint. 8, prooem. 18: “curam ejus egit,” Vulg. Luc. 10, 34: “oblivia agere,” to forget, Ov. M. 12, 540: “nugas agere,” to trifle, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 29; id. As. 1, 1, 78, and often: “officinas agere,” to keep shop, Inscr. Orell. 4266.—So esp.: agere gratias (poet. grates; never in sing. gratiam), to give thanks, to thank; Gr. χάριν ἔχειν (habere gratiam is to be or feel grateful; Gr. χάριν εἰδέναι; and referre gratiam, to return a favor, requite; Gr. χάριν ἀποδιδόναι; cf. Bremi ad Nep. Them. 8, 7): “diis gratias pro meritis agere,” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 26: “Haud male agit gratias,” id. Aul. 4, 4, 31: “Magnas vero agere gratias Thaïs mihi?” Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 1: “Dis magnas merito gratias habeo atque ago,” id. Phorm. 5, 6, 80: Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter, Cic. Fam. 1, 10: immortales ago tibi gratias agamque dum vivam; “nam relaturum me adfirmare non possum,” id. ib. 10, 11, 1: maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar; “majores etiam habemus,” id. Marcell. 11, 33: “Trebatio magnas ago gratias, quod, etc.,” id. Fam. 11, 28, 8: renuntiate gratias regi me agere; “referre gratiam aliam nunc non posse quam ut suadeam, ne, etc.,” Liv. 37, 37: grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque, reliqui Caelites, * Cic. Rep. 6, 9: “gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti,” Ov. M. 2, 152; so id. ib. 6, 435; 484; 10, 291; 681; 14, 596; Vulg. 2 Reg. 8, 10; ib. Matt. 15, 36 al.; “and in connection with this, laudes agere: Jovis fratri laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo,” Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 2: “Dianae laudes gratesque agam,” id. Mil. 2, 5, 2; so, “diis immortalibus laudesque et grates egit,” Liv. 26, 48: “agi sibi gratias passus est,” Tac. Agr. 42; so id. H. 2, 71; 4, 51; id. A. 13, 21; but oftener grates or gratis in Tac.: “Tiberius egit gratīs benevolentiae patrum, A. 6, 2: agit grates,” id. H. 3, 80; 4, 64; id. A. 2, 38; 2, 86; 3, 18; 3, 24; 4, 15 al.—

5. Of time, to pass, spend (very freq. and class.): Romulus in caelo cum dīs agit aevom, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; so Pac. id. ib. 2, 21, 49, and Hor. S. 1, 5, 101: “tempus,” Tac. H. 4, 62; id. A. 3, 16: domi aetatem, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6: “aetatem in litteris,” Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3: “senectutem,” id. Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. ib. 17, 60: “dies festos,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 48; Tac. G. 17: “otia secura,” Verg. G. 3, 377; Ov. F. 1, 68; 4, 926: “ruri agere vitam,” Liv. 7, 39, and Tac. A. 15, 63: “vitam in terris,” Verg. G. 2, 538: “tranquillam vitam agere,” Vulg. 1 Tim. 2, 2: “Hunc (diem) agerem si,” Verg. A. 5, 51: “ver magnus agebat Orbis,” id. G. 2, 338: “aestiva agere,” to pass, be in, summer quarters, Liv. 27, 8; 27, 21; Curt. 5, 8, 24.—Pass.: “menses jam tibi esse actos vides,” Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 2: “mensis agitur hic septimus,” Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 34, and Ov. M. 7, 700: “melior pars acta (est) diei,” Verg. A. 9, 156; Juv. 4, 66; Tac. A. 15, 63: “acta est per lacrimas nox,” Ov. H. 12, 58 Ruhnk.: “tunc principium anni agebatur,” Liv. 3, 6: “actis quindecim annis in regno,” Just. 41, 5, 9: “Nona aetas agitur,” Juv. 13, 28 al.—With annus and an ordinal, to be of a certain age, to be so old: “quartum annum ago et octogesimum,” am eighty-four years old, Cic. Sen. 10, 32: “Annum agens sextum decimum patrem amisit,” Suet. Caes. 1.—Metaph.: sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, was in its 640th year, Tac. G. 37.— Hence also absol. (rare), to pass or spend time, to live, to be, to be somewhere: “civitas laeta agere,” was joyful, Sall. J. 55, 2: “tum Marius apud primos agebat,” id. ib. 101, 6: “in Africa, quā procul a mari incultius agebatur,” id. ib. 89, 7: “apud illos homines, qui tum agebant,” Tac. A. 3, 19: “Thracia discors agebat,” id. ib. 3, 38: “Juxta Hermunduros Naristi agunt,” Tac. G. 42: “ultra jugum plurimae gentes agunt,” id. ib. 43: “Gallos trans Padum agentes,” id. H. 3, 34: “quibus (annis) exul Rhodi agit,” id. A. 1, 4: “agere inter homines desinere,” id. ib. 15, 74: “Vitellius non in ore volgi agere,” was not in the sight of the people, id. H. 3, 36: “ante aciem agere,” id. G. 7; and: “in armis agere,” id. A. 14, 55 = versari.—

6. In the lang. of offerings, t. t., to despatch the victim, to kill, slay. In performing this rite, the sacrificer asked the priest, agone, shall I do it? and the latter answered, age or hoc age, do it: “qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros semper, Agone? rogat, nec nisi jussus agit,” Ov. F. 1. 321 (cf. agonia and agonalia): “a tergo Chaeream cervicem (Caligulae) gladio caesim graviter percussisse, praemissā voce,” hoc age, Suet. Calig. 58; id. Galb. 20. —This call of the priest in act of solemn sacrifice, Hoc age, warned the assembled multitude to be quiet and give attention; hence hoc or id and sometimes haec or istuc agere was used for, to give attention to, to attend to, to mind, heed; and followed by ut or ne, to pursue a thing, have it in view, aim at, design, etc.; cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 1, 2, 15, and Suet. Calig. 58: hoc agite, Plaut. As. prol. init.: “Hoc age,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 152; id. Ep. 1, 6, 31: “Hoc agite, of poetry,” Juv. 7, 20: “hoc agamus,” Sen. Clem. 1, 12: “haec agamus,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 49: “agere hoc possumus,” Lucr. 1, 41; 4, 969; Juv. 7, 48: “hoccine agis an non? hoc agam,” id. ib., Ter. And. 1, 2, 15; 2, 5, 4: “nunc istuc age,” id. Heaut. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 3 al.: “Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo,” Cic. Lig. 4, 11: “id et agunt et moliuntur,” id. Mur. 38: “(oculi, aures, etc.) quasi fenestrae sunt animi, quibus tamen sentire nihil queat mens, nisi id agat et adsit,” id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46: qui id egerunt, ut gentem . . . collocarent, aimed at this, that, etc., id. Cat. 4, 6, 12: “qui cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,” keep it in view, that, id. Off. 1, 13, 41: “idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis, an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret?” id. Lig. 6, 18: “Hoc agit, ut doleas,” Juv. 5, 157: “Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura,” Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 88: “Quid tuus ille destrictus gladius agebat?” have in view, mean, Cic. Leg. 3, 9: “Quid aliud egimus nisi ut, quod hic potest, nos possemus?” id. ib. 4, 10: “Sin autem id actum est, ut homines postremi pecuniis alienis locupletarentur,” id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137: “certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur,” Nep. Them. 5, 1: “ego id semper egi, ne bellis interessem,” Cic. Fam. 4, 7.—Also, the opp.: alias res or aliud agere, not to attend to, heed, or observe, to pursue secondary or subordinate objects: Ch. Alias res agis. Pa. Istuc ago equidem, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 57; id. Hec. 5, 3, 28: “usque eo animadverti eum jocari atque alias res agere,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 22: “atqui vides, quam alias res agamus,” id. de Or. 3, 14, 51; id. Brut. 66, 233: “aliud agens ac nihil ejusmodi cogitans,” id. Clu. 64.—

7. In relation to public affairs, to conduct, manage, carry on, administer: agere bellum, to carry on or wage war (embracing the whole theory and practice of war, while bellum gerere designates the bodily and mental effort, and the bearing of the necessary burdens; and bellum facere, the actual outbreak of hostile feelings, v. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 28): “qui longe aliā ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt,” Caes. B. G. 3, 28: “Antiochus si tam in agendo bello parere voluisset consiliis ejus (Hannibalis) quam in suscipiendo instituerat, etc.,” Nep. Hann. 8, 3; Curt. 4, 10, 29: “aliena bella mercedibus agere,” Mel. 1, 16: “Bellaque non puero tractat agenda puer,” Ov. A. A. 1, 182 (also in id. Tr. 2, 230, Gron. Observ. 2, 3, 227, for the usu. obit, with one MS., reads agit; so Merkel).—Poet.: “Martem for bellum,” Luc. 4, 2: agere proelium, to give battle (very rare): “levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis,” Liv. 22, 9.—Of offices, employments, etc., to conduct, exercise, administer, hold: “forum agere,” to hold court, Cic. Fam. 8, 6; and: “conventus agere,” to hold the assizes, Cic. Verr. 5, 11, 28; Caes. B. G. 1, 54; 6, 44; “used of the governors of provinces: judicium agere,” Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120: “vivorum coetus agere,” to make assemblies of, to assemble, Tac. A. 16, 34: “censum agere,” Liv. 3, 22; Tac. A. 14, 46; Suet. Aug. 27: “recensum agere,” id. Caes. 41: “potestatem agere,” Flor. 1, 7, 2: “honorem agere,” Liv. 8, 26: “regnum,” Flor. 1, 6, 2: “rem publicam,” Dig. 4, 6, 35, § 8: “consulatum,” Quint. 12, 1, 16: “praefecturam,” Suet. Tib. 6: “centurionatum,” Tac. A. 1, 44: “senatum,” Suet. Caes. 88: “fiscum agere,” to have charge of the treasury, id. Dom. 12: “publicum agere,” to collect the taxes, id. Vesp. 1: “inquisitionem agere,” Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18: “curam alicujus rei agere,” to have the management of, to manage, Liv. 6, 15; Suet. Claud. 18: “rei publicae curationem agens,” Liv. 4, 13: dilectum agere, to make a levy, to levy (postAug. for dilectum habere, Cic., Cæs., Sall.), Quint. 12, 3, 5; Tac. A. 2, 16; id. Agr. 7 and 10; id. H. 2, 16, 12; Suet. Calig. 43. —

8. Of civil and political transactions in the senate, the forum, before tribunals of justice, etc., to manage or transact, to do, to discuss, plead, speak, deliberate; constr. aliquid or de aliqua re: “velim recordere, quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim,” Cic. Fam. 5, 2; 1, 9: “de condicionibus pacis,” Liv. 8, 37: “de summā re publica,” Suet. Caes. 28: “cum de Catilinae conjuratione ageretur in curiā,” id. Aug. 94: “de poenā alicujus,” Liv. 5, 36: “de agro plebis,” id. 1, 46.—Hence the phrase: agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people in a public assembly, for the purpose of obtaining their approval or rejection of a thing (while agere ad populum signifies to propose, to bring before the people): “cum populo agere est rogare quid populum, quod suffragiis suis aut jubeat aut vetet,” Gell. 13, 15, 10: “agere cum populo de re publicā,” Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 12; id. Lael. 25, 96: “neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat,” Sall. C. 51, 43.—So also absol.: “hic locus (rostra) ad agendum amplissimus,” Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1: “Metellus cum agere coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat,” id. Fam. 5, 2.—Transf. to common life.

a. Agere cum aliquo, de aliquo or re or ut, to treat, deal, negotiate, confer, talk with one about a person or thing; to endeavor to persuade or move one, that, etc.: nihil age tecum (sc. cum odore vini); “ubi est ipsus (vini lepos)?” I have nothing to do with you, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 11: “Quae (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit,” thus pleads, Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 18: “algae Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,” Juv. 4, 49: “haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant,” thus treated together, Verg. A. 11, 445: “de quo et praesens tecum egi diligenter, et scripsi ad te accurate antea,” Cic. Fam. 13, 75: “egi cum Claudiā et cum vestrā sorore Muciā, ut eum ab illā injuriā deterrerent,” id. ib. 5, 2: “misi ad Metellum communes amicos, qui agerent cum eo, ut de illā mente desisteret,” id. ib. 5, 2: “Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut eam (Elpinicen) sibi uxorem daret,” Nep. Cim. 1, 3.—Also absol.: “Alcibiades praesente vulgo agere coepit,” Nep. Alc. 8, 2: “si qua Caesares obtinendae Armeniae egerant,” Tac. A. 15, 14: “ut Lucretius agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit,” Liv. 2, 2.—In Suet. once agere cum senatu, with acc. and inf., to propose or state to the Senate: “Tiberius egit cum senatu non debere talia praemia tribui,” Suet. Tib. 54.—

b. With the advv. bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with one, to treat or use well or ill: “facile est bene agere cum eis, etc.,” Cic. Phil. 14, 11: “bene egissent Athenienses cum Miltiade, si, etc.,” Val. Max. 5, 3, 3 ext.; Vulg. Jud. 9, 16: “praeclare cum aliquo agere,” Cic. Sest. 23: “Male agis mecum,” Plaut. As. 1, 3, 21: “qui cum creditoribus suis male agat,” Cic. Quinct. 84; and: “tu contra me male agis,” Vulg. Jud. 11, 27.—Freq. in pass., to be or go well or ill with one, to be well or badly off: “intelleget secum actum esse pessime,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50: “praeclare mecum actum puto,” id. Fam. 9, 24; so id. ib. 5, 18: exstat cujusdam non inscitus jocus bene agi potuisse cum rebus humanis, si Domitius pater talem habuisset uxorem, it would have gone well with human affairs, been well for mankind, if, etc., Suet. Ner. 28.—Also absol. without cum: agitur praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, it is well done if, etc., it is a splendid thing if, etc., Cic. Fam. 4, 14: “vivitur cum eis, in quibus praeclare agitur si sunt simulacra virtutis,” id. Off. 1, 15: “bene agitur pro noxiā,” Plaut. Mil. 5, 23.—

9. Of transactions before a court or tribunal.

a. Aliquid agere ex jure, ex syngraphā, ex sponso, or simply the abl. jure, lege, litibus, obsignatis tabellis, causā, to bring an action or suit, to manage a cause, to plead a case: “ex jure civili et praetorio agere,” Cic. Caecin. 12: “tamquam ex syngraphā agere cum populo,” to litigate, id. Mur. 17: “ex sponso egit,” id. Quint. 9: Ph. Una injuriast Tecum. Ch. Lege agito ergo, Go to law, then, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90: “agere lege in hereditatem,” Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175; Ov. F. 1, 48; Liv. 9, 46: “cum illo se lege agere dicebat,” Nep. Tim. 5: summo jure agere, to assert or claim one's right to the full extent of the law, Cic. Off. 1, 11: “non enim gladiis mecum, sed litibus agetur,” id. Q. Fr. 1, 4: “causā quam vi agere malle,” Tac. A. 13, 37: “tabellis obsignatis agis mecum,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33: “Jure, ut opinor, agat, jure increpet inciletque,” with right would bring her charge, Lucr. 3, 963; so, “Castrensis jurisdictio plura manu agens,” settles more cases by force, Tac. Agr. 9: “ubi manu agitur,” when the case is settled by violent hands, id. G. 36.—

b. Causam or rem agere, to try or plead a case; with apud, ad, or absol.: “causam apud centumviros egit,” Cic. Caecin. 24: “Caesar cum ageret apud censores,” Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 10; so with adversus: “egi causam adversus magistratus,” Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 11: “orator agere dicitur causam,” Varr. L. L. 6, 42: causam isto modo agere, Cic. Lig. 4, 10; Tac. Or. 5; 11; 14; Juv. 2, 51; 14, 132: “agit causas liberales,” Cic. Fam. 8, 9: qui ad rem agendam adsunt, M. Cael. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 51: “cum (M. Tullius) et ipsam se rem agere diceret,” Quint. 12, 10, 45: Gripe, accede huc; “tua res agitur,” is being tried, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 104; Quint. 8, 3, 13; “and extra-judicially: rogo ad Caesarem meam causam agas,” Cic. Fam. 5, 10: “Una (factio) populi causam agebat, altera optimatum,” Nep. Phoc. 3; so, agere, absol., to plead' ad judicem sic agi solet, Cic. Lig. 10: “tam solute agere, tam leniter,” id. Brut. 80: “tu istuc nisi fingeres, sic ageres?” id. ib. 80; Juv. 7, 143 and 144; 14, 32.—Transf. to common life; with de or acc., to discuss, treat, speak of: “Sed estne hic ipsus, de quo agebam?” of whom I was speaking, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53: “causa non solum exponenda, sed etiam graviter copioseque agenda est,” to be discussed, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 12; Cic. Verr. 1, 13, 37: “Samnitium bella, quae agimus,” are treating of, Liv. 10, 31.—Hence,

c. Agere aliquem reum, to proceed against one as accused, to accuse one, Liv. 4, 42; 24, 25; Tac. A. 14, 18: “reus agitur,” id. ib. 15, 20; 3, 13; and with the gen. of the crime, with which one is charged: “agere furti,” to accuse of theft, Cic. Fam. 7, 22: “adulterii cum aliquo,” Quint. 4, 4, 8: “injuriarum,” id. 3, 6, 19; and often in the Pandects.—

d. Pass. of the thing which is the subject of accusation, to be in suit or in question; it concerns or affects, is about, etc.: “non nunc pecunia, sed illud agitur, quomodo, etc.,” Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 67: “non capitis ei res agitur, sed pecuniae,” the point in dispute, id. Phorm. 4, 3, 26: “aguntur injuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum, agitur existimatio, veritasque judiciorum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 51: “si magna res, magna hereditas agetur,” id. Fin. 2, 17: quā de re agitur, what the point of dispute or litigation is, id. Brut. 79.—Hence, trop.,

(a). Res agitur, the case is on trial, i. e. something is at stake or at hazard, in peril, or in danger: “at nos, quarum res agitur, aliter auctores sumus,” Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 72: “quasi istic mea res minor agatur quam tua,” Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113: “agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum, aguntur certissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, aguntur bona multorum civium,” Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6: “in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama,” id. Lael. 17, 61; Nep. Att. 15, 2: “non libertas solum agebatur,” Liv. 28, 19; Sen. Clem. 1, 20 al.: “nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet,” Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 (= in periculo versatur, Lambin.): “agitur pars tertia mundi,” is at stake, I am in danger of losing, Ov. M. 5, 372.—

(b). Res acta est, the case is over (and done for): acta haec res est; “perii,” this matter is ended, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 3: hence, actum est de aliquo or aliquā re, it is all over with a person or thing: “actum hodie est de me,” Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63: “jam de Servio actum,” Liv. 1, 47: “actum est de collo meo,” Plaut. Trin. 3, 4, 194.—So also absol.: actumst; “ilicet me infelicem,” Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 17: “si animus hominem pepulit, actumst,” id. Trin. 2, 2, 27; Ter. And. 3, 1, 7; Cic. Att. 5, 15: “actumst, ilicet, peristi,” Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 9: periimus; “actumst,” id. Heaut. 3, 3, 3.—

(g). Rem actam agere, to plead a case already finished, i. e. to act to no purpose: “rem actam agis,” Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 27; id. Cist. 4, 2, 36; Liv. 28, 40; so, “actum or acta agere: actum, aiunt, ne agas,” Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Att. 9, 18: “acta agimus,” id. Am. 22.—

10. To represent by external action, to perform, pronounce, deliver, etc.

a. Of an orator, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 79: “quae sic ab illo acta esse constabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent,” id. ib. 3, 56, 214: “agere fortius et audentius volo,” Tac. Or. 18; 39.—

b. Of an actor, to represent, play, act: “Ipse hanc acturust Juppiter comoediam,” Plaut. Am. prol. 88; so, “fabulam,” Ter. Ad. prol. 12; id. Hec. prol. 22: “dum haec agitur fabula,” Plaut. Men. prol. 72 al.: “partīs,” to have a part in a play, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27: “Ballionem illum cum agit, agit Chaeream,” Cic. Rosc. Com. 7: “gestum agere in scaenā,” id. de Or. 2, 57: “dicitur canticum egisse aliquanto magis vigente motu,” Liv. 7, 2 al.—Transf. to other relations, to represent or personate one, to act the part of, to act as, behave like: has partes lenitatis semper egi, Cic. Mur. 3: “egi illos omnes adulescentes, quos ille actitat,” id. Fam. 2, 9: “amicum imperatoris,” Tac. H. 1, 30: “exulem,” id. A. 1, 4: “socium magis imperii quam ministrum,” id. H. 2, 83: “senatorem,” Tac. A. 16, 28.—So of things poetically: “utrinque prora frontem agit,” serves as a bow, Tac. G. 44.—

11. Se agere = se gerere, to carry one's self, to behave, deport one's self: “tantā mobilitate sese Numidae agunt,” Sall. J. 56, 5: “quanto ferocius ante se egerint,” Tac. H. 3, 2 Halm: “qui se pro equitibus Romanis agerent,” Suet. Claud. 25: “non principem se, sed ministrum egit,” id. ib. 29: “neglegenter se et avare agere,” Eutr. 6, 9: “prudenter se agebat,” Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5: “sapienter se agebat,” ib. 4 Reg. 18, 7. —Also absol.: “seditiose,” Tac. Agr. 7: “facile justeque,” id. ib. 9: “superbe,” id. H. 2, 27: “ex aequo,” id. ib. 4, 64: “anxius et intentus agebat,” id. Agr. 5.—

12. Imper.: age, agite, Ter., Tib., Lucr., Hor., Ov., never using agite, and Catull. never age, with which compare the Gr. ἄγε, ἄγετε (also accompanied by the particles dum, eia, en, ergo, igitur, jam, modo, nuncjam, porro, quare, quin, sane, vero, verum, and by sis); as an exclamation.

a. In encouragement, exhortation, come! come on! (old Engl. go to!) up! on! quick! (cf. I. B. fin.). (α In the sing.: “age, adsta, mane, audi, Enn. ap. Delr. Synt. 1, 99: age i tu secundum,” come, follow me! Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 1: “age, perge, quaeso,” id. Cist. 2, 3, 12: “age, da veniam filio,” Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 14: “age, age, nunc experiamur,” id. ib. 5, 4, 23: “age sis tu ... delude,” Plaut. As. 3, 3, 89; id. Ep. 3, 4, 39; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18; id. Rosc. Am. 16: “quanto ferocius ante se egerint, agedum eam solve cistulam,” Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 151; id. Capt. 3, 4, 39: “Agedum vicissim dic,” Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Eun. 4, 4, 27: “agedum humanis concede,” Lucr. 3, 962: “age modo hodie sero,” Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103: “age nuncjam,” id. And. 5, 2, 25: “En age, quid cessas,” Tib. 2, 2, 10: “Quare age,” Verg. A. 7, 429: “Verum age,” id. ib. 12, 832: “Quin age,” id. G. 4, 329: “en, age, Rumpe moras,” id. ib. 3, 43: “eia age,” id. A. 4, 569.—

(b). In the plur.: “agite, pugni,” up, fists, and at 'em! Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146: “agite bibite,” id. Curc. 1, 1, 88; id. Stich. 1, 3, 68: “agite in modum dicite,” Cat. 61, 38: “Quare agite ... conjungite,” id. 64, 372; Verg. A. 1, 627: “vos agite ... volvite,” Val. Fl. 3, 311: “agite nunc, divites, plorate,” Vulg. Jac. 5, 1: “agitedum,” Liv. 3, 62.—Also age in the sing., with a verb in the plur. (cf. ἄγε τάμνετε, Hom. Od. 3, 332; ἄγε δὴ τραπείομεν, id. Il. 3, 441): “age igitur, intro abite,” Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 54: “En agedum convertite,” Prop. 1, 1, 21: “mittite, agedum, legatos,” Liv. 38, 47: “Ite age,” Stat. Th. 10, 33: “Huc age adeste,” Sil. 11, 169.—

b. In transitions in discourse, well then! well now! well! (esp. in Cic. Or. very freq.). So in Plaut. for resuming discourse that has been interrupted: age, tu interea huic somnium narra, Curc. 2, 2, 5: nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari, etc., well now, since I have taught, etc., Lucr. 1, 266: “nunc age, quod superest, cognosce et clarius audi,” id. 1, 920; so id. 1, 952; 2, 62; 333; 730; 3, 418; “4, 109 al.: age porro, tu, qui existimari te voluisti interpretem foederum, cur, etc.,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22; so id. Rosc. Am. 16; id. Part. 12; id. Att. 8, 3.—And age (as in a.) with a verb in the plur.: “age vero, ceteris in rebus qualis sit temperantia considerate,” Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14; so id. Sull. 26; id. Mil. 21; id. Rosc. Am. 37.—

c. As a sign of assent, well! very well! good! right! Age, age, mansero, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 61: age, age, jam ducat; “dabo,” Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 57: “Age, veniam,” id. And. 4, 2, 30: “age, sit ita factum,” Cic. Mil. 19: “age sane,” Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 27; Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 119.!*? Position.—Age, used with another verb in the imperative, regularly stands before it, but in poetry, for the sake of the metre, it,

I. Sometimes follows such verb; as,

a. In dactylic metre: “Cede agedum,” Prop. 5, 9, 54: “Dic age,” Verg. A. 6, 343; Hor. S. 2, 7, 92; Ov. F. 1, 149: “Esto age,” Pers. 2, 42: “Fare age,” Verg. A. 3, 362: “Finge age,” Ov. H. 7, 65: “Redde age,” Hor. S. 2, 8, 80: “Surge age,” Verg. A. 3, 169; 8, 59; 10, 241; Ov. H. 14, 73: “Vade age,” Verg. A. 3, 462; 4, 422; so, “agite: Ite agite,” Prop. 4, 3, 7.—

b. In other metres (very rarely): “appropera age,” Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 38: “dic age,” Hor. C. 1, 32, 3; 2, 11, 22; “3, 4, 1.—So also in prose (very rarely): Mittite agedum,” Liv. 38, 47: “procedat agedum ad pugnam,” id. 7, 9.—

II. It is often separated from such verb: “age me huc adspice,” Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 118; id. Capt. 5, 2, 1: “Age ... instiga,” Ter. And. 4, 2, 10; 5, 6, 11: “Quare agite ... conjungite,” Cat. 64, 372: “Huc age ... veni,” Tib. 2, 5, 2: “Ergo age cervici imponere nostrae,” Verg. A. 2, 707: “en age segnis Rumpe moras,” id. G. 3, 42: “age te procellae Crede,” Hor. C. 3, 27, 62: “Age jam ... condisce,” id. ib. 4, 11, 31; id. S. 2, 7, 4.—Hence,

1. ăgens , entis, P. a.

A. Adj.

1. Efficient, effective, powerful (only in the rhet. lang. of Cic.): “utendum est imaginibus agentibus, acribus, insignitis,” Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358: “acre orator, incensus et agens,” id. Brut. 92, 317.—Comp. and sup. not used.!*?

2. Agentia verba, in the grammarians, for verba activa, Gell. 18, 12.—

B. Subst.: ăgentes , ium.

a. Under the emperors, a kind of secret police (also called frumentarii and curiosi), Aur. Vict. Caes. 39 fin.; Dig. 1, 12; 1, 20; 21; 22; 23, etc.; Amm. 15, 3; 14, 11 al.—

b. For agrimensores, land-surveyors, Hyg. Lim. p. 179.—

2. actus , a, um, P. a. Lit., that has been transacted in the Senate, in the forum, before the courts of justice, etc.; hence,

A. actum , i, n., a public transaction in the Senate, before the people, or before a single magistrate: “actum ejus, qui in re publicā cum imperio versatus sit,” Cic. Phil. 1, 7: “acta Caesaris servanda censeo,” id. ib. 1, 7: “acta tui praeclari tribunatūs,” id. Dom. 31.—

B. acta publĭca , or absol.: acta , ōrum, n., the register of public acts, records, journal. Julius Cæsar, in his consulship, ordered that the doings of the Senate (diurna acta) should be made public, Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Ernest. Exc. 1; “but Augustus again prohibited it,” Suet. Aug. 36. Still the acts of the Senate were written down, and, under the succeeding emperors. certain senators were appointed to this office (actis vel commentariis Senatūs conficiendis), Tac. A. 5, 4. They had also public registers of the transactions of the assemblies of the people, and of the different courts of justice; “also of births and deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., which were preserved as sources of future history.—Hence, diurna urbis acta,” the city journal, Tac. A. 13, 31: “acta populi,” Suet. Caes. 20: “acta publica,” Tac. A. 12, 24; Suet. Tib. 8; Plin. Ep. 7, 33: “urbana,” id. ib. 9, 15; which were all comprehended under the gen. name acta.

1. With the time added: “acta eorum temporum,” Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 60: “illius temporis,” Ascon. Mil. 44, 16: “ejus anni,” Plin. 2, 56, 57, § 147.—

2. Absol., Cic. Fam. 12, 8; 22, 1; 28, 3; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; 3, 16; Suet. Calig. 8; Quint. 9, 3; Juv. 2, 136: Quis dabit historico, quantum daret acta legenti, i. e. to the actuarius, q. v., id. 7, 104; cf. Bähr's Röm. Lit. Gesch. 303.—

C. acta triumphōrum , the public record of triumphs, fuller than the Fasti triumphales, Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 12.—

D. acta fŏri (v. Inscr. Grut. 445, 10), the records,

a. Of strictly historical transactions, Amm. 22, 3, 4; Dig. 4, 6, 33, § 1.—

b. Of matters of private right, as wills, gifts, bonds (acta ad jus privatorum pertinentia, Dig. 49, 14, 45, § 4), Fragm. Vat. §§ 249, 266, 268, 317.—

E. acta mi-litarĭa , the daily records of the movements of a legion, Veg. R. R. 2, 19.

146 făcĭo , fēci, factum, 3, v. a. and n.; in

I. pass.: fīo, factus, fĭĕri (imper. usually fac, but the arch form face is freq., esp. in Plaut. and Ter., as Plaut. As. prol. 4; 1, 1, 77; id. Aul. 2, 1, 30; id. Cist. 2, 1, 28; id. Ep. 1, 1, 37; 2, 2, 117; id. Most. 3, 2, 167 et saep.; Ter. And. 4, 1, 57; 4, 2, 29; 5, 1, 2; 14; id. Eun. 1, 2, 10 al.; Cato, R. R. 23, 1; 26; 32 al.; Cat. 63, 78; 79; 82; Ov. Med. fac. 60; Val. Fl. 7, 179 al.; futur. facie for faciam, Cato ap. Quint. 1, 7, 23; cf. dico, init., and the letter e: “faxo,” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 199; 2, 1, 42; 3, 3, 17; 3, 4, 14; 5, 1, 55 et saep.; Ter. And. 5, 2, 13; id. Eun. 2, 2, 54; 4, 3, 21 al.; Verg. A. 9, 154; 12, 316; Ov. M. 3, 271; 12, 594: faxim, Enn. ap. Non. 507, 23; Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 13; id. Aul. 3, 2, 6; 3, 5, 20 al.; Ter. And. 4, 4, 14; id. Heaut. 1, 2, 13: “faxis,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 38; Sil. 15, 362: faxit, Lex Numae in Paul. ex Fest. s. v. ALIVTA, p. 6 Müll.; Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 20, 1, 12; Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 90; 3, 5, 54; id. Cas. 3, 5, 6 al.; Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 24; id. Phorm. 3, 3, 21: “faximus,” Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 40: faxitis, an old form in Liv. 23, 11, 2; 25, 12, 10; 29, 27, 3: “faxint,” Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 85; id. Aul. 2, 1, 27; 2, 2, 79 al.; Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 109; id. Hec. 1, 2, 27; 3, 2, 19; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 35, § 81; id. Fam. 14, 3, 3.—In pass. imper.: “fi,” Plaut. Curc. 1, 1, 87; Hor. S. 2, 5, 38; Pers. 1, 1, 39: “fite,” Plaut. Curc. 1, 1, 89 al.—Indic.: facitur, Nigid. ap. Non. 507, 15: fitur, Cato ap. Prisc. p. 789: “fiebantur,” id. ib.: fitum est, Liv. Andron. ap. Non. 475, 16.—Subj.: faciatur, Titin. ib.—Inf.: fiere, Enn. ap. Charis. p. 75 P.; Ann. v. 15, ed. Vahl.; Laev. ap. Gell. 19, 7, 10.—On the long i of fit, v. Ritschl, prol. p. 184, and cf. Plaut. Capt. prol. 25: ut fit in bello) [prob. root bha-; Sanscr. bhasas, light; Gr. φα-, in φαίνω, φημί; cf. fax, facetiae, facilis, Corss. Ausspr. 1, 423.—But Curt. refers facio to root θε- (strengthened THEK), Griech. Etym. p. 64], to make in all senses, to do, perform, accomplish, prepare, produce, bring to pass, cause, effect, create, commit, perpetrate, form, fashion, etc. (cf. in gen.: “ago, factito, reddo, operor, tracto): verbum facere omnem omnino faciendi causam complectitur, donandi, solvendi, judicandi, ambulandi, numerandi,” Dig. 50, 16, 218.

I. Act.

A. In gen.

(a). With acc.: ut faber, cum quid aedificaturus est, non ipse facit materiam, sed ea utitur, quae sit parata, etc. ... Quod si non est a deo materia facta, ne terra quidem et aqua et aër et ignis a deo factus est, Cic. N. D. Fragm. ap. Lact. 2, 8 (Cic. ed. Bait. 7, p. 121): “sphaera ab Archimede facta,” Cic. Rep. 1, 14: “fecitque idem et sepsit de manubiis comitium et curiam,” id. ib. 2, 17: “aedem,” id. ib. 2, 20: “pontem in Arari faciundum curat,” Caes. B. G. 1, 13, 1: “castra,” id. ib. 1, 48, 2; Cic. Fam. 15, 4, 4: “faber vasculum fecit,” Quint. 7, 10, 9: “classem,” Caes. B. G. 4, 21, 4: “cenas et facere et obire,” Cic. Att. 9, 13, 6: “ignem lignis viridibus,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 17, § 45: “poëma,” to compose, id. Pis. 29, 70: “carmina,” Juv. 7, 28: “versus,” id. 7, 38: “sermonem,” Cic. Fam. 9, 8, 1; cf. “litteram,” id. Ac. 2, 2, 6: ludos, to celebrate, exhibit = edere, id. Rep. 2, 20; id. Att. 15, 10; “also i. q. ludificari,” Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 47: “sementes,” i. e. to sow, Caes. B. G. 1, 3, 1: “messem,” Col. 2, 10, 28: “pecuniam,” to make, acquire, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 6, § 17: “manum (with parare copias),” to collect, prepare, id. Caecin. 12, 33; so, “cohortes,” Caes. B. C. 3, 87, 4: “exercitum,” Vell. 2, 109, 2; and: “auxilia mercede,” Tac. A. 6, 33: “iter,” Cic. Att. 3, 1; id. Planc. 26, 65; id. Div. 1, 33, 73 et saep.; cf. “also the phrases: aditum sibi ad aures,” Quint. 4, 1, 46: “admirationem alicujus rei alicui,” to excite, Liv. 25, 11, 18; Sen. Ep. 115: “aes alienum,” Cic. Att. 13, 46, 4; Liv. 2, 23, 5; Sen. Ep. 119, 1: “alienationem disjunctionemque,” Cic. Lael. 21, 76: “animum alicui,” Liv. 25, 11, 10: “arbitrium de aliquo,” to decide, Hor. C. 4, 7, 21; “opp. arbitrium alicui in aliqua re,” i. e. to leave the decision to one, Liv. 43, 15, 5: “audaciam hosti,” id. 29, 34, 10: “audientiam orationi,” Cic. Div. in Caecil. 13, 42: “auspicium alicui,” Liv. 1, 34, 9; Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 86: “auctoritatem,” Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 15, 43: “bellum,” Cic. Off. 1, 11, 35; Caes. B. G. 3, 29, 2: “multa bona alicui,” Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 46: “castra,” to pitch, Tac. H. 5, 1: “caulem,” to form, Col. Arb. 54: “clamores,” to make, raise, Cic. Brut. 95, 326: “cognomen alicui,” to give, Liv. 1, 3, 9: “commercium sermonis,” id. 5, 15, 5: “concitationes,” Caes. B. C. 3, 106 fin.: “conjurationes,” to form, id. B. G. 4, 30 fin.: “consuetudinem alicui cum altero,” Cic. Fam. 13, 23, 1: “consilia alicui,” Liv. 35, 42, 8: “contentionem cum aliquo,” Cic. Off. 1, 38, 137: “controversiam,” to occasion, id. Or. 34, 121: “convicium magnum alicui,” id. Fam. 10, 16, 1: “copiam pugnandi militibus,” Liv. 7, 13, 10: “corpus,” to grow fat, corpulent, Cels. 7, 3 fin.; Phaedr. 3, 7, 5: “curam,” Tac. A. 3, 52: “damnum,” to suffer, Cic. Brut. 33, 125: “detrimentum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 9, § 20: “desiderium alicujus, rei alicui,” Liv. 3, 34, 7; 7, 24, 10: “dicta,” Ov. F. 2, 375; 3, 515: “difficultatem,” Quint. 10, 3, 10 and 16: “discordiam,” to cause, Tac. H. 3, 48: “discrimen,” Quint. 7, 2, 14; 11, 1, 43: “disjunctionem (with alienationem),” Cic. Lael. 21, 76: “dolorem alicui,” id. Att. 11, 8, 2: “dulcedinem,” Sen. Ep. 111: “eloquentiam alicui (ira),” Quint. 6, 2, 26: “epigramma,” to write, Cic. Arch. 10, 25: “errorem,” Sen. Ep. 67: “eruptiones ex oppido,” Caes. B. C. 2, 2, 5: “exemplum,” Quint. 5, 2, 2: exempla = edere or statuere, Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 66. exercitum, to raise, muster, Tac. A. 6, 33: “exspectationem,” Quint. 9, 2, 23: “facinus,” Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 1; Cic. Fin. 2, 29, 95; Tac. A. 12, 31: “facultatem recte judicandi alicui,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 73, § 179: “fallaciam,” Ter. And. 1, 8, 7: “famam ingenii,” Quint. 11, 2, 46: “fastidium,” Liv. 3, 1, 7: “favorem alicui,” id. 42, 14, 10; Quint. 4, 1, 33: “fidem alicui,” Cic. Cat. 3, 2, 4; id. Att. 7, 8, 1; Quint. 6, 2, 18: “finem,” Cic. Att. 16, 16, 16; id. Rep. 2, 44: “formidinem,” to excite, Tac. H. 3, 10: “fortunam magnam (with parare),” Liv. 24, 22, 9: “fraudem,” Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 9; Cic. Att. 4, 12: “fugam fecerunt, stronger than fugerunt,” Liv. 8, 9, 12 Weissenb.; Sall. J. 53, 3; “but: cum fugam in regia fecisset (sc. ceterorum),” Liv. 1, 56, 4; so, “fugam facere = fugare,” id. 21, 5, 16; 21, 52, 10: “fugam hostium facere,” id. 22, 24, 8; 26, 4, 8 al.: “gestum vultu,” Quint. 11, 3, 71: “gradum,” Cic. de Or. 2, 61, 249; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 1, § 3; Quint. 3, 6, 8: “gratiam alicujus rei,” Liv. 3, 56, 4; 8, 34, 3: “gratulationem alicui,” Cic. Fam. 11, 18, 3; Sen. Ep. 6: “gratum alicui,” Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 56; Cic. Rep. 1, 21; cf.: “gratissimum alicui,” id. Fam. 7, 21 fin.: “histrioniam,” Plaut. Am. prol. 152: “homicidium,” to commit, Quint. 5, 9, 9: “hospitium cum aliquo,” Cic. Balb. 18, 42: “imperata,” Caes. B. G. 2, 3, 3: “impetum in hostem,” Cic. Fin. 1, 10, 34; Liv. 25, 11, 2: “incursionem,” Liv. 3, 38, 3: “indicium,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 57, § 150: “inducias,” id. Phil. 8, 7, 20: “initium,” to begin, id. Agr. 2, 29, 79; cf.: “initia ab aliquo,” id. Rep. 1, 19: “injuriam,” id. ib. 3, 14 (opp. accipere); Caes. B. G. 1, 36, 4; Quint. 3, 6, 49; 10, 1, 115: “insidias alicui,” Cic. Mil. 9, 23: “iram,” Quint. 6, 1, 14: “jacturam,” Cic. Off. 3, 23, 89; id. Fin. 2, 24, 79; Caes. B. G. 7, 77, 7: “judicium,” Cic. Att. 7, 23, 2: “judicatum,” to execute, id. Fl. 20, 48: “jus alicui,” Liv. 32, 13, 6: “jussa,” Ov. F. 1, 379: “laetitiam,” Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25: “largitiones,” id. Tusc. 3, 20, 48: “locum poëtarum mendacio,” Curt. 3, 1, 4: “locum alicui rei,” Cels. 2, 14 fin.; 7, 4, 3; Curt. 4, 11, 8; Sen. Ep. 91, 13 et saep.: “longius,” Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 22 al.: “valde magnum,” id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 2, § 7: “medicinam alicui,” to administer, id. Fam. 14, 7: “memoriam,” Quint. 11, 2, 4: “mentionem,” Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 11, 2: “metum,” to excite, Tac. A. 6, 36: “turbida lux metum insidiarum faciebat,” suggested, Liv. 10, 33, 5: “metum alicui,” id. 9, 41, 11: “missum aliquem,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 58, § 134: “modum irae,” Liv. 4, 50, 4: “moram,” Cic. Att. 16, 2, 1; Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 72: “morem alicujus rei sibi,” Liv. 35, 35, 13: “motus,” id. 28, 46, 8: multam alicui, Cato ap. Gell. 11, 1, 6: “munditias,” id. R. R. 2, 4: “mutationem,” Cic. Sest. 12, 27; id. Off. 1, 33, 120: “multa alicui,” id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 16: “naufragium,” to suffer, id. Fam. 16, 9, 1: “negotium alicui,” to give to do, make trouble for, Quint. 5, 12, 13; Just. 21, 4, 4: “nomen alicui,” Liv. 8, 15, 8; cf. “nomina,” to incur debts, Cic. Off. 3, 14, 59: “odium vitae,” Plin. 20, 18, 76, § 199: “officium suum,” Ter. Phorm. 4, 5, 12: “omnia amici causa,” Cic. Lael. 10, 35; id. Fam. 5, 11, 2: “opinionem alicui,” id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 45: “orationem,” id. de Or. 1, 14, 63; id. Brut. 8, 30; id. Or. 51, 172: “otia alicui,” to grant, Verg. E. 1, 6: “pacem,” to conclude, Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109: “pecuniam ex aliqua re,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 6, § 17: “periculum,” Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 23; id. Heaut. 2, 1, 9; Tac. A. 13, 33; 16, 19; Sall. C. 33, 1: perniciem alicui, to cause, = parare, Tac. H. 2, 70: “planum,” Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54: “potestatem,” id. Cat. 3, 5, 11; id. Rep. 2, 28: “praedam,” Caes. B. G. 4, 34, 5; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 60, § 156; Plaut. Poen. 3, 6, 8: “praedas ab aliquo,” Nep. Chabr. 2, 2: “proelium,” to join, Caes. B. G. 1, 13; Cic. Deiot. 5, 13; Liv. 25, 1, 5; Tac. H. 4, 79; id. A. 12, 40: “promissum,” Cic. Off. 3, 25, 95: “pudorem,” Liv. 3, 31, 3: “ratum,” id. 28, 39, 16: “rem,” Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 12: “reum,” to accuse, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 38: risum, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 1; Quint. 6, 1, 40; 48: “scelus,” to commit, Tac. H. 1, 40: “securitatem alicui,” Liv. 36, 41, 1: “sermonem,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66: “significationem ignibus,” Caes. B. G. 2, 33, 3: “silentium,” Liv. 24, 7, 12: “somnum,” to induce, Juv. 3, 282: “spem,” Cic. Att. 3, 16; Liv. 30, 3, 7: “spiritus,” id. 30, 11, 3: “stercus,” Col. 2, 15: “stipendia,” Sall. J. 63, 3; Liv. 3, 27, 1; 5, 7, 5: “stomachum alicui,” Cic. Att. 5, 11, 2; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10: “suavium alicui,” Plaut. As. 4, 1, 53: “suspicionem,” Cic. Fl. 33, 83: “taedium alicujus rei,” Liv. 4, 57, 11: “terrorem iis,” to inflict, id. 10, 25, 8: “timorem,” to excite, id. 6, 28, 8: “mihi timorem,” Cic. Fam. 10, 18, 2: “totum,” Dig. 28, 5, 35: “transitum alicui,” Liv. 26, 25, 3: “turbam,” Ter. Eun. 4, 1, 2: “urinam,” Col. 6, 19: “usum,” Quint. 10, 3, 28: “vadimonium,” Cic. Quint. 18, 57: “verbum, verba,” to speak, talk, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 65, § 147: “verbum,” to invent, id. Fin. 3, 15, 51: “versus,” id. Q. Fr. 3, 5: “vestigium,” id. Rab. Post. 17, 47: viam sibi, Liv. 3, 5, 6: “vim alicui or in aliquem,” id. 38, 24, 4; 3, 5, 5: “vires,” to get, acquire, Quint. 10, 3, 3: “vitium,” Cic. Top. 3, 15 al.—

(b). With ut, ne, quin, or the simple subj.: “faciam, ut ejus diei locique meique semper meminerit,” Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 20: “facere ut remigret domum,” id. Pers. 4, 6, 3; id. Capt. 3, 4, 78; 4, 2, 77: “ea, quantum potui, feci, ut essent nota nostris,” Cic. Ac. 1, 2, 8: “facito, ut sciam,” id. Att. 2, 4, 4: “non potuisti ullo modo facere, ut mihi illam epistolam non mitteres,” id. ib. 11, 21, 1: “si facis ut patriae sit idoneus,” Juv. 14, 71: “ut nihil ad te dem litterarum facere non possum,” Cic. Ac. 8, 14, 1; for which, with quin: “facere non possum, quin ad te mittam,” I cannot forbear sending, id. ib. 12, 27, 2: “fecisti, ut ne cui maeror tuus calamitatem afferret,” id. Clu. 60, 168: “fac, ne quid aliud cures,” id. Fam. 16, 11, 1: “domi assitis, facite,” Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 53: “fac fidele sis fidelis,” Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 79: “fac cupidus mei videndi sis,” Cic. Fam. 5, 21, 5: “fac cogites,” id. ib. 11, 3, 4.—In pass.: “fieri potest, ut recte quis sentiat, etc.,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 3, 6: potest fieri, ut iratus dixerit, etc., Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 70, 285: “nec fieri possit, ut non statim alienatio facienda sit,” id. Lael. 21, 76; so with ut non, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 77, § 190 (Zumpt, Gram. § 539).—

(g). With inf. = efficere, curare, to cause (rare): “nulla res magis talis oratores videri facit,” Cic. Brut. 38, 142; Pall. 6, 12: “aspectus arborum macrescere facit volucres inclusas,” Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 3; Sall. Fragm. ap. Sen. Ep. 114: “qui nati coram me cernere letum Fecisti,” Verg. A. 2, 539; Ov. H. 17, 174: “mel ter infervere facito,” Col. 12, 38, 5 (perh. also in Ov. H. 6, 100, instead of favet, v. Loers. ad h. l.; cf. infra, B. 4.).—

(d). Absol.: “ego plus, quam feci, facere non possum,” Cic. Fam. 11, 14, 3: “faciam, ut potero, Laeli,” id. de Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. Rep. 1, 24: “noli putare, pigritia me facere, quod non mea manu scribam,” id. Att. 16, 15, 1; so, “facere = hoc or id facere,” Lucr. 4, 1112 (cf. Munro ad loc.); 1153: vereor ne a te rursus dissentiam. M. Non facies, Quinte, Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 33; “so after scribam,” id. Att. 16, 16, 15: “nominaverunt,” id. Rep. 2, 28, 50; “after disserere: tu mihi videris utrumque facturus,” id. ib. 2, 11, 22; “after fingere: ut facit apud Platonem Socrates,” id. ib.: “necesse erit uti epilogis, ut in Verrem Cicero fecit,” Quint. 6, 1, 54: “qui dicere ac facere doceat,” id. 2, 3, 11: “faciant equites,” Juv. 7, 14; Liv. 42, 37, 6: “petis ut libellos meos recognoscendos curem. Faciam,” Plin. Ep. 4, 26, 1; 5, 1, 4 et saep. (cf. the use of facio, as neutr., to resume or recall the meaning of another verb, v. II. E. infra; between that use and this no line can be drawn).

B. In partic.

1. With a double object, to make a thing into something, to render it something: “senatum bene firmum firmiorem vestra auctoritate fecistis,” Cic. Phil. 6, 7, 18: “te disertum,” id. ib. 2, 39 fin.: “iratum adversario judicem,” id. de Or. 1, 51, 220: “heredem filiam,” to appoint, constitute, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 43, § 111: “aliquem regem,” Just. 9, 6: “aliquem ludos,” Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 75: “aliquem absentem rei capitalis reum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 38, § 93: “animum dubium,” id. de Imp. Pomp. 10, 27: “injurias irritas,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 26, § 63: “vectigalia sibi deteriora,” Caes. B. G. 1, 36, 4: “hi consules facti sunt,” Cic. de Sen. 5, 14: “disciplina doctior facta civitas,” id. Rep. 2, 19: “di ex hominibus facti,” id. ib. 2, 10; cf.: “tua virtute nobis Romanos ex amicis amicissimos fecisti,” Sall. J. 10, 2.—In pass.: “quo tibi sumere depositum clavum fierique tribuno?” to become a tribune, Hor. S. 1, 6, 25.—

2. to value, esteem, regard a person or thing in any manner (like the Engl. make, in the phrase to make much of).—Esp. with gen. pretii: “in quo perspicere posses, quanti te, quanti Pompeium, quem unum ex omnibus facio, ut debeo, plurimi, quanti Brutum facerem,” Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 2: “te quotidie pluris feci,” id. ib. 3, 4, 2: “voluptatem virtus minimi facit,” id. Fin. 2, 13, 42: “dolorem nihili facere,” to care nothing for, to despise, id. ib. 27, 88: “nihili facio scire,” Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 42: “negat se magni facere, utrum, etc.,” Quint. 11, 1, 38: “parum id facio,” Sall. J. 85, 31: si illi aliter nos faciant quam aequum sit. Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 43.—

3. With gen., to make a thing the property of a person, subject it to him: omnia, quae mulieris fuerunt, viri fiunt, Cic. Top. 4, 23.—Esp.: facere aliquid dicionis alicujus, to reduce to subjection under a person or power: “omnem oram Romanae dicionis fecit,” Liv. 21, 60, 3: “dicionis alienae facti,” id. 1, 25, 13; 5, 27, 14; cf.: ut munus imperii beneficii sui faceret, to make it (seem) his own bounty, Just. 13, 4, 9: “ne delecto imperatore alio sui muneris rempublicam faceret,” Tac. A. 15, 52.—

4. To represent a thing in any manner, to feign, assert, say.—Constr. with acc. and adj. or part., or with acc. and inf.

(a). Acc. and part.: “in eo libro, ubi se exeuntem e senatu et cum Pansa colloquentem facit,” id. Brut. 60, 218: “Xenophon facit ... Socratem disputantem,” id. N. D. 1, 12, 31; cf.: “ejus (Socratis) oratio, qua facit eum Plato usum apud judices,” id. Tusc. 1, 40 fin. al.—

(b). Acc. and inf.: “qui nuper fecit servo currenti in via decesse populum,” Ter. Heaut. prol. 31: “fecerat et fetam procubuisse lupam,” Verg. A. 8, 630; cf. Ov. M. 6, 109, v. Bach ad h. l.: “poëtae impendere apud inferos saxum Tantalo faciunt,” Cic. Tusc. 4, 16, 35: “quem (Herculem) Homerus apud inferos conveniri facit ab Ulixe,” id. N. D. 3, 16, 41: “Plato construi a deo mundum facit,” id. ib. 1, 8, 19: “Plato Isocratem laudari fecit a Socrate,” id. Opt. Gen. 6, 17; id. Brut. 38, 142: “M. Cicero dicere facit C. Laelium,” Gell. 17, 5, 1: “caput esse faciunt ea, quae perspicua dicunt,” Cic. Fia. 4, 4, 8, v. Madv. ad h. l.—

(g). In double construction: “Polyphemum Homerus cum ariete colloquentem facit ejusque laudare fortunas,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 39 fin.—

5. To make believe, to pretend: “facio me alias res agere,” Cic. Fam. 15, 18: “cum verbis se locupletem faceret,” id. Fl. 20: “me unum ex iis feci, qui, etc.,” id. Planc. 27, 65.—

6. Hypothetically in the imper. fac, suppose, assume: “fac, quaeso, qui ego sum, esse te,” Cic. Fam. 7, 23, 1; cf.: “fac potuisse,” id. Phil. 2, 3, 5: “fac animos non remanere post mortem,” id. Tusc. 1, 34, 82; 1, 29, 70: “fac velit,” Stat. Ach. 2, 241: “fac velle,” Verg. A. 4, 540.—

7. In mercant. lang., to practise, exercise, follow any trade or profession: “cum mercaturas facerent,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 28, § 72: “naviculariam,” id. ib. 2, 5, 18, § “46: argentariam,” id. ib. 2, 5, 49, § 155; id. Caecin. 4, 10: “topiariam,” id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 2, § 5: “haruspicinam,” id. Fam. 6, 18, 1: “praeconium,” id. ib.; so, “piraticam,” id. Post. Red. in Sen. 5, 11: “medicinam,” Phaedr. 1, 14, 2.—

8. In relig. lang., like the Gr. ῥέζειν, to perform or celebrate a religious rite; to offer sacrifice, make an offering, to sacrifice: “res illum divinas apud eos deos in suo sacrario quotidie facere vidisti,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 8, § 18: “sacra pro civibus,” id. Balb. 24, 55: “sacrificium publicum,” id. Brut. 14, 56.—Absol.: “a sacris patriis Junonis Sospitae, cui omnes consules facere necesse est, consulem avellere,” Cic. Mur. 41, 90.—With abl.: “cum faciam vitulā pro frugibus,” Verg. E. 3, 77: “catulo,” Col. 2, 22, 4.—Pass. impers.: “cum pro populo fieret,” Cic. Att. 1, 13, 3: “quibus diis decemviri ex libris ut fieret, ediderunt,” Liv. 37, 3, 5.—

9. In gram., to make, form in inflecting: “cur aper apri et pater patris faciat?” Quint. 1, 6, 13; so id. 14; 15; 27; cf.: “sic genitivus Achilli et Ulixi fecit,” id. 1, 5, 63; 1, 6, 26: “eadem (littera) fecit ex duello bellum,” id. 1, 4, 15.—

10. In late Lat., (se) facere aliquo, to betake one's self to any place: “intra limen sese facit,” App. 5, p. 159, 25; “without se: homo meus coepit ad stelas facere,” Petr. 62: “ad illum ex Libya Hammon facit,” Tert. Pall. 3.—

11. Peculiar phrases.

a. Quid faciam (facias, fiet, etc.), with abl., dat., or (rare) with de, what is to be done with a person or thing? quid hoc homine facias? Cic. Sest. 13, 29; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 16, § 40: “nescit quid faciat auro,” Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 100: “quid tu huic homini facias?” Cic. Caecin. 11, 30; cf.: “quid enim tibi faciam,” id. Att. 7, 3, 2: quid faceret huic conclusioni, i. e. how should he refute, etc., id. Ac. 2, 30, 96: “quid facias illi?” Hor. S. 1, 1, 63: “miserunt Delphos consultum quidnam facerent de rebus suis,” Nep. Them. 2: quid fecisti scipione? what have you done with the stick? or, what has become of it? Plaut. Cas. 5, 4, 6; cf. id. ib. 5, 4, 9.—In pass.: “quid Tulliolā meā fiet?” Cic. Fam. 14, 4, 3: “quid illo fiet? quid me?” id. Att. 6, 1, 14: “quid fiet artibus?” id. Ac. 2, 33, 107: “quid mihi fiet?” Ov. A. A. 1, 536: “quid de illa fiet fidicina igitur?” Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 48: de fratre quid fiet? Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 39.—Absol.: “quid faciat Philomela? fugam custodia claudit?” Ov. M. 6, 572: “quid facerem? neque servitio me exire licebat, etc.,” Verg. E. 1, 41 al.—

b. Fit, factum est aliquo or aliqua re, it happens to, becomes of a person or thing: “volo Erogitare, meo minore quid sit factum filio,” Plaut. Capt. 5, 1, 32: “nec quid deinde iis (elephantis) factum sit, auctores explicant,” Plin. 8, 6, 6, § 17: “quid eo est argento factum?” Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 106.—Hence,

(b). Esp., si quid factum sit aliquo, if any thing should happen to one (i. q. si quid acciderit humanitus), euphemistically for if one should die: “si quid eo factum esset, in quo spem essetis habituri?” Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 20, 59; cf.: “eum fecisse aiunt, sibi quod faciendum fuit,” Plaut. Poen. 5, 1, 23. —

c. Ut fit, as it usually happens, as is commonly the case: “praesertim cum, ut fit, fortuito saepe aliquid concluse apteque dicerent,” Cic. Or. 53, 177: “queri, ut fit, incipiunt,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 23, § 56: “dum se uxor, ut fit, comparat,” id. Mil. 10, 28: “fecit statim, ut fit, fastidium copia,” Liv. 3, 1, 7.—

d. Fiat, an expression of assent, so be it! very good! fiat, geratur mos tibi, Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 146; id. As. 1, 1, 27; id. Am. 2, 2, 138; id. Most. 4, 3, 44 al.—

e. Dictum ac factum, no sooner said than done, without delay, at once; v. dictum under dico, A. d.—

12. In certain phrases the ellipsis of facere is common, e. g. finem facere: “Quae cum dixisset, Cotta finem,” Cic. N. D. 3, 40, 94; id. Fin. 4, 1 init.—With nihil aliud quam, quid alium quam, nihil praeterquam, which often = an emphatic Engl. only (but not in Cic.): “Tissaphernes nihil aliud quam bellum comparavit,” Nep. Ages. 2: “per biduum nihil aliud quam steterunt parati,” Liv. 34, 46; Suet. Caes. 20; id. Aug. 83; Liv. 2, 63; 4, 3; 3, 26.—So with nihil amplius quam, nihil prius quam, nihil minus quam, Liv. 26, 20; 35, 11; Suet. Dom. 3.

II. Neutr.

A. With adverbs, to do, deal, or act in any manner: “recta et vera loquere, sed neque vere neque recte adhuc Fecisti umquam,” Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 7; “v. recte under rego: bene fecit Silius, qui transegerit,” Cic. Att. 12, 24, 1: “seu recte seu perperam,” to do right or wrong, id. Quint. 8, 31: “Dalmatis di male faciant,” id. Fam. 5, 11 fin.: “facis amice,” in a friendly manner, id. Lael. 2, 9; cf.: “per malitiam,” maliciously, id. Rosc. Com. 7, 21: “humaniter,” id. Q. Fr. 2, 1, 1: “imperite,” id. Leg. 1, 1, 4: “tutius,” Quint. 5, 10, 68: “voluit facere contra huic aegre,” Ter. Eun. 4, 1, 10: bene facere, to profit, benefit (opp. male facere, to hurt, injure), Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 25; 5, 7, 19; Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 22; id. Capt. 5, 2, 23; v. also under benefacio and benefactum.—

B. Facere cum or ab aliquo, to take part with one, to side with one; and opp. contra (or adversus) aliquem, to take part against one: “si respondisset, idem sentire et secum facere Sullam,” Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf.: “cum illo consulem facere,” id. Att. 6, 8, 2; and: “secum consules facere,” id. Planc. 35, 86: “auctoritatem sapientissimorum hominum facere nobiscum,” id. Caecin. 36, 104; cf.: “rem et sententiam interdicti mecum facere fatebatur,” id. ib. 28, 79: “cum veritas cum hoc faciat,” is on his side, id. Quint. 30, 91: “commune est, quod nihilo magis ab adversariis quam a nobis facit,” id. Inv. 1, 48, 90: “omnes damnatos, omnes ignominia affectos illac (a or cum Caesare) facere,” id. Att. 7, 3, 5: “quae res in civitate duae plurimum possunt, eae contra nos ambae faciunt in hoc tempore,” id. Quint. 1, 1: “neque minus eos cum quibus steterint quam adversus quos fecerint,” Nep. Eum. 8, 2: “cum aliquo non male facere,” to be on good terms with, Ov. Am. 3, 762.—

C. In late Lat. facere cum aliqua = vivere cum aliqua, to live in matrimony, to be married, Inscr. Orell. 4646. —

D. Ad aliquid, alicui, or absol., to be good or of use for any thing; to be useful, of service: “chamaeleon facit ad difficultatem urinae,” Plin. 22, 18, 21, § 46; Scrib. Comp. 122: “ad talem formam non facit iste locus,” Ov. H. 16, 190; cf. id. ib. 6, 128; id. Am. 1, 2, 16 al.: “radix coronopi coeliacis praeclare facit,” Plin. 22, 19, 22, § 48; so with dat., Plin. Val. 2, 1; Prop. 3 (4), 1, 20. “facit autem commode ea compositio, quam, etc.,” Col. 7, 5, 7; 8, 17, 13: “nec caelum, nec aquae faciunt, nec terra, nec aurae,” do not benefit me, Ov. Tr. 3, 8, 23: “mire facit in peroratione confessio,” Quint. 11, 3, 173; 171; cf. with a subject-clause: plurimum facit, totas diligenter nosse causas, id. 6, 4, 8: ad aliquid or alicui signifies also to suit, fit: “non faciet capiti dura corona meo,” Prop. 3, 1, 19; cf. Ov. H. 16, 189.—

E. Like the Gr. ποιεῖν or δρᾶν, and the Engl. to do, instead of another verb (also for esse and pati): “factum cupio (sc. id esse),” Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 24: “factum volo,” id. Bacch. 3, 3, 91; id. Most. 3, 2, 104: “an Scythes Anacharsis potuit pro nihilo pecuniam ducere, nostrates philosophi facere non potuerunt?” Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 90: “nihil his in locis nisi saxa et montes cogitabam: idque ut facerem, orationibus inducebar tuis,” id. Leg. 2, 1, 2; cf.: “Demosthenem, si illa pronuntiare voluisset, ornate splendideque facere potuisse,” id. Off. 1, 1 fin.; and: “cur Cassandra furens futura prospiciat, Priamus sapiens hoc idem facere nequeat?” id. Div. 1, 39, 85; so id. Ac. 2, 33, 107; id. Att. 1, 16, 13; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 18, 2; Nep. Chabr. 3, 4; 4, 3 al.: “vadem te ad mortem tyranno dabis pro amico, ut Pythagoreus ille Siculo fecit tyranno (here also with the case of the preceding verb),” Cic. Fin. 2, 24 fin. (v. Madv. ad h. l. p. 278): “jubeas (eum) miserum esse, libenter quatenus id facit (i. e. miser est),” what he is doing, Hor. S. 1, 1, 64: “in hominibus solum existunt: nam bestiae simile quiddam faciunt (i. q. patiuntur or habent),” Cic. Tusc. 4, 14; so, “ne facias quod Ummidius quidam (= ne idem experiaris, ne idem tibi eveniat),” Hor. S. 1, 1, 94. —

F. Facere omitted, especially in short sentences expressing a judgment upon conduct, etc.: “at stulte, qui non modo non censuerit, etc.,” Cic. Off. 3, 27, 101.—Hence,

1. factus , a, um, P. a.

A. As adjective ante-class. and very rare: “factius nihilo facit, sc. id, i. e. nihilo magis effectum reddit,” is no nearer bringing it about, Plaut. Trin. 2, 3, 6; cf. Lorenz ad loc.—Far more freq.,

B. In the neutr. as subst.: factum , i (gen. plur. factūm, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 31, 66 Trag. 81), that which is done, a deed, act, exploit, achievement (syn.: res gestae, facinus).

1. In gen.: “depingere,” Ter. Phorm. 1, 5, 38: “facere factum,” Plaut. Truc. 2, 7, 5; id. Mil. 3, 1, 139: “dicta et facta,” Ter. Eun. 5, 4, 19; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 12: “opus facto est,” id. Phorm. 4, 5, 4: “ecquod hujus factum aut commissum non dicam audacius, sed, etc.,” Cic. Sull. 26, 72: meum factum probari abs te triumpho gaudio, Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 16, A. 1; “14, 9, 2: quod umquam eorum in re publica forte factum exstitit?” id. ib. 8, 14, 2: “praeclarum atque divinum,” id. Phil. 2, 44, 114: “egregium,” id. Fam. 10, 16, 2; id. Cael. 10, 23: “factum per se improbabile,” Quint. 7, 4, 7; 6, 1, 22: “illustre,” Nep. Arist. 2, 2; cf.: “illustria et gloriosa,” Cic. Fin. 1, 11, 37: “forte,” id. Att. 8, 14, 2: “dira,” Ov. M. 6, 533: “nefanda,” id. H. 14, 16 al.; but also with the adv.: “recte ac turpiter factum,” Caes. B. G. 7, 80, 5; cf.: “multa huius (Timothei) sunt praeclare facta sed haec maxime illustria,” Nep. Timoth. 1, 2; “v. Zumpt, Gram. § 722, 2: dimidium facti, qui coepit, habet,” Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 40: “quo facto aut dicto adest opus,” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 15 et saep.: “famam extendere factis,” Verg. A. 10, 468: non hominum video. non ego facta boum, doings, i. e. works, Ov. H. 10, 60.—

2. In partic., bonum factum, like the Gr. ἀγαθὴ τύχη, a good deed, i. e. well done, fortunate (ante-class. and post-Aug.): “bonum factum'st, edicta ut servetis mea,” Plaut. Poen. prol. 16; cf. id. ib. 44; cf.: “hoc factum est optimum, ut, etc.,” id. Ps. 1, 2, 52: “majorum bona facta,” Tac. A. 3, 40; cf. id. ib. 3, 65. —At the commencement of edicts, Suet. Caesar, 80; id. Vit. 14; Aur. Vict. Vir. Ill. 49, 17; Tert. Pudic. 1.—(But in the class. per. factum in this sense is a participle, and is construed with an adv.: “bene facta,” Sall. C. 8, 5; id. J. 85, 5; Cic. Tusc. 2, 26, 64: “recte, male facta,” id. Off. 2, 18, 62: “male facto exigua laus proponitur,” id. Leg. Agr. 2, 2, 5; id. Brut. 43, 322; Quint. 3, 7, 13; cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 460).—*

2. facteon , a word jestingly formed by Cicero, after the analogy of the Greek, for faciendum: quare, ut opinor, φιλοσοφητέον, id quod tu facis, et istos consulatus non flocci facteon, Cic. Att. 1, 16, 13 Orell. N. cr. (for facteon, Ernesti has ἐατέον).

147 passīvus , a, um, adj. patior,

I. capable of feeling or suffering, passible, passive (post-class.): “anima passiva et interibilis,” Arn. 2, 65; App. de Deo Socr. p. 49.—

II. In partic., in gram., passive: “verbum passivum . . . quod habet naturam patiendi,” Quint. 1, 6, 10: “verba,” Charis. 2; Diom. 1; Prisc. 8 et saep.—Adv.: pas-sīvē , passively, Lucil. ap. Prisc. p. 791 P.

148 pătĭor , passus, 3, v. dep.

I. act. archaic collat. form patiunto, Cic. Leg. 3, 4, 11: patias, Naev. ap. Diom. p. 395 P.) [cf. Greek ΠΑΘ, ΠΕΝΘ-, πέπονθα, πένθος], to bear, support, undergo, suffer, endure (syn.: fero, tolero).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.

1. Tu fortunatu's, ego miser: “patiunda sunt,” Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 46; id. Am. 3, 2, 64: “fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post potitur bonum,” id. As. 2, 2, 58 Ussing (al. patitur bonum): “o passi graviora!” Naev. 1, 24; Verg. A. 1, 199; Cic. Univ. 6: “belli injurias,” id. Phil. 12, 4, 9: “servitutem,” id. ib. 6, 7, 19: “toleranter dolores pati,” id. Tusc. 2, 18, 43: “gravissimum supplicium,” Caes. B. C. 2, 30: “omnia saeva,” Sall. J. 14, 10: “et facere et pati fortiter,” Liv. 2, 12: “haec patienda censeo potius, quam, etc.,” id. 21, 13: “Hannibal damnum haud aegerrime passus est,” id. 22, 41: “exilium,” Verg. A. 2, 638: “pauperiem,” Hor. C. 3, 2, 1. aliae nationes servitutem pati possunt, populi Romani propria est libertas, Cic. Phil. 6, 7, 19: “extremam pati fortunam,” Caes. B. C. 2, 32: “aequo animo magnum morbum pati,” Sen. Ep. 66, 36: “mentietur in tormentis qui dolorem pati potest,” Quint. 5, 10, 70: “qui nec totam servitutem pati possunt, nec totam libertatem,” Tac. H. 1, 16: “non potest generosus animus servitutem pati,” Sen. Contr. 4, 24, 1: “hiemem et aestatem juxta pati,” Sall. J. 85, 33.—

(b). Absol.: “dolor tristis res est . . . ad patiendum tolerandumque difficilis,” Cic. Tusc. 2, 7, 18; Ov. Am. 1, 8, 75.—

2. To suffer, have, meet with, be visited or afflicted with (mostly postAug.): “poenam,” Quint. 11, 3, 32; Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 20; Val. Max. 6, 2, 1; Sen. Contr. 1, 5, 6: “incommodum,” Quint. 11, 3, 32: “vim,” Suet. Ner. 29: “quicquid in captivum invenire potest, passurum te esse cogita,” Curt. 4, 6, 26: “mortem pati,” Lact. Epit. 50, 1; Sen. Ep. 94, 7: “indignam necem,” Ov. M. 10, 627: “mortem,” id. Tr. 1, 2, 42: “rem modicam,” Juv. 13, 143: “adversa proelia,” Just. 16, 3, 6: “infamiam,” Sen. Ep. 74, 2: “sterilitatem famemque,” Just. 28, 3, 1: “cladem pati (post-Aug. for cladem accipere, etc.),” Suet. Caes. 36 init.; so, “naufragium,” Sen. Herc. Oet. 118: “morbum,” Veg. 1, 17, 11; Gell. 17, 15, 6: “cruciatus corporis,” Sen. Suas. 6, 10: “ultima,” Curt. 3, 1, 6: “injuriam,” Sen. Ep. 65, 21: “ut is in culpā sit, qui faciat, non is qui patiatur injuriam,” Cic. Lael. 21, 78; cf.: “de tribus unum esset optandum: aut facere injuriam nec accipere ... optimum est facere, impune si possis, secundum nec facere nec pati,” id. Rep. 3, 13, 23.—

B. In partic.

1. In mal. part., to submit to another's lust, to prostitute one's self, Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 87; cf. Sall. C. 13, 3; Sen. Q. N. 1, 16; Petr. 25; 140.—

2. To suffer, to pass a life of suffering or privation (poet.): “certum est in silvis inter spelaea ferarum Malle pati,” Verg. E. 10, 53: “novem cornix secula passa,” Ov. M. 7, 274; Luc. 5, 313; Sen. Thyest. 470. —

II. Transf.

A. To suffer, bear, allow, permit, let (syn.: “sino, permitto): illorum delicta,” Hor. S. 1, 3, 141.—With acc. and inf.: “neque tibi bene esse patere, et illis, quibus est, invides,” Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 36; Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 3: “siquidem potes pati esse te in lepido loco,” Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 83: “ista non modo homines, sed ne pecudes quidem passurae esse videntur,” Cic. Cat. 2, 9, 20: “nobiscum versari jam diutius non potes: non feram, non patiar, non sinam,” id. ib. 1, 5, 10: “quantum illius ineuntis aetatis meae patiebatur pudor,” id. de Or. 2, 1, 3: “nullo se implicari negotio passus est,” id. Lig. 1, 3: “duo spondei non fere se jungi patiuntur,” Quint. 9, 4, 101: “aut persuasurum se aut persuaderi sibi passurum,” Liv. 32, 36, 2: “ut vinci se consensu civitatis pateretur,” id. 2, 2, 9; 6, 23, 8; Curt. 8, 9, 23.—With acc.: “neque enim dilationem pati tam vicinum bellum poterat,” Liv. 1, 14, 6: “recentis animi alter (consul) ... nullam dilationem patiebatur,” id. 21, 52, 2.—With quin: “non possum pati, Quin tibi caput demulceam,” Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 13: “nullum patiebatur esse diem, quin in foro diceret,” Cic. Brut. 88, 302.—Poet. with part.: “nec plura querentem Passa,” Verg. A. 1, 385; 7, 421 (= passa queri, etc.).—Hence, facile, aequo animo pati, to be well pleased or content with, to acquiesce in, submit to: aegre, iniquo animo, moleste pati, to be displeased, offended, indignant at: “quaeso aequo animo patitor,” Plaut. As. 2, 2, 108: “apud me plus officii residere facillime patior,” Cic. Fam. 5, 7, 2; 1, 9, 21: “consilium meum a te probari ... facile patior,” id. Att. 15, 2, 2; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 2, § 5: “cum indigne pateretur nobilis mulier ... in conventum suam mimi filiam venisse,” id. ib. 2, 5, 12, § “31: periniquo patiebar animo, te a me digredi,” id. Fam. 12, 18, 1; Liv. 4, 18.—

2. To submit: “patior quemvis durare laborem,” Verg. A. 8, 677: “pro quo bis patiar mori,” Hor. C. 3, 9, 15.—

B. To experience, undergo, to be in a certain state of mind or temper: “nonne quiddam pati furori simile videatur,” Quint. 1, 2, 31.—

C. In gram., to be passive, to have a passive sense: “(verbum) cum haberet naturam patiendi,” a passive nature, Quint. 1, 6, 10: “modus patiendi,” id. 1, 6, 26; 9, 3, 7.— Hence, pătĭens , entis, P. a., bearing, supporting, suffering, permitting.

A. Lit.: “amnis navium patiens,” i. e. navigable, Liv. 21, 31, 10: “vomeris,” Verg. G. 2, 223: vetustatis, lasting, Plin. 11, 37, 76, § 196: “equus patiens sessoris,” Suet. Caes. 61.—

B. Transf.

1. That has the quality of enduring, patient: “nimium patiens et lentus existimor,” Cic. de Or. 2, 75, 305: “animus,” Ov. P. 4, 10, 9.—Comp.: “meae quoque litterae te patientiorem lenioremque fecerunt,” Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 14.—Sup.: “patientissimae aures,” Cic. Lig. 8, 24: “patientissimus exercitus,” Caes. B. C. 3, 96.—

2. That has the power of endurance, firm, unyielding, hard (poet.): “patiens aratrum,” Ov. Am. 1, 15, 31: “saxo patientior illa Sicano,” Prop. 1, 16, 29.—Hence, adv.: pătĭenter , patiently: “alterum patienter accipere, non repugnanter,” Cic. Lael. 25, 91: “patienter et fortiter ferre aliquid,” id. Phil. 11, 3, 7: “patienter et aequo animo ferre difficultates,” Caes. B. C. 3, 15: “prandere olus,” Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 13.—Comp.: “patientius alicujus potentiam ferre,” Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 4.—Sup.: “patientissime ferre aliquid,” Val. Max. 4, 3, 11.

149 mŏdus , i, m. root med-, measure, weigh; Gr. μέδομαι, μέδοντες, μήστωρ, μέδιμνος; cf.: modius, modestus, moderor,

I. a measure with which, or according to which, any thing is measured, its size, length, circumference, quantity (freq. and class.).

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: “modi, quibus metirentur rura,” Varr. R. R. 1, 10, 1: “is modus acnua Latine appellatur,” id. ib. 1, 10, 2: “filio agri reliquit ei non magnum modum,” Plaut. Aul. prol. 13: “hoc erat in votis, modus agri non ita magnus,” Hor. S. 2, 6, 1: “de modo agri scripsit,” Cic. Att. 13, 33, 2: “de modo agri (actio), cum a venditore emptor deceptus est,” Paul. Sent. 1, 19, 1: “modus hic agri nostro non sufficit horto,” Juv. 14, 172: “modus altitudinis et latitudinis (sulcorum),” Col. 11, 3, 4: “collis modum jugeri continens,” Col. Arbor. 1, 6: “ut omnium par modus sit,” Cels. 3, 27; cf. Col. 12, 23: “falsus,” false measure, Dig. 11, 6: magnus legionum, Vell. 2, 73, 2: hic mihi conteritur vitae modus, measure or term of life, Prop. 1, 7, 9.—

B. In partic.

1. Pregn., a proper measure, due measure: “in modo fundi non animadverso lapsi sunt multi,” Varr. R. R. 1, 11: “suus cuique (rei) modus est,” Cic. Or. 22, 73: “ordine et modo,” id. Off. 1, 5, 14: “modum alicujus rei habere,” to observe measure in a thing, not exceed the bounds of moderation, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 59, § 144: “vox quasi extra modum absona,” beyond measure, immoderately, id. de Or. 3, 11, 41: “cum lacus praeter modum crevisset,” id. Div. 1, 44, 100: “ii sine dubio fidem et modum transeunt,” id. Off. 1, 29, 102: “supra modum in servos suos saevire,” Gai. Inst. 1, 53: “sine modo modestiāque,” without measure, without moderation, Sall. J. 41, 9: “sine modo ac modestia agi,” Liv. 26, 48, 11.—

2. The measure of tones, measure, rhythm, melody, harmony, time; in poetry, measure, metre, mode: “vocum,” Cic. Div. 2, 3, 9: “musici,” Quint. 1, 10, 14: “lyrici,” Ov. H. 15, 6: “fidibus Latinis Thebanos aptare modos,” Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 12: Bacchico exsultas (i. e. exsultans) modo, Enn. ap. Charis. p. 214 P. (Trag. v. 152 Vahl.): “flebilibus modis concinere,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 106: saltare ad tibicinis modos, to the music or sound of the flute, Liv. 7, 2: “nectere canoris Eloquium vocale modis,” Juv. 7, 19.—Fig.: “verae numerosque modosque ediscere vitae,” moral harmonies, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 144.—

II. Transf.

A. A measure which is not to be exceeded, a bound, limit, end, restriction, etc.: “modus muliebris nullust, neque umquam lavando et fricando modum scimus facere,” Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 21: “quis modus tibi tandem exilio eveniet,” id. Merc. 3, 4, 67: “modum aliquem et finem orationi facere,” to set bounds to, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 48, § 118: “ludendi est quidem modus retinendus,” id. Off. 1, 29, 104: “imponere alicui,” Liv. 4, 24, 4: “cum modum irae nullum faceret,” id. 4, 50, 4: “modum transire,” Cic. Tusc. 4, 17, 4: “cupidinibus statuat natura modum quem,” Hor. S. 1, 2, 111: “inimicitiarum modum facere,” Cic. Sull. 17, 48: “modum statuarum haberi nullum placet,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 59, § 144: “qui rebus infinitis modum constituant,” id. Fin. 1, 1, 2: “constituere,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 59, § 145: modus vitae, τοῦ βίου τέλος, Prop. 1, 7, 9. —With gen. gerund.: “modum lugendi aliquando facere,” to make an end of mourning, Cic. Fam. 5, 16, 6.—Poet. with inf.: “nam quis erit saevire modus?” Stat. Th. 12, 573; cf. the foll.—

B. A way, manner, mode, method: “modus est, in quo quem ad modum, et quo animo factum sit, quaeritur, Ejus partes sunt prudentia, et imprudentia,” Cic. Inv. 1, 27, 41: “nullum modum esse hominis occidendi quo ille non aliquot occiderit,” id. Rosc. Am. 35, 100: “nec enim semper (hae partes) tractantur uno modo,” id. Or. 35, 122: “vitae,” way of life, id. Tusc. 5, 23, 66: “caelestium ordinem ... imitari vitae modo,” id. Sen. 21, 77: quibus modis, by what method of acting, i. e. what means, Sall. C. 5, 6: “cultores has Alpis modo tuto transmittere,” Liv. 21, 30, 8.—Poet. with inf.: “nec modus inserere atque oculos imponere simplex,” Verg. G. 2, 73.—

2. Esp. freq.: modo, in modum, or ad modum, with a gen. or adj., in the manner of, like: “servorum modo,” in the manner of, like slaves, Liv. 39, 26: “pecorum modo trahi,” Tac. A. 4, 25: “in modum ramorum,” Col. Arbor. 22: “in nostrum modum,” in our manner, Tac. H. 3, 25: “servilem in modum cruciari,” like slaves, Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 13; Caes. B. G. 6, 19, 3; Suet. Calig. 56: “mirum in modum,” in a wonderful manner, wonderfully, Caes. B. G. 1, 41: “ad hunc modum distributis legionibus,” in this manner, id. ib. 5, 24: “naves ad hunc modum factae,” id. ib. 3, 13: “nos nostras more nostro et modo instruximus legiones,” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 66: “non tuo hoc fiet modo,” id. Men. 2, 1, 25: “si humano modo, si usitato more peccāsset,” after the manner of men, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 3, § 8; cf.: “Carneadeo more et modo disputata,” id. Univ. 1; for which with gen.: “apis Matinae More modoque,” Hor. C. 4, 2, 28; and: “agendi more ac modo,” Quint. 11, 1, 29: “tali modo,” in such a manner, in such wise, Nep. Att. 21, 1: “nullo modo,” in no wise, by no means, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 76, § 186: “omni modo egi cum rege et ago cotidie,” in every way, earnestly, urgently, id. Att. 6, 2, 7: omnibus modis tibi esse rem salvam ut scias, Plaut. Ps. 4, 6, 13: “omnibus modis miser sum,” every way, wholly, completely, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 79: “miris modis,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 3, § 9; Liv. 1, 57, 6; Hor. C. 2, 17, 21: “mille modis amor ignorandust,” Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 30: “hoc multis modis reprehendi potest,” Cic. Fin. 2, 26, 82 (v. Madv. ad h. l.); so, “filium multis modis jam exspecto, ut redeat domum,” very much, Ter. Hec. 2, 3, 7; cf. “multimodis: mira miris modis,” Plaut. Cas. 3, 5, 5; cf. “mirimodis: eum tibi commendo in majorem modum,” very much, greatly, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 12 (14), 3: “nullo modo,” id. Fin. 2, 31, 102; Col. 9, 8; Suet. Tit. 2: “bono modo,” moderately, Cato, R. R. 5: “bono modo desiderare aliquid,” Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 6, 3: ejus modi, of that kind, of such a kind or sort (freq.): “ejusmodi sunt tempestates consecutae, ut,” Caes. B. G. 3, 29, 2: “in ejusmodi casu,” id. ib. 5, 33, 4; “6, 34, 7: erant ejusmodi fere situs oppidorum, ut,” id. ib. 3, 12, 1: “petitionis nostrae hujusmodi ratio est,” Cic. Att. 1, 1, 1; so, “cujusquemodi, cujusdammodi, cujusmodicumque, cuimodi, cuicuimodi, v. Zumpt, § 678: cujusmodi,” of what sort, Cic. Fam. 15, 20, 3: “cujuscemodi,” of what sort soever, id. Inv. 2, 45, 134: hujusmodi, hujuscemodi, of this kind, such: “hujusmodi casus,” Caes. B. C. 2, 22: “hujuscemodi verba,” Sall. J. 9 fin.: “illiusmodi,” of that kind, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 21, 68; so, “istiusmodi amicos,” Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 15.—

3. In gram., a form of a verb, a voice or mood: “in verbo fiunt soloecismi per genera, tempora, personas, modos, etc.,” Quint. 1, 5, 41: patiendi modus (the passive voice) ... faciendi modus (the active voice), id. 9, 3, 7; cf. 1, 6, 26.

150 stătus , ūs, m. sto and sisto.

I. In a corporeal sense.

A. Mode or way of standing, of holding one's body (at rest), posture, position, attitude, station, carriage; sing. and plur.: Ps. Statur hic ad hunc modum. Si. Statum vide hominis, Callipho, quasi basilicum, look at the way he stands, Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 41: “stat in statu senex ut adoriatur moechum,” in an attitude of attack, ready, id. Mil. 4, 9, 12: concrepuit digitis, laborat; “crebro conmutat status,” his posture, id. ib. 2, 2, 51: “qui esset status (videre vellem) flabellulum tenere te asinum tantum,” what your attitude was, what figure you cut, in holding the fan, Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 50: “in gestu status (oratoris erit) erectus et celsus, rarus incessus,” attitude, Cic. Or. 18, 59: “status quidem rectus sit, sed diducti paulum pedes,” Quint. 11, 3, 159: “abesse plurimum a saltatore debet orator ... non effingere status quosdam, et quidquid dicet ostendere,” id. 11, 3, 89: “ut recta sint bracchia, ne indoctae rusticaeve manus, ne status indecorus,” id. 1, 11, 16: “stare solitus Socrates dicitur ... immobilis, iisdem in vestigiis,” Gell. 2, 1, 2: “dumque silens astat, status est vultusque diserti,” Ov. P. 2, 5, 51: “statum proeliantis componit,” Petr. 95 fin.— “So of the pose of statues: non solum numerum signorum, sed etiam uniuscujusque magnitudinem, figuram, statum litteris definiri vides,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 21, § 57: “expedit saepe, ut in statuis atque picturis videmus, variari habitus, vultus, status,” Quint. 2, 13, 8: “ut illo statu Chabrias sibi statuam fieri voluerit. Ex quo factum est ut postea athletae his statibus in statuis ponendis uterentur,” Nep. Chabr. 1, 3.—And of images in a dream: “ubi prima (imago somni) perit, alioque est altera nata inde statu, prior hic gestum mutasse videtur,” Lucr. 4, 772: “(opp. motus, incessus) quorum (iratorum) vultus, voces, motus statusque mutantur,” motions and postures, Cic. Off. 1, 29, 102: “decorum istud in corporis motu et statu cernitur,” id. ib. 1, 35, 126: “habitus oris et vultūs, status, motus,” id. Fin. 3, 17, 56; 5, 17, 47: “in quibus si peccetur ... motu statuve deformi,” id. ib. 5, 12, 35: “eo erant vultu, oratione, omni reliquo motu et statu, ut, etc.,” id. Tusc. 3, 22, 53: “status, incessus, sessio, accubatio ... teneat illud decorum,” id. Off. 1, 35, 129: “in pedibus observentur status et incessus,” the posture and gait, Quint. 11, 3, 124.—

B. Of external appearance, manners, dress, and apparel: “quoniam formam hujus cepi in me et statum, decet et facta moresque hujus habere me similis item,” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 111: “redegitque se ad pallium et crepidas, atque in tali statu biennio fere permansit,” Suet. Tib. 13.—

C. Size, height, stature of living and inanimate beings (cf. statura; “post-Aug.): pumilionem, quos natura brevi statu peractos, etc.,” Stat. S. 1, 6, 58: longissimum ... aratorem faciemus; “mediastenus qualiscunque status potest esse,” Col. 1, 9, 3: “in gallinaceis maribus status altior quaeritur,” id. 8, 2, 9; so id. 7, 9, 2; 7, 12 med.: “plantae majoris statūs,” Pall. Febr. 25, 20.—

D. A position, place, in the phrase de statu movere, deicere, or statum conturbare, to displace, drive out, eject, expel, throw from a position (esp. of battle and combat): “equestrem procellam excitemus oportet, si turbare ac statu movere (hostes) volumus,” Liv. 30, 18, 14: “nihil statu motus, cum projecto prae se clipeo staret, in praesidio urbis moriturum se ... respondit,” id. 38, 25: Manlius scutum scuto percussit atque statum Galli conturbavit (cf. the next sentence: atque de loco hominem iterum dejecit), Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 16.—So, out of the military sphere, in order to avoid an attack: “ea vis est ... quae, periculo mortis injecto, formidine animum perterritum loco saepe et certo de statu demovet,” Cic. Caecin. 15, 42.—Transf., of mental position, conviction, argument, etc.: “saepe adversarios de statu omni dejecimus,” Cic. Or. 37, 129: “voluptas quo est major, eo magis mentem e suā sede et statu demovet,” throws the mind off its balance, id. Par. 1, 3, 15.—Similarly: de statu deducere, recedere, from one's position or principles: “fecerunt etiam ut me prope de vitae meae statu deducerent, ut ego istum accusarem,” Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 4, § 10: “neque de statu nobis nostrae dignitatis est recedendum, neque sine nostris copiis in alterius praesidia veniendum,” id. Att. 1, 20, 2.—So, de statu suo declinare = moveri: “neque dubito quin, suspitione aliquā perculsi repentinā, de statu suo declinarint,” i. e. became unsettled, Cic. Clu. 38, 106: “qui cum me firmissimis opibus ... munire possim, quamvis excipere fortunam malui quam ... de meo statu declinare,” than abandon my position, id. Prov. Cons. 17, 41; cf. “of the position of heavenly bodies: qui eodem statu caeli et stellarum nati sunt,” aspect, id. Div. 2, 44, 92.

II. Trop., condition, state, position, situation, circumstances.

A. Of persons, condition in regard to public rights, political or civil status, any loss of which was a capitis deminutio (v. caput): “capitis minutio est statūs permutatio,” Gai. Dig. 4, 5, 1; id. Inst. 1, 159; cf. Dig. 4, 5, 11: “quo quisque loco nostrum est natus ... hunc vitae statum usque ad senectutem obtinere debet,” Cic. Balb. 7, 18: “ad quem proscripti confluebant. Quippe nullum habentibus statum quilibet dux erat idoneus,” with regard to the civil death of the proscribed, Vell. 2, 72, 5: “illorum salus omnibus accepta fuit ... quia tam grati exoptatum libertatis statum recuperaverint,” Val. Max. 5, 26: “si statu periclitari litigator videtur,” if his civil status seems in peril, Quint. 6, 1, 36: “nec ulla tam familiaris est infelicibus patria quam solitudo et prioris statūs oblivio,” i. e. the status of full citizenship, lost by banishment, Curt. 5, 5, 11: “permanent tamen in statu servitutis,” Suet. Gram. 21: “vetuit quaeri de cujusquam defunctorum statu,” id. Tit. 8 fin.: “multorum excisi status,” Tac. A. 3, 28: qui illegitime concipiuntur, statum sumunt ex eo tempore quo nascuntur, i. e. whether freemen or slaves, etc., Gai. Inst. 1, 89: “cum servus manumittitur: eo die enim incipit statum habere,” a civil status, Dig. 4, 5, 4: “homo liber qui se vendidit, manumissus non ad suum statum revertitur, sed efficitur libertinae condicionis, i. e. that of an ingenuus,” ib. 1, 5, 21: “primo de personarum statu dicemus,” civil status, ib. 1, 5, 2; so Titin. 5: “de statu hominum (sometimes status used in the jurists absolutely with reference to freedom and slavery): si status controversiam cui faciat procurator, sive ex servitute in libertatem, etc.,” Dig. 3, 3, 39, § 5; so ib. 3, 3, 33, § 1.—Similarly in the later jurists: status suus = aetas XXV. annorum, years of discretion: “cum ad statum suum frater pervenisset,” Dig. 31, 1, 77, § 19.—

2. Condition and position with reference to rank, profession, trade, occupation, social standing, reputation, and character: “an tibi vis inter istas vorsarier prosedas ... quae tibi olant stabulum statumque?” their trade, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 59: “quod in civitatibus agnationibus familiarum distinguuntur status,” the ranks of the families, Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 23: “regum status decemviris donabantur,” the rank of kings was assigned to the decemvirs, id. Agr. 1, 1, 2: “cum alii rem ipsam publicam atque hunc bonorum statum odissent,” the social position of the higher classes, id. Sest. 20, 46: “non ut aliquid ex pristino statu nostro retineamus,” id. Fam. 4, 4, 1: “ecquis umquam tam ex amplo statu concidit?” id. Att. 3, 10, 2: “non enim jam quam dignitatem, quos honores, quem vitae statum amiserim cogito,” id. ib. 10, 4, 1: “quam (statuam) esse ejusdem status amictus, anulus, imago ipsa declarat,” id. ib. 1, 1, 17: “praesidium petebamus ex potentissimi viri benevolentiā ad omnem statum nostrae dignitatis,” id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 1: noster autem status est hic: “apud bonos iidem sumus quos reliquisti, apud sordem, etc.,” id. Att. 1, 16, 11: “ego me non putem tueri meum statum ut neque offendam animum cujusquam, nec frangam dignitatem meam?” maintain my character, id. Fam. 9, 16, 6: “quos fortuna in amplissimo statu (i. e. regum) collocarat,” Auct. Her. 4, 16, 23: “tantam in eodem homine varietatem status,” high and low position in life, ups and downs, Val. Max. 6, 9, 4: “cum classiarios quos Nero ex remigibus justos milites fecerat, redire ad pristinum statum cogeret,” Suet. Galb. 12: “quaedam circa omnium ordinum statum correxit,” id. Claud. 22: “cum redieritis in Graeciam, praestabo ne quis statum suum vestro credat esse meliorem,” social position, Curt. 5, 5, 22: “omnis Aristippum decuit color et status et res,” Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 23.—

3. Condition in reference to prosperity, happiness or unhappiness, and health (mostly poet. and post-Aug.): “at iste non dolendi status non vocatur voluptas,” Cic. Fin. 2, 9, 28: “neque hic est Nunc status Aurorae meritos ut poscat honores,” Ov. M. 13, 594: “flebilis ut noster status est, ita flebile carmen,” id. Tr. 5, 1, 5: “quid enim status hic a funere differt?” id. P. 2, 3, 3: “pejor ab admonitu fit status iste boni,” id. ib. 1, 2, 54: “his enim quorum felicior in domo status fuerat,” Val. Max. 6, 8, 7: “sin nostros status sive proximorum ingenia contemplemur,” id. 6, 9 pr.: “caelum contemplare: vix tamen ibi talem statum (i. e. felicitatis deorum) reperias,” id. 7, 1, 1: “haec quidem (vox) animi magnifici et prosperi status (fuit),” id. 6, 5, ext. 4: “obliti statūs ejus quem beneficio exuistis meo,” Curt. 10, 2, 22: “sumus in hoc tuo statu iidem qui florente te fuimus,” i. e. distress, id. 5, 11, 5: “res magna et ex beatissimo animi statu profecta,” Sen. Ep. 81, 21: voverat, si sibi incolumis status (of health) permisisset, proditurum se ... hydraulam, Suet. Ner. 54. —

4. Condition, circumstances, in gen., of life or of the mind: “homines hoc uno plurimum a bestiis differunt quod rationem habent, mentemque quae ... omnem complectatur vitae consequentis statum,” Cic. Fin. 2, 14, 45: “facias me certiorem et simul de toto statu tuo consiliisque omnibus,” id. Fam. 7, 10, 3: “tibi declaravi adventus noster qualis fuisset, et quis esset status,” id. Att. 4, 2, 1: “quid enim ego laboravi, si ... nihil consecutus sum ut in eo statu essem quem neque fortunae temeritas, neque, etc., labefactaret,” id. Par. 2, 17: “sed hoc videant ii qui nulla sibi subsidia ad omnes vitae status paraverunt,” id. Fam. 9, 6, 4: atque is quidem qui cuncta composuit constanter in suo manebat statu (transl. of ἔμεινεν ἐν τῷ ἑαυτοῦ κατὰ τρόπον ἤθει, Plat. Tim. p. 42, c. Steph.), in his own state, being, Cic. Tim. 13: “vitae statum commutatum ferre non potuit,” Nep. Dion, 4, 4: “id suis rebus tali in statu saluti fore,” Curt. 5, 1, 5: haec sunt fulmina quae prima accepto patrimonio et in novi hominis aut urbis statu fiunt, in any new condition (when a stroke of lightning was considered an omen), Sen. Q. N. 2, 47.—Rarely of a state: “libere hercle hoc quidem. Sed vide statum (i. e. ebrietatis),” Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 4.—Esp., in augury: fulmen status, a thunderbolt sent to one who is not expecting a sign, as a warning or suggestion, = fulmen monitorium: “status est, ubi quietis nec agitantibus quidquam nec cogitantibus fulmen intervenit,” Sen. Q. N. 2, 39, 2.—

B. Of countries, communities, etc., the condition of society, or the state, the public order, public affairs.

1. In gen.: “Siciliam ita vexavit ac perdidit ut ea restitui in antiquum statum nullo modo possit,” Cic. Verr. 1, 4, 12: “nunc in eo statu civitas est ut omnes idem de re publicā sensuri esse videantur,” id. Sest. 50, 106: “omnem condicionem imperii tui statumque provinciae mihi demonstravit Tratorius,” id. Fam. 12, 23, 1; so id. ib. 13, 68, 1: “mihi rei publicae statum per te notum esse voluisti,” id. ib. 3, 11, 4; so, “status ipse nostrae civitatis,” id. ib. 5, 16, 2: “non erat desperandum fore aliquem tolerabilem statum civitatis,” id. Phil. 13, 1, 2: “sane bonum rei publicae genus, sed tamen inclinatum et quasi pronum ad perniciosissimum statum,” id. Rep. 2, 26, 48: “aliquo, si non bono, at saltem certo statu civitatis,” id. Fam. 9, 8, 2: “ex hoc qui sit status totius rei publicae videre potes,” id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 15: ex eodem de toto statu rerum communium cognosces, id. Fam. 1, 8, 1: “tamen illa, quae requiris, suum statum tenent, nec melius, si tu adesses, tenerent,” id. ib. 6, 1, 1: “non illi nos de unius municipis fortunis arbitrantur, sed de totius municipii statu, dignitate, etc., sententias esse laturos,” id. Clu. 69, 196: “ego vitam omnium civium, statum orbis terrae ... redemi,” id. Sull. 11, 33: “Ti. Gracchum mediocriter labefactantem statum rei publicae,” id. Cat. 1, 1, 3: “eo tum statu res erat ut longe principes haberentur Aedui,” Caes. B. G. 6, 12, 9: “cum hoc in statu res esset,” Liv. 26, 5, 1; so id. 32, 11, 1: “eam regiam servitutem (civitatis) collatam cum praesenti statu praeclaram libertatem visam,” id. 41, 6, 9: “statum quoque civitatis ea victoria firmavit ut jam inde res inter se contrahere auderent,” i. e. commercial prosperity, id. 27, 51: “ut deliberare de statu rerum suarum posset,” id. 44, 31: “ut taedio praesentium consules duo et status pristinus rerum in desiderium veniant,” id. 3, 37, 3: “jam Latio is status erat rerum ut neque bellum neque pacem pati possent,” id. 8, 13, 2: “qui se moverit ad sollicitandum statum civitatis,” internal peace, id. 3, 20, 8: “omni praesenti statu spem cuique novandi res suas blandiorem esse,” more attractive than any condition of public affairs, id. 35, 17: “tranquillitatis status,” Val. Max. 7, 2, 1: “in sollicito civitatis statu,” Quint. 6, 1, 16: “principes regesque et quocumque alio nomine sunt tutores status publici,” guardians of public order, Sen. Clem. 1, 4, 3: curis omnium ad formandum publicum statum a tam sollemni munere aversis, Curt, 10, 10, 9; so, “ad formandum rerum praesentium statum,” Just. 9, 5, 1: “populo jam praesenti statu laeto,” Suet. Caes. 50: “ad componendum Orientis statum,” id. Calig. 1: “deploravit temporum statum,” id. Galb. 10: “ad explorandum statum Galliarum,” id. Caes. 24: “delegatus pacandae Germaniae status,” id. Tib. 16: et omnia habet rerum status iste mearum (poet., = reipublicae meae), Ov. M. 7, 509.—

2. Esp., of the political sentiments of the citizens: “a Maronitis certiora de statu civitatium scituros,” Liv. 39, 27: “ad visendum statum regionis ejus,” id. 42, 17, 1: “suas quoque in eodem statu mansuras res esse,” id. 42, 29, 9: “cum hic status in Boeotiā esset,” id. 42, 56, 8.—

3. Of the constitution, institutions, form of government, etc.: “Scipionem rogemus ut explicet quem existimet esse optimum statum civitatis,” Cic. Rep. 1, 20, 33; 1, 21, 34; 1, 46, 70; “1, 47, 71: ob hanc causam praestare nostrae civitatis statum ceteris civitatibus,” id. ib. 2, 1, 2: “itaque cum patres rerum potirentur, numquam constitisse statum civitatis,” the form of the government had never been permanent, id. ib. 1, 32, 49: “in hoc statu rei publicae (decemvirali), quem dixi non posse esse diuturnum,” id. ib. 2, 37, 62: “providete ne rei publicae status commutetur,” id. Har. Resp. 27, 60: “eademque oritur etiam ex illo saepe optimatium praeclaro statu,” aristocratic form of government, id. Rep. 1, 44, 68: “ut totum statum civitatis in hoc uno judicio positam esse putetis,” id. Fl. 1, 3: “ut rei publicae statum convulsuri viderentur,” id. Pis. 2, 4: “pro meā salute, pro vestrā auctoritate, pro statu civitatis nullum vitae discrimen vitandum umquam putavit,” id. Red. in Sen. 8, 20: “cum hoc coire ausus es, ut consularem dignitatem, ut rei publicae statum ... addiceres?” id. ib. 7, 16: “omnia quae sunt in imperio et in statu civitatis ab iis defendi putantur,” id. Mur. 11, 24: “intelleges (te habere) nihil quod aut hoc aut aliquo rei publicae statu timeas,” id. Fam. 6, 2, 3: “quod ad statum Macedoniae pertinebat,” Liv. 45, 32, 2: “ex commutatione statūs publici,” Vell. 2, 35, 4: “haec oblivio concussum et labentem civitatis statum in pristinum habitum revocavit,” Val. Max. 4, 1, ext. 4: “Gracchi civitatis statum conati erant convellere,” id. 6, 3, 1 fin.: “Cicero ita legibus Sullae cohaerere statum civitatis affirmat ut his solutis stare ipsa non possit,” Quint. 11, 1, 85: “qui eloquentiā turbaverant civitatium status vel everterant,” id. 2, 16, 4: “id biduum quod de mutando reipublicae statu haesitatum erat,” Suet. Claud. 11: “nec dissimulasse unquam pristinum se reipublicae statum restituturum,” id. ib. 1: “conversus hieme ad ordinandum reipublicae statum, fastos correxit, etc.,” id. Caes. 40: “tu civitatem quis deceat status Curas,” what institutions, Hor. C. 3, 29, 25.—Hence,

4. Existence of the republic: “quae lex ad imperium, ad majestatem, ad statum patriae, ad salutem omnium pertinet,” Cic. Cael. 29, 70 (= eo, ut stet patria, the country's existence): “si enim status erit aliquis civitatis, quicunque erit,” id. Fam. 4, 14, 4: status enim rei publicae maxime judicatis rebus continetur, the existence of the republic depends on the decisions of the courts, i. e. their sacredness, id. Sull. 22, 63. —

C. In nature, state, condition, etc.: “incolumitatis ac salutis omnium causā videmus hunc statum esse hujus totius mundi atque naturae,” Cic. Or. 3, 45, 178: “ex alio alius status (i. e. mundi) excipere omnia debet,” Lucr. 5, 829: “ex alio terram status excipit alter,” id. 5, 835: “est etiam quoque pacatus status aëris ille,” id. 3, 292: “non expectato solis ortu, ex quo statum caeli notare gubernatores possent,” Liv. 37, 12, 11: “idem (mare) alio caeli statu recipit in se fretum,” Curt. 6, 4, 19: “incertus status caeli,” Col. 11, 2: “pluvius caeli status,” id. 2, 10: “mitior caeli status,” Sen. Oedip. 1054.—

D. The characteristic, mark, character, essential feature of a thing.

1. In gen.: “atque hoc loquor de tribus his generibus rerum publicarum non perturbatis atque permixtis, sed suum statum tenentibus,” preserving their essential features, Cic. Rep. 1, 28, 44.—Hence,

2. Esp. in rhet. jurisp.

(a). The answer to the action (acc. to Cic., because the defence: primum insistit in eo = the Gr. στάσις): “refutatio accusationis appellatur Latine status, in quo primum insistit quasi ad repugnandum congressa defensio,” Cic. Top. 25, 93; so, “statu (sic enim appellamus controversiarum genera),” id. Tusc. 3, 33, 79: “statum quidam dixerunt primam causarum conflictionem,” Quint. 3, 6, 4; cf. Cic. Part. Or. 29, 102.—

(b). The main question, the essential point: “quod nos statum id quidam constitutionem vocant, alii quaestionem, alii quod ex quaestione appareat, Theodorus caput, ad quod referantur omnia,” Quint. 3, 6, 2: “non est status prima conflictio, sed quod ex primā conflictione nascitur, id est genus quaestionis,” the kind, nature of the question, id. 3, 6, 5; cf. the whole chapter.—

E. In gram., the mood of the verb, instead of modus, because it distinguishes the conceptions of the speaker: “et tempora et status,” tenses and moods, Quint. 9, 3, 11: “fiunt soloecismi per modos, sive cui status eos dici placet,” id. 1, 5, 41.!*? For statu liber , v. statuliber.

151 fătĕor , fassus, 2

I. inf. praes. faterier, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 148), v. dep. a. [from the root ΦΑ, φάω, fari], to confess, own, grant, acknowledge.

I. Prop. (freq. and class.; syn.: confiteor, profiteor); construed for the most part with acc. and inf. as object; rarely with the acc., de, or absol.

(a). With acc.: “si verum mihi eritis fassae, vinclis exsolvemini,” Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 10: so, “verum fateri,” Plin. 27, 1, 1, § 2; Curt. 6, 3: “ut verius fatear,” Eum. Grat. Act. 1: “quid fatebor?” Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 3; 2, 2, 67: “multi in tormentis mori maluerunt falsum fatendo quam infitiando dolere,” Cic. Part. 14, 50: “peccatum, culpam,” Ov. Tr. 1, 315; Hor. S. 2, 4, 4: “delicta,” Ov. M. 4, 685: “mores suos,” Quint. 10, 1, 100: “sensus suos,” Ov. H. 21, 204: “paupertatem,” id. M. 8, 634 et saep.—Prov.: “fatetur facinus, si quis judicium fugit,” Pub. Syr. 174 Rib.—

(b). With acc. and inf. as object: “fateor atque etiam profiteor et prae me fero, te, etc.,” Cic. Rab. Perd. 5, 17: “me despexe ad te per impluvium tuum, Fateor,” Plaut. Mil. 2, 6, 73: “fateor eam esse importunam,” id. As. 1, 1, 47: “si quis contra rem publicam se amici causa fecisse fateatur,” Cic. Lael. 12, 40: qui se debere fateantur, *Caes. B. C. 3, 20, 3: “cum se Cicero ab illis plurimum fateatur adjutum,” Quint. 10, 1, 40: “fateor me duci ventre,” Hor. S. 2, 7, 37: “jura inventa metu injusti fateare necesse est,” id. ib. 1, 3, 111; id. Ep. 2, 1, 85: “hominum igitur causa eas rerum copias comparatas fatendum est,” Cic. N. D. 2, 63, 158.—With ellips. of acc.: “fateor peccavisse,” Plaut. Most. 5, 2, 18: “non didici sane nescire fateri,” Hor. A. P. 418.—With two acc.: “cum se servum fateatur tuum,” Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 24: “eum (i. e. Jovem) ipsi lapides hominem fatebuntur,” Lact. 1, 11, 28: “fassus hujus se spectaculi debitorem,” Sen. Contr. 1, 1, 11.—

(g). With de: “cum de facto turpi aliquo aut inutili aut utroque fateatur,” Cic. Inv. 2, 26, 77.—

(d). Absol.: “ita libenter confitetur, ut non solum fateri, sed etiam profiteri videatur,” Cic. Caecin. 9, 24: Me. Est tibi nomen Menaechmo? M. Fateor, Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 48: “leno sum, fateor,” Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 34: “non potest sine malo fateri,” id. Eun. 4, 4, 47: “qui a Naevio vel sumpsisti multa, si fateris, vel, si negas, surripuisti,” Cic. Brut. 19, 76; cf. Quint. 5, 12, 13: “nulline faterier audes?” Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 148: “in fatendo lenis et summissa (vox),” Quint. 11, 3, 63: “ad fatendum impulsus,” id. 5, 13, 46: “da veniam fasso,” Ov. P. 4, 2, 23; parenthetically: fateor, Plaut. Aul. 4.4, 16: “fatebor enim,” Verg. E. 1, 31; id. A. 4, 20; Ov. M. 9, 362 al.—

II. Transf.

A. In gen., to discover, show, indicate, manifest (rare; not in Cic.): Laterensis nostri et fidem et animum singularem in rem publicam semper fatebor, bear witness to, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 23, 4; Quint. 1, 6, 23: “innocentem fuisse patrem fatetur,” id. 7, 1, 56; 1, 10, 37: “utque sedet vultu fassus Telamonius iram,” Ov. Tr. 2, 525: “patinarum calore pisces vitalem motum fateri,” Plin. 9, 57, 83, § 177: “mors sola fatetur, Quantula sint hominum corpuscula,” Juv. 10, 172; 15, 132: “properabo fateri, quae, etc.,” id. 3, 59: “Belus amnis non nisi refuso mari harenas fatetur,” Plin. 36, 26, 65, § 190.—

B. In gram. lang.: “fatendi modus,” the indicative, Quint. 1, 6, 7; Varr. L. L. 8, 5, 8.!*?

1. In pass. signif.: “hunc (agrum) excipere nominatim, qui publicus esse fateatur,” Cic. Agr. 2, 21, 57 (dub.).—

2. Impers.: “vulgo fatebatur, utique minorem eum legasse,” Dig. 30, 1, 39, § 6.

152 in-dĭco , āvi, ātum, āre, v. a. (indicasso, is, for indicavero, is, Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 66; id. Rud. 4, 3, 89),

I. to point out, indicate (class.).

I. In gen., to show, declare, disclose, make known, reveal, betray.

A. Of persons: “rem omnem dominae indicavit,” Cic. Clu. 64, 180: “Catilina non se purgavit, sed indicavit,” id. Mur. 25, 51: “conscios delendae tyrannidis,” id. Tusc. 2, 22, 52: jam me vobis indicabo, will betray or accuse myself, id. Arch. 11, 28: “indicabo meum consilium tibi,” id. Fam. 10, 21, 2: “rem patri,” Ter. Ad. 4, 4, 19: “causam publicae pestis,” Liv. 8, 18, 4: “de conjuratione,” to give information, inform, Sall. C. 48, 4: “quis tibi de epistulis istis indicavit,” Cic. Fl. 37, 92; Sall. C. 30, 6: “aliquid in vulgus,” to make publicly known, Cic. Univ. 2: “satis est actori sic indicare,” Quint. 4, 2, 7.—With rel. clause: “contentus indicare quid facti sit,” Quint. 4, 2, 128.—With acc. and inf.: “digitis ita figuratis ut temporis et aevi (Janum) esse deum indicent,” Plin. 34, 7, 16, § 33.—

B. Of things concr. and abstr.: “vultus indicat mores,” shows, indicates, Cic. Leg. 1, 9; id. Brut. 94, 324: “lacrimis dolorem,” Nep. Att. 4 fin.: “hoc res ipsa indicat,” Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 16: “id esse verum parva haec fabella indicat,” Phaedr. 1, 15, 3: “supercilia maxime indicant factum,” Plin. 11, 37, 51, § 138: “ut epularum sollemnium fides ac tibiae ... indicant,” Cic. de Or. 3, 51, 197. — Pass.: “aetas veterinorum indicatur dentibus,” Plin. 11, 37, 64, § 168: “cum res non gesta indicatur, sed ut sit gesta ostenditur,” Quint. 9, 2, 40. —

II. In partic.

A. To intimate, give a hint of, to state briefly, mention: “indicare convenit, quae prodit Onesicritus,” Plin. 6, 23, 26, § 96: “aliquid obiter,” id. 33, 1, 5, § 15: “nominatim,” id. 15, 14, 15, § 49: “ut indicavimus,” id. 36, 15, 24, § 115.—

B. To set or tell the price of a thing, to value, put a price on: hanc eme. Do. Modo ut sciam, quanti indicet, etc., Plaut. Pers. 4, 4, 25: “indica, fac pretium,” id. ib. 37: “cum postulasset, ut sibi fundus semel indicaretur,” Cic. Off. 3, 15, 62. —

C. In jurid. Lat., to carry on a judicial process to conviction: “Indicasse est detulisse, arguisse, accusasse et convicisse,” Dig. 50, 16, 197.

153 indĭcātīvus , a, um, adj. id. (postclass.), gram. t. t.,

I. indicative, Diom. p. 329; Prisc. 819 P.

154 prōnuntĭātīvus (prōnunc- ), a, um, adj. pronuntio,

I. of or belonging to declaration, declarative, enunciative; in gram.: “pronuntiativus modus,” i. e. the indicative mood, Diom. p. 329 P.—Adv.: prōnuntĭātīvē , declaratively, affirmatively, Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 7.

155 rē-spondĕo , di, sum, 2, v. a.

I. Lit., to promise a thing in return for something else; to offer or present in return. So, only in a few examples, the phrase par pari (dat.) respondere, to return like for like: par pari respondes dicto, you return tit for tat with your tongue (syn. refero), Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 41; cf.: istuc serva; et verbum verbo par pari ut respondeas, Ter Phorm. 1, 4, 35; and: “paria paribus respondimus,” Cic. Att. 6, 1, 23.— Pass.: provide, si cui quid debetur, ut sit, unde par pari respondeatur, i. e. that there be wherewithal to meet the demand, Atticus ap. Cic. Att. 16, 7, 6; cf. also under II. A. 1, the lusus verbb. with spondeo; and II. B. init.—

II. In a more general signification.

A. To answer, reply, respond (either to a question, or to any statement or remark, and either in a friendly or hostile signif.); constr. aliquid alicui, ad, adversus, contra aliquem (aliquid).

1. In gen.

a. Lit.: Th. Aliud te rogo. Tr. Aliud ergo nunc tibi respondeo, Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 70; cf. id. Merc. 1, 2, 73.—Absol.: “prius respondes, quam rogo,” Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 119: “eā legatione Papirius auditā ... respondit,” Liv. 9, 14, 2; 27, 40, 8; 33, 38, 7; Nep. Milt. 1, 4: “ille appellatus respondit,” Caes. B. G. 5, 36; 5, 41; Cic. Leg. 3, 13, 30; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 62, § 138; id. Fam. 3, 6, 2; 5, 2, 8; 7, 24, 2; “9, 14, 2. — So usu. of an oral answer: tibi non rescribam, sed respondeam,” Sen. Ep. 67, 2; “but also of writing: epistulae,” Cic. Att. 9, 9, 1 et saep.; v. infra: “ab his sermo oritur, respondet Laelius,” Cic. Lael. 1, 5; Plaut. Men. 5, 5, 28: olli respondit rex Albaï Longaï, Enn. ap. Fortun. p. 2691 P. (Ann. v. 34 Vahl.): “cui orationi Caepionis ore respondit Aelius,” Cic. Brut. 46, 169: “criminibus,” id. Planc. 2, 4: “supremae tuae paginae,” id. Att. 6, 2, 1: “cui opinioni,” Quint. 4, 4, 1: “tam aequae postulationi,” id. 7, 1, 47 al.: “summā constantiā ad ea, quae quaesita erant, respondebat,” Cic. Phil. 1, 1, 2; cf.: “arbitrabar me satis respondisse ad id quod quaesierat Laelius,” id. Rep. 2, 39, 65: “nec absurde adversus utrosque respondisse visus est,” Liv. 35, 50; 8, 32: “adversus haec imperator respondit,” id. 30, 31; 33, 35 fin.— With acc. of neutr. pron.: “illud respondere cogam,” to make answer to that, Cic. Cael. 28, 67; cf. id. Vatin. 7, 18; 17, 41: “multa contra patronos venuste testis saepe respondet,” Quint. 5, 7, 31; 5, 7, 24; cf.: “accipe, quid contra juvenis responderit,” Hor. S. 2, 3, 233.— With object-clause: “respondent, bello se et suos tutari posse,” Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 59; id. Curc. 2, 3, 54; id. Mil. 2, 2, 23; id. Merc. 5, 2. 102 al. —Introducing a direct answer: “cum dixisset, Quid agis, Grani? respondit, Immo vero tu, Druse, quid agis!” Cic. Planc. 14, 33; id. Att. 5, 21, 12; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Tusc. 5, 19, 56.— In impers. perf.: “postquam mihi responsum est, abeo, etc.,” Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 57; cf. id. Mil. 4, 2, 93: quid nunc renunciem abs te responsum? Ter. Heaut. 4, 8, 18: “sic existimet: Responsum non dictum esse, quia laesit prior,” id. Eun. prol. 6.— In plur.: “multa ejus et in senatu et in foro vel provisa prudenter vel acta constanter vel responsa acute ferebantur,” Cic. Lael. 2, 6.— In the sup.: “(haec) quam brevia responsu,” Cic. Clu. 59 fin.— In a lusus verbb. with spondeo: Er. Sponden' tu istud? He. Spondeo. Er. At ego, tuum tibi advenisse filium, respondeo, and in return I promise you, i. e. assure you, Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 119; cf.: “fideiussores, qui salvam rempublicam fore responderunt, etc.,” promised, gave assurance, Dig. 50, 1, 17 fin.—

b. Trop., to answer, respond, reply to, re-echo, resound, etc.: “saxa et solitudines voci respondent,” Cic. Arch. 8, 19; “respondent flebile ripae,” Ov. M. 11, 53; and: “respondentia tympana,” Stat. Achill. 2, 175: urbes coloniarum respondebunt Catilinae tumulis silvestribus, will give an answer to, i. e. will prove a match for, Cic. Cat. 2, 11, 24.—

2. In partic.

a. Of lawyers, priests, oracles, etc., to give an opinion, advice, decision, response: “quaeris, num juris consultus (sit)? quasi quisquam sit, qui sibi hunc falsum de jure respondisse dicat,” Cic. Planc. 25, 62; so, “de jure,” id. Brut. 30, 113; cf.: “de jure consulentibus respondere,” id. Mur. 4, 9; “in a like signif., also simply jus,” id. Leg. 1, 4, 12: “facultas respondendi juris,” id. ib. 2, 12, 29; id. de Or. 1, 45, 198; Plin. Ep. 6, 15, 3 al.; cf.: “civica jura,” Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 24; and: “quae consuluntur, minimo periculo respondentur, etc.,” Cic. Mur. 13, 28; id. Brut. 89, 306. —Absol., Dig. 2, 14, 7; and so very freq. of the jurists in the Digests; “v. responsum: pater Roscii ad haruspices retulit: qui responderunt, nihil illo puero clarius fore,” Cic. Div. 1, 36, 79: “cum ex prodigiis haruspices respondissent,” Sall. C. 47, 2; Liv. 27, 37; 31, 5; 5, 54; Vell. 2, 24, 3: “responsum est,” Suet. Aug. 94, 97: “deliberantibus Pythia respondit, ut moenibus ligneis se munirent,” gave advice, Nep. Them. 2, 6; cf. Just. 11, 11, § 11: “possumus seniores amici quiete respondere,” to give advice, Tac. A. 14, 54 fin.—

b. Of the answering of a person summoned when his name is called; hence, meton., to appear: citatus neque respondit neque excusatus est, Varr. ap. Gell. 11, 1, 4; cf.: “cives, qui ad nomina non respondissent,” Liv. 7, 4: “quia Romae non respondebant,” id. 39, 18; Val. Max. 6, 3, 4; Suet. Tib. 38; id. Ner. 44; Hor. S. 1, 9, 36 (vadato, dat., i.e. ei qui eum vadatus erat; v. vador); Dig. 3, 3, 35; 41, 1, 14 et saep.—

(b). Esp., to appear before a tribunal, to answer an accusation, meet a charge, etc.: “perfectus in exsilium Tubulus est nec respondere ausus,” Cic. Fin. 2, 16, 54: “Verrem alterā actione responsurum non esse,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 1: “nemo Epaminondam responsurum putabat,” Nep. Epam. 8, 1.—

(g). Transf., in gen., to appear, be present: “ipsi (sc. paeon et herous) se offerent et respondebunt non vocati,” Cic. de Or. 3, 49, 191: “verba (with res se ostendent),” Quint. 10, 3, 9: “ut ii, qui debent, non respondeant ad tempus,” Cic. Att. 16, 2, 2; cf.: “podagra ad tempus (with venit ad horam),” Sen. Q. N. 3, 16, 1: “sanguis per menstrua,” Cels. 4, 4, 5.—

B. To answer to; to meet, agree, accord, or correspond with a thing; constr. usually with dat. or absol.: “ut omnia omnibus paribus paria respondeant,” Cic. N. D. 1, 19, 50: “ut horum auctoritatibus illorum orationi, qui dissentiunt, respondere posse videamur,” id. Imp. Pomp. 23, 68: “ut verba verbis quasi demensa et paria respondeant,” id. Or. 12, 38; and: “respondent extrema primis, media utrisque, omnia omnibus,” id. Fin. 5, 28, 83: (Aristoteles dicit) illam artem (sc. rhetoricam) quasi ex alterā parte respondere dialecticae, that it corresponds to, i. e. forms the counterpart of, id. Or. 32, 114: “aedificare alteram porticum quae Palatio responderet,” id. Har. Resp. 23, 49; cf. “of a locality: contra elata mari respondet Gnosia tellus,” i. e. lies opposite, Verg. A. 6, 23: “Pachyni pulsata Ionio respondent saxa profundo,” Sil. 14, 73: “est mihi magnae curae, ut ita erudiatur (Lucullus), ut et patri et Caepioni nostro et tibi tam propinquo respondeat,” Cic. Fin. 3, 2, 8: satis Graecorum gloriae responderunt, id. Tusc. 1, 2, 3: “tua virtus opinioni hominum,” id. Fam. 2, 5, 2; id. Lael. 16, 56: “fortuna meis optatis,” id. Fam. 2, 1, 2; cf.: “seges votis,” Verg. G. 1, 47: “arma Caesaris non responsura lacertis,” Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 48: “favor meritis,” id. ib. 2, 1, 9: “ne prior officio quisquam respondeat,” id. S. 2, 6, 24: “par fama labori,” id. ib. 2, 8, 66: “fructus labori,” Ov. F. 4, 641: “non mihi respondent veteres in carmine vires,” id. H. 15, 197 al.: “familiam nemo speciosiorem producet, sed hominibus non respondet,” he does not pay his debts, Sen. Ep. 87, 6: “amori amore respondere,” i. e. to return it, repay it, Cic. Fam. 15, 21, 4; cf.: “Quinti fratris liberalitati subsidiis amicorum,” id. Att. 4, 3, 6: “qui ex vico ortus est, eam patriam intellegitur habere, cui reipublicae vicus ille respondet,” to which it belongs, Dig. 50, 1, 30.— “In mal. part.: mulieribus,” Plaut. Mil. 4, 1, 17.—With ad: “respondere ad parentum speciem,” resemble, Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 9: “deformentur directiones, ut longitudines ad regulam et lineam, altitudines ad perpendiculum, anguli ad normam respondentes exigantur,” Vitr. 7, 3; cf.: “structuram ad perpendiculum respondere oportet,” Plin. 36, 22, 51, § 172: “quia non tota ad animum responderat (villa),” Suet. Caes. 48: “ad spem eventus respondit,” Liv. 28, 6.—With dat.: “Papirio quoque brevi ad spem eventus respondit,” Liv. 9, 15.— With ex: “quicquid non ex voluntate respondet, iram provocat,” Sen. Ep. 47, 19: “speculum quocumque obvertimus oris, Res sibi respondent simili formā atque colore,” i. e. correspond, are reflected, Lucr. 4, 167.— Absol.: “sidera respondent in aquā,” Lucr. 4, 213: “quia raro verba belle respondeant,” Quint. 6, 3, 48: medicus aliquid oportet inveniat, quod non ubique fortasse, sed saepius tamen etiam respondeat, may answer, be suitable, Cels. praef.—

C. To return, make a return, yield: “frumenta quando cum quarto responderint (sc. colono),” have returned, yielded, Col. 3, 3, 4; cf. with abl. and dat.: “humus cum est repetita cultu, magno fenore colono respondet,” id. 2, 1, 3: “vitis, nisi praepingui solo, non respondet,” id. 3, 2, 11; cf.: “metalla plenius responsura fodienti,” Sen. Ep. 23, 5.—Hence, rēspon-sum , i, n., an answer, reply, response (equally freq. in sing. and plur.).

1. In gen.: “suis postulatis responsa exspectare,” Caes. B. C. 1, 5 fin.: “haec paucis diebus ex illius ad nostra responsa responsis intellegentur, quorsum evasura sint,” Cic. Att. 7, 17, 4: “responsum senatūs,” Liv. 7, 31: “sine responso legatos dimisit,” id. 9, 38: “nullo ab nostris dato responso,” Caes. B. G. 5, 58: “responsum dedisti tantis de rebus,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 16, § 40; 2, 4, 39, § 85; so, “dare responsum,” Liv. 5, 32, 8; Val. Max. 9, 5, ext. 3; Curt. 3, 12, 9; Liv. 3, 50, 12: “reddere alicui,” Cic. Planc. 14, 34; cf.: “triste redditum,” Liv. 9, 16: “ferre (ab aliquo),” to receive, Cic. Cat. 1, 8, 19; Caes. B. G. 6, 4 fin.: “referre (ab aliquo),” to deliver, Cic. Att. 7, 17, 2; Hirt. B. G. 8, 23; Liv. 37, 6: “elicere,” Quint. 5, 7, 20: “petere,” Hor. C. S. 55: “responsum accipere,” Liv. 5, 36, 4; Just. 12, 2, 8: “responsum non fuit in eis,” Vulg. Jer. 5, 13.—

2. In partic. (acc. to II. A. 2.), an answer, reply of a lawyer, priest, oracle, etc.; an opinion, response, oracle: “cum responsumque ab eo (Crasso) verum magis, quam ad suam rem accommodatum abstulisset, etc.,” Cic. de Or. 1, 56, 239: “res judicatae, decreta, responsa,” id. ib. 2, 27, 116; id. Mur. 13, 29.— “The responsa prudentium, or authoritative opinions of leading lawyers, were an important source of the Roman law,” Just. Inst. 1, 2, 8 Sandars ad loc.: “haruspicum responsa,” Cic. Cat. 3, 4, 9; cf. Quint. 5, 10, 30; Ov. M. 3, 340; 527: “legatus a Delphis Romam rediit, responsumque ex scripto recitavit,” Liv. 23, 11; cf. id. 1, 56; Quint. 3, 7, 11; 5, 7, 35; Tac. H. 1, 10; 4, 65 al.; Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 65; Ter. And. 4, 2, 15; Verg. A. 7, 86 et saep.— “In eccl. Lat.: responsum Dei, ab angelo, etc.,” Vulg. Mich. 3, 7; id. Luc. 2, 26; id. Act. 10, 22.

156 conjunctīvus , a, um, adj. id.,

I. of connection or serving to connect, connective (in post-class. gram. lang.): “particula (sc. autem),” Tert. adv. Hermog. 26.—Esp. freq.: conjunctivus modus, or absol.: conjunc-tīvus , i, m., the conjunctive or subjunctive mood, Mart. Cap. 3, § 310 al.

157 subjunctīvus , a, um, adj. subjungo,

I. of or belonging to binding together, connecting; in the later gram. lang., modus, the subjunctive mood, Diom. p. 331 P.; Prisc. p. 820 ib. al.: “conjunctiones, e. g. si, cum, antequam, etc.,” Charis. p. 200 sq. P.: “vocales,” Prisc. 561 ib.

158 impĕro (inp- ), āvi, ātum, 1 (archaic form, imperassit, Cic. Leg. 3, 3, 6, and induperantum = imperantium, Enn. Ann. v. 413 Vahl.), v. a. and n. in-paro,

I. to command, order, enjoin (cf.: jubeo, praecipio, mando).

I. In gen., constr. with acc., an inf. or an object-clause, a relative-clause, with ut, ne, or the simple subj., with the simple dat. or absol.

(a). With acc. (and dat. personæ): “faciendum id nobis quod parentes imperant,” Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 53: “fac quod imperat,” id. Poen. 5, 3, 29; Ter. Hec. 2, 2, 2: “quae imperarentur, facere dixerunt,” Caes. B. G. 2, 32, 3: “numquid aliud imperas?” Ter. Eun. 2, 1, 7; id. Heaut. 4, 3, 26: “sto exspectans, si quid mihi imperent,” id. Eun. 3, 5, 46: “nonnumquam etiam puerum vocaret: credo, cui cenam imperaret,” i. e. ordered to get him his supper, Cic. Rosc. Am. 21, 59: “imperat ei nuptias,” Quint. 7, 1, 14: “vigilias,” id. 11, 3, 26: “certum modum,” id. 11, 2, 27: “moram et sollicitudinem initiis impero,” id. 10, 3, 9: graves dominae cogitationum libidines infinita quaedam cogunt atque imperant, Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. 424, 30 (Rep. 6, 1 Mos.): “utque Imperet hoc natura potens,” Hor. S. 2, 1, 51.—In pass.: “arma imperata a populo Romano,” Liv. 40, 34, 9: “quod ipsum imperari optimum est,” Quint. 2, 5, 6: “imperata pensa,” id. 3, 7, 6: “exemplar imperatae schemae,” Suet. Tib. 43.—

(b). With inf. or an object-clause (esp. freq. in the post-Aug. per.; in Cic. and Cæs. only with inf. pass. or dep.): “animo nunc jam otioso esse impero,” Ter. And. 5, 2, 1: “imperavi egomet mihi omnia assentari,” id. Eun. 2, 2, 21: “jungere equos Titan velocibus imperat Horis,” Ov. M. 2, 118; 3, 4: “nec minus in certo dentes cadere imperat aetas Tempore,” Lucr. 5, 672: “has omnes actuarias imperat fieri,” Caes. B. G. 5, 1, 3: “pericula vilia habere,” Sall. C. 16, 2: “frumentum conportare,” id. J. 48, 2; Hirt. B. G. 8, 27; Curt. 10, 1, 19; Tac. A. 2, 25: “Liviam ad se deduci imperavit,” Suet. Calig. 25; id. Aug. 27; id. Tib. 60.—In pass.: in has lautumias, si qui publice custodiendi sunt, ex ceteris oppidis deduci imperantur, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 27, § 69.—*With inf. act.: “haec ego procurare et idoneus imperor,” Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 21. —

(g). With a rel.-clause (very rare): “imperabat coram, quid opus facto esset puerperae,” Ter. And. 3, 2, 10: “quin tu, quod faciam, impera,” id. Phorm. 1, 4, 46; Plaut. Curc. 1, 1, 3 and 6; id. Capt. 2, 3, 10.—

(d). With ut, ne, or the simple subj.: “ecce Apollo mihi ex oraculo imperat, Ut, etc.,” Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 87: “his, uti conquirerent et reducerent, imperavit,” Caes. B. G. 1, 28, 1: “consulibus designatis imperavit senatus, ut, etc.,” Liv. 42, 28, 7: quibus negotium a senatu est imperatum, ut, etc., S. C. ap. Front. Aquaed. 104; Petr. 1: “mihi, ne abscedam, imperat,” Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 30: “Caesar suis imperavit, ne, etc.,” Caes. B. G. 1, 46, 2; 2, 32, 2; 3, 89, 4: “letoque det imperat Argum,” Ov. M. 1, 670; 13, 659. — (ε) With simple dat.: “si huic imperabo, probe tectum habebo,” Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 14 (cf. above α): “aliquid alicui,” Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 46; Cic. Rosc. Am. 21, 59. — (ζ) Absol.: Pa. Jubesne? Ch. Jubeo, cogo atque impero, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 97: “si quid opus est, impera,” Plaut. Am. 3, 3, 1: “impera, si quid vis,” id. Aul. 2, 1, 23: “omnia faciam: impera,” Ter. Heaut. 5, 5, 11: “quidvis oneris impone, impera,” id. And. 5, 3, 26.

II. In partic.

A. In publicists' lang., to order to be furnished or supplied, to give orders for, make a requisition for: “cum frumentum sibi in cellam imperavisset (Verrem),” Cic. Div. in Caecil. 10, 30: “quem (numerum frumenti) ei civitati imperas emendum,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 74, § 173: “negas fratrem meum pecuniam ullam in remiges imperasse,” id. Fl. 14, 33: “pecuniam,” id. ib. § 32; cf.: “argenti pondo ducenta milia Jugurthae,” Sall. J. 62, 5: “arma,” Caes. B. C. 1, 6 fin.: “equites civitatibus,” id. B. G. 6, 4 fin.; cf.: “quam maximum militum numerum provinciae toti,” id. ib. 1, 7, 2: “obsides reliquis civitatibus,” id. ib. 7, 64, 1; so, obsides Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 12, 35; Suet. Caes. 25. —

B. In publicists' and milit. lang., alicui or absol., to command, govern, rule over: “his (magistratibus) praescribendus est imperandi modus ... qui modeste paret, videtur, qui aliquando imperet, dignus esse,” Cic. Leg. 3, 2, 5; cf.: “sic noster populus in pace et domi imperat,” id. Rep. 1, 40: “nulla est tam stulta civitas, quae non injuste imperare malit, quam servire juste,” id. ib. 3, 18; cf. “also: cum is, qui imperat aliis, servit ipse nulli cupiditati,” id. ib. 1, 34: “omnibus gentibus ac nationibus terra marique imperare,” id. de Imp. Pomp. 19, 56; cf.: “jus esse belli, ut, qui vicissent, iis, quos vicissent, quemadmodum vellent imperarent,” Caes. B. G. 1, 36, 1: “Jugurtha omni Numidiae imperare parat,” Sall. J. 13, 2: “quot nationibus imperabat,” Quint. 11, 2, 50: “clarus Anchisae Venerisque sanguis Imperet,” Hor. Carm. Sec. 51; cf. id. C. 3, 6, 5: “recusabat imperare,” i. e. to be emperor, Plin. Pan. 5, 5; cf.: “ipsum quandoque imperaturum,” Suet. Claud. 3; id. Galb. 4; id. Oth. 4; id. Vit. 14; id. Tit. 2 et saep.— Hence,

b. Ad imperandum, to receive orders or instructions: “nunc ades ad imperandum, vel ad parendum potius: sic enim antiqui loquebantur,” Cic. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.: “cum ipse ad imperandum Tisidium vocaretur,” Sall. J. 62, 8 Kritz.—

2. Transf., beyond the publicist's sphere, to command, master, govern, rule, control: “liberis,” Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 51: “imperare sibi, maximum imperium est,” Sen. Ep. 113 fin.: “ut nobismet ipsis imperemus,” Cic. Tusc. 2, 21, 47: “cum homines cupiditatibus iis, quibus ceteri serviunt, imperabunt,” id. Lael. 22, 82: “accensae irae,” Ov. M. 9, 28: “dolori,” Plin. Ep. 8, 19, 2: “lacrimis,” Sil. 2, 652: “amori suo,” Petr. 83: “ingenio suo,” Sen. Contr. 1 praef. med.; cf.: “imperare animo nequivi, quin, priusquam perirem, cur periturus essem, scirem,” Liv. 34, 31, 2: quibus egestas imperat, rules, governs, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 58, 132 (Trag. v. 357 Vahl.): imperat arvis, holds control over, i. e. forces to be productive, Verg. G. 1, 99; cf.: “sola terrae seges imperatur,” Tac. G. 26: “fertilibus agris non est imperandum,” Sen. Tranq. 15: “sic imperant vitibus et eas multis palmitibus onerant,” Col. 3, 3, 6: “alius patrimonio suo plus imperavit quam ferre possit,” Sen. Tranq. 4; cf. “also trop.: tamquam nescias, cui imperem: Epicurum,” id. Ep. 29 fin.: “dum per continuos dies nimis imperat voci, rursus sanguinem reddidit,” Plin. Ep. 5, 19, 6: imperat ergo viro (mulier), Juv. 6, 224.— Absol.: “animum rege, qui, nisi paret, Imperat,” Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 63: “permittat, an vetet an imperet (lex),” Quint. 7, 7, 7: “(eloquentia) hic regnat, hic imperat, hic sola vincit,” id. 7, 4, 24.—

C. In publicists' lang., to order the citizens to assemble, to summon: “dein consul eloquitur ad exercitum: Impero qua convenit ad comitia centuriata,” Varr. L. L. 6, § 88 Müll.; Gell. 15, 27, 4; “so comically,” Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 52; cf. id. Cist. 1, 1, 60.—

D. In medic. lang., to order, prescribe: non idem imperassem omnibus per diversa aegrotantibus, Sen. de Ira, 1, 16; Plin. 24, 1, 1, § 5: “si vires patiuntur, imperanda tridui abstinentia est,” Cels. 7, 20.—

E. In gram.: “imperandi declinatus,” i. e. inflections of the imperative, Varr. L. L. 10, § 32 Müll.— Hence, impĕ-rātum , i, n., that which is commanded, a command, order: “jussus arma abicere, imperatum facit,” executes the order, obeys, Caes. B. G. 5, 37, 1; freq. in plur.: “imperata facere,” id. ib. 2, 3, 3; 5, 20 fin.; 6, 10, 3; id. B. C. 1, 60, 1; 2, 12, 4; 3, 34, 2 al.; cf.: “imperata detrectare,” Suet. Caes. 54: “Senones ad imperatum non venire,” according to orders, as ordered, Caes. B. G. 6, 2, 3.

159 impĕrātīvus (inp- ), a, um, adj. impero,

I. of or proceeding from a command, commanded: “feriae,” extraordinary, commanded by a magistrate, Macr. S. 1, 16, § 5 sq.: “modus,” the imperative, Mart. Cap. 3, § 313, and in the grammarians saep.— Adv.: impĕrātīvē , imperatively, Ulp. Reg. tit. 24, 1.

160 infīnītīvus , a, um, adj. id.,

I. unlimited, indefinite: modus, or absol.: infī-nītīvus , i, m.; “in gram.,” the infinitive, Mart. Cap. 3, § 310 sqq.; Isid. Orig. 1, 8; Diom. p. 331 P. al.

161 in-fīnītus , a, um, adj.,

I. not enclosed within boundaries, boundless, unlimited.

I. Lit.: “quod finitum est habet extremum ... nihil igitur cum habeat extremum, infinitum sit necesse est,” Cic. Div. 2, 50, 103: “aër, materia,” id. Ac. 2, 37, 118: “imperium,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 91: potestas, id: Agr. 2, 13, 33; Liv. 3, 9: magnitudines infinitissimae, Boëth. Inst. Arithm. 1, 4. — Subst.: infī-nītum , i, n., boundless space, the infinite: “ex infinito coorta,” Lucr. 5, 367.—

II. Transf.

A. Without end, endless, infinite: “altitudo,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 48: “spes,” id. Deiot. 5, 13: “odium,” id. Balb. 27, 62: “labor,” id. de Or. 1, 1: “licentia,” Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 94, § 220: “imperium,” id. ib. 2, 3, 91, § “213: potestas,” id. Agr. 2, 13, 33: “occupationes,” Nep. Att. 20, 2: “pretium,” immoderate, Dig. 35, 2, 61: “sin cuipiam nimis infinitum videtur,” too prolix, Cic. de Or. 1, 15, 65. — Subst.: infīnītum , i, n., an infinitude, an endless amount or number: “infinitum auri,” Eutr. 9, 9: ad or in infinitum, to infinity, without end: “haec (ars statuaria) ad infinitum effloruit,” Plin. 34, 7, 16, § 35: “crescere,” id. 34, 2, 3, § 5: “durescere,” id. 13, 9, 18, § 62: “sectio in infinitum,” Quint. 1, 10 fin.: “ne in infinitum abeamus,” Plin. 17, 25, 38, § 243: “infinitum quantum,” beyond all measure, exceedingly, extraordinarily, Plin. 18, 28, 68, n. 3, § “277: infinito plus or magis,” infinitely more, far more, Quint. 3, 4, 25; 11, 3, 172.—

B. Innumerable, countless: “multitudo librorum,” Cic. Tusc. 2, 2, 6: “multitudo,” id. Off. 1, 16, 52: “causarum varietas,” id. de Or. 1, 5, 16; Caes. B. G. 5, 12, 3: “legum infinita multitudo,” Tac. A. 3, 25: “numerus annorum,” Gell. 14, 1, 18: “pietatis exempla,” Plin. 7, 36, 36, § 121: pecunia ex infinitis rapinis, Auct. B. Alex. 64, 4; Spart. Hadr. 20, 5; Eutr. 1, 3; 3, 20 al.—

C. Indefinite.

1. In gen.: infinitior distributio, where no person or time is mentioned or implied, Cic. Top. 8: “quaestio,” id. Part. Or. 18: “res,” id. de Or. 1, 31: “conexa,” indefinite conclusions, id. Fat. 8.—Adv.: “in infinito,” to infinity, everywhere, at pleasure, Dig. 8, 2, 24; 8, 1, 9.—

2. In gram.: “verbum,” i. e. the infinitive, Quint. 9, 3, 9; also absol., id. 1, 6, 7 and 8: “articulus,” an indefinite pronoun, Varr. L. L. 8, § 45; 50 Müll.: vocabula, appellative nouns (as vir, mulier), ib. § 80.— Adv.

A. infīnītē .

1. Without bounds, without end, infinitely: “ne infinite feratur ut flumen oratio,” Cic. Or. 68, 228: “concupiscere,” excessively, id. Par. 6, 3: “dividere,” id. Ac. 1, 7: “perorare,” without cessation, constantly, id. Or. 36 fin.—

2. Indefinitely, in general: “referre de re publica,” Gell. 14, 7, 9.—

B. in-fīnītō (rare ), immensely, vastly: “magis delectare,” Quint. 11. 3, 4: “magis flexa sunt,” id. 8, 4, 25: “plus cogitare,” id. ib.: “infinito praestare,” Plin. 25, 8, 53, § 94.

162 per-pĕtŭus , a, um, adj.

I. comp. perpetuior, Cato ap. Prisc. p. 601 P.; sup. perpetuissimus, id. ib.) [peto], continuing throughout, continuous, unbroken, uninterrupted; constant, universal, general, entire, whole, perpetual (syn.: “continuus, assiduus): sulcos perpetuos ducere,” Cato, R. R. 33: “quin aedes totae perpetuae ruant,” Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 67: “agmen,” Cic. Pis. 22, 51: “munitiones,” Caes. B. C. 3, 44: “palus,” id. B. G. 7, 26: “milites disposuit perpetuis vigiliisque stationibusque,” id. B. C. 1, 21: “perpetuis soliti patres considere mensis,” Verg. A. 7, 176: “vescitur Aeneas ... perpetui tergo bovis,” id. ib. 8, 182: “Apenninus perpetuis jugis ab Alpibus tendens ad Siculum fretum,” Plin. 3, 5, 7, § 48: “tractus,” id. 6, 20, 23, § 73: “oratio perpetua (opp. altercatio),” Cic. Att. 1, 16, 8; cf. Liv. 4, 6: “disputatio,” Cic. de Or. 2, 4, 16; id. Top. 26, 97: “quaestiones perpetuae hoc adulescente constitutae sunt,” a standing commission, a permanent tribunal for criminal investigation, id. Brut. 27, 105: perpetua historia, a continuous or general history, id. Fam. 5, 12, 2: “colere te usque perpetuom diem,” Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 78: “diem perpetuum in laetitiā degere,” this whole day, Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 5: “triduum,” id. ib. 4, 1, 4: “biennium,” id. Hec. 1, 2, 12: “ignis Vestae perpetuus ac sempiternus,” Cic. Cat. 4, 9, 18: “lex perpetua et aeterna,” id. N. D. 1, 15, 40: “stellarum perennes cursus atque perpetui,” id. ib. 2, 21, 55. stabilis et perpetua permansio, id. Inv. 2, 54, 164: “voluntas mea perpetua et constans in rem publicam,” id. Phil. 13, 6, 13: “formido,” Verg. E. 4, 14: “assidua et perpetua cura,” Cic. Fam. 6, 13, 2: “perpetui scrinia Sili,” of the immortal Silius, Mart. 6, 64, 10.—As subst.: perpĕtŭum , i, n., the abiding, permanent (opp. temporale), Lact. 2, 8, 68.—Hence: in perpetuum (sc. tempus), for all time, forever, in perpetuity, constantly: mulier repperit odium ocius Suā inmunditiā, quam in perpetuom ut placeat munditia sua. Plaut. Stich. 5, 5, 6: “serva tibi in perpetuom amicum me,” id. Capt. 2, 3, 81: “in perpetuum comprimi,” Cic. Cat. 1, 12, 30; id. Agr. 2, 21, 55: “obtinere aliquid in perpetuum,” id. Rosc. Am. 48, 139: “non in perpetuum irascetur,” Vulg. Psa. 102, 9 et saep.—So, in perpetuum modum = perpetuo, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 5.—

II. In partic.

A. That holds constantly and universally, universal, general: “perpetui juris et universi generis quaestio,” Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 141: “nec arbitror perpetuum quicquam in hoc praecipi posse,” Plin. 17, 2, 2, § 19: “ne id quidem perpetuum est,” does not always hold good, Cels. 2, 10: illud in quo quasi certamen est controversiae ... id ita dici placet, ut traducatur ad perpetuam quaestionem, to a general principle, Cic. Or. 36, 126.—

B. In augury: perpetua fulmina, perpetual lighlnings, i. e. whose prognostics refer to one's whole life, Sen. Q. N. 2, 47, 1.—

C. In gram.: “perpetuus modus,” the infinitive mood, Diom. p. 331 P. —Hence, adv., in three forms, perpetuo (class.), perpetuum (poet.), and perpetue (late Lat.).

1. perpĕtŭō , constantly, uninterruptedly, perpetually, always, forever, utterly, hopelessly: “perpetuon' valuisti?” Plaut. Ep. 1, 1, 15: “metuo ne technae meae perpetuo perierint,” id. Most. 3, 1, 23: “dico ut perpetuo pereas,” id. Pers. 2, 4, 10; so, “perpetuo perire,” Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 13: “opinionem retinere,” Cic. Agr. 3, 1, 2: “loquens,” id. Ac. 2, 19, 63: “sub imperio esse,” Caes. B. G. 1, 31; Ov. M. 10, 97.—

2. perpĕtŭum , constantly, uninterruptedly, perpetually: “uti,” Stat. S. 1, 1, 99.—

3. perpĕtŭē , constantly, Cassiod. in Psa. 62, 4.

163 constructĭo , ōnis, f. construo,

I. a putting or placing together, a joining together (in good prose; most freq. in Cic.; not in Quint.).

I. Lit. (rare): “lapidum,” Sen. Cons. Polyb. 18 (37), 2.—

II. Transf., an erecting, building, construction: “hominis,” Cic. Ac. 2, 27, 86: ejus (gymnasii), Traj. ap. Plin. Ep. 10, 40 (49), 2.—In plur., Pall. Nov. 22, 1. —

III. Trop.

A. Of discourse, a fit connection: “verborum constructio et numerus,” Cic. Or. 12, 37: “oratio conformanda non solum electione, sed constructione verborum,” id. de Or. 1, 5, 17; id. Brut. 78, 272; and absol.: “nolo tam minuta haec constructio appareat,” id. Or. 44, 150; Plin. Ep. 1, 16, 2.—

B. In gram., grammatical connection, construction ( = conformatio verborum, Cic. de Or. 1, 33, 151), Prisc. p. 1061 sq. P. et saep.

164 dispŏsĭtĭo , ōnis, f. dispono.

I. A regular disposition, arrangement, in oratory, Cic. Inv. 1, 7, 9; id. de Or. 2, 42, 179; Auct. Her. 1, 2, 3; 3, 10, 18; Quint. 3, 3, 1 sq. et saep.; “in arch.,” Vitr. 1, 2; “in painting,” Plin. 35, 10, 36, § 80; “in milit.,” Veg. A. M. 3, 26; Amm. 24, 6.—

II. In post-class. lang., management, ordering, direction, Capitol. Maxim. 9; Sid. Ep. 3, 6 fin.: ultima, testamentary disposition, Cod. 6, 23, 28 prooem.

165 structūra , ae, f. struo,

I. a fitting together, adaptation, adjustment.

I. Lit.

A. In gen. (post-Aug. and very rare): “ossa in manu oblonga omnia et triangula, structurā quādam inter se conectuntur,” Cels. 8, 1 med.: “membranarum,” Plin. 13, 19, 34, § 112: “togae,” Macr. S. 2, 9.—

B. In partic., an architectural fitting together, a building or erecting.

1. In abstr. (class.): parietum, the mode of building, construction, * Caes. B. C. 2, 9; cf.: “structurae antiquae genus,” Liv. 21, 11; and: “reticulata structura,” Plin. 36, 22, 51, § 172: “(silex) globosus sed structurae infidelis,” for building, id. 36, 22, 49, § 169: “in structurā saxorum rudium,” Quint. 9, 4, 27.—Plur.: “in structuris lapidum impolitorum,” Quint. 8, 6, 63.—

2. In concr., a building, erection, edifice, structure, Front. Aquaed. 123; Vitr. 5, 12: “subterraneae,” Plin. 36, 22, 50, § 170: “aerariae structurae,” i. e. mining works, mines, Caes. B. G. 3, 21 fin. (al. structuraeque).—

II. Trop., of language, an arrangement, order, structure (in Cic. only as a figure of speech, with quasi or quaedam; “later in gen.): verborum quasi structura,” Cic. Brut. 8, 33: “quasi structura quaedam,” id. Or. 44, 149: “et verborum est structura quaedam,” id. Opt. Gen. 2, 5: “proprietates verborum exigit, et structuram et argumentationes,” Sen. Ep. 89, 9: “mei carminis,” Ov. P. 4, 13, 4; Quint. 1, 10, 23; 8, 5, 27; 8, 6, 67; 9, 4, 45; Tac. Or. 22 fin.

166 ōrātĭo , ōnis, f. oro,

I. a speaking, speech, discourse, language

I. In gen., the connection of words to express thought: “non est autem in verbo modus hic, sed in oratione, id est, in continuatione verborum,” Cic. 3, 42, 167.

1. Speech, the power or faculty of speech, the habit or use of language: “quae (ferae) sunt rationis et orationis expertes,” Cic. Off. 1, 16, 50: “natura vi rationis hominem conciliat homini et ad orationis et ad vitae societatem,” id. ib. 1, 4, 12.—

2. Speech, language, utterance; opp. to fact, action, etc.: “lenitudo orationis, mollitudo corporis,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 16, 46: “idque videns Epicurus re tollit, oratione relinquit deos,” id. N. D. 1, 44, 123: “qui sunt leves locutores ... eorum orationem bene existimatum est in ore nasci, non in pectore,” Gell. 1, 15, 1: “nam quid te igitur rettulit beneficum esse oratione, si ad rem auxilium emortuum est,” Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 19: “ut in vitā, sic in oratione, nihil est difficilius quam quid deceat videre,” Cic. Or. 21, 70: qualis homo ipse esset, talem ejus esse orationem; “orationi autem facta similia, factis vitam,” id. Tusc. 5, 16, 47: “partes igitur orationis secundum dialecticos duae, nomen et verbum,” parts of speech, Prisc. 2, 4, 15.—

3. Hence, a mode of speaking; a kind, manner, style of speech; language: “quin tu istanc orationem hinc veterem atque antiquam amoves. Nam proletario sermone nunc utere,” Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 155: nam opulenti cum loquuntur pariter atque ignobiles, eadem dicta eademque oratio aequa non aeque valet, Enn. ap. Gell. 11, 4, 3: quam tibi ex ore orationem duriter dictis dedit, id. ap. Non. p. 512, 8: “aliam nunc mihi orationem despoliato praedicas,” Plaut. As. 1, 3, 52: Creta est profecto horum hominum oratio, quam orationem hanc aures dulce devorant, id. Poen. 5, 2, 9: “(Andria et Perinthia) non ita sunt dissimili argumento, sed tamen Dissimili oratione,” Ter. And. prol. 11.—Esp. (in gram.): oratio obliqua, indirect speech, the use of dependent clauses in citing the language of others: “quam (orationem) obliquam Pompeius Trogus exposuit (opp. to conciones directae),” Just. 38, 3, 11.—Hence,

4. Mode of speech, language, use of language, style: “mollis est enim oratio philosophorum,” Cic. Or. 19, 64: “(fabulae) tenui oratione et scripturā levi,” Ter. Phorm. prol. 5: “ut Stoicorum est astrictior oratio aliquantoque contractior, quam aures populi requirunt, sic illorum (Peripateticorum) liberior et latior, quam patitur consuetudo judiciorum et fori,” Cic. Brut. 31, 120: “orationem Latinam efficies profecto legendis nostris pleniorem,” id. Off. 1, 1, 2; cf. id. ib. 1, 1, 1.—

5. Esp., the language of any people or nation: “Timaeus in historiis quas oratione Graecā composuit,” Gell. 11, 1, 1: “semper cum Graecis Latina (exempla) conjunxi ... ut par sis in utriusque orationis facultate,” Cic. Off. 1, 1, 1.—

II. In partic., formal language, artificial discourse, set speech (opp. to sermo, ordinary speech, conversational language): “mollis est oratio philosophorum et umbratilis, nec verbis instructa popularibus nec vincta numeris, sed soluta liberius: itaque sermo potiusquam oratio dicitur. Quamquam enim omnis locutio oratio est, tamen unius oratoris locutio hoc proprio dignata nomine est,” Cic. Or. 19, 64; cf.: “et quoniam magna vis orationis est eaque duplex, altera contentionis, altera sermonis, contentio disceptationibus tribuatur judiciorum, contionum, senatus, sermo in circulis, disputationibus, congressionibus familiarium versetur, sequatur etiam convivia,” id. Off. 1, 37, 132.—Hence,

B. A set speech, harangue, discourse, oration: “(oratio) ut gravis, ut suavis, ut erudita sit, ut liberalis, ut polita, ut sensus, ut doloris habeat quantum opus sit, non est singulorum articulorum: in toto spectantur haec corpore, etc.,” Cic. de Or. 3, 25, 96; cf. “the context: illam orationem disertam sibi et oratoriam videri, fortem et virilem non videri,” id. ib. 1, 54, 231: “hanc habere orationem mecum principio institit,” Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 21: “pleraeque scribuntur orationes habitae jam, non ut habeantur,” Cic. Brut. 24, 91: “non est haec oratio habenda apud imperitam multitudinem,” id. Mur. 29, 61: “ignarus faciundae ac poliendae orationis,” id. de Or. 1, 14, 63: “in orationibus hisce ipsis judiciorum, contionum, senatus,” id. ib. 1, 16, 73: “quanta illa, di immortales, fuit gravitas, quanta in oratione majestas! sed adfuistis, et est in manibus oratio,” id. Lael. 25, 96: “qui orationem adversus rem publicam habuissent, eorum bona in publicum adducebat,” Caes. B. C. 2, 18, 5: “ab adulescentiā confecit orationes,” Nep. Cat. 3, 3: “Catonis aliae acerbae orationes extant, etc.,” Liv. 39, 42, 6: “oratio plebi acceptior,” id. 3, 69: “accurata et polita,” Cic. Brut. 95, 326: “longa,” Liv. 34, 5: “acris et vehemens,” Quint. 5, 13, 25: “admirabilis,” Cic. de Or. 3, 25, 94: “angusta et concisa, opp. collata et diffusa,” id. Or. 56, 187: “aspera, tristis, horrida, neque perfecta neque conclusa, opp. laevis et structa et terminata,” id. ib. 5, 20: “circumcisa et brevis,” Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 4: “rotunda et undique circumcisa,” Quint. 8, 5, 27: “cohaerens,” Cic. de Or. 3, 44, 173: “concinna,” id. ib. 3, 25, 98: “stabilis, opp. volubilis,” id. Or. 56, 187.—

III. Transf.

A. The power of oratory, eloquence: “tantam vim habet illa, quae recte a bono poëtā dicta est, flexamina atque omnium regina rerum oratio, ut non modo inclinantem excipere aut stantem inclinare, sed etiam adversantem ac repugnantem ut imperator fortis ac bonus capere possit,” Cic. de Or. 2, 44, 187: “satis in eo fuisse orationis atque ingenii,” id. Brut. 45, 165: “non enim verendum est ne te in tam bonā causā deficiat oratio,” Lact. 2, 3.—

B. Prose (opp. to poetry): “et in poëmatis et in oratione,” Cic. Or. 21, 70.—

C. (In gram.) A sentence, a clause expressing a complete sense: “oratio est ordinatio dictionum congrua sententiam perfectam demonstrans,” Prisc. 2, 4, 15: “oratio dicitur liber rhetoricus, necnon unaquaeque dictio hoc saepe nomine nuncupatur cum plenam ostendit sententiam,” id. ib.: defectio litterae, et syllabae, et dictionis, et orationis, id. 17, 1, 5.—

D. (Under the empire.) An imperial message, rescript: “orationes ad senatum missae,” Suet. Ner. 15: “oratio principis per quaestorem ejus audita est,” Tac. A. 16, 27: “orationesque in senatu recitaret etiam quaestoris vice,” Suet. Tit. 6; cf. id. Aug. 65.—

E. A prayer, an address to the Deity (eccl. Lat.): “respice ad orationem servi tui,” Vulg. 3 Reg. 8, 28: “per orationes Dominum rogantes,” id. 2 Macc. 10, 16: “pernoctans in oratione Dei,” id. Luc. 6, 12.—Also absol., prayer, the habit or practice of prayer: “perseverantes in oratione,” Vulg. Act. 1, 14: “orationi instate,” id. Col. 4, 2; cf. Gell. 13, 22, 1.

167 sensus , ūs, m. sentio,

I. the faculty or power of perceiving, perception, feeling, sensation, sense, etc.

I. Corporeal, perception, feeling, sensation: “omne animal sensus habet: sentit igitur et calida et frigida et dulcia et amara, nec potest ullo sensu jucunda accipere et non accipere contraria: si igitur voluptatis sensum capit, doloris etiam capit. etc.,” Cic. N. D. 3, 13, 32: “moriendi sensum celeritas abstulit,” id. Lael. 3, 12: “si quis est sensus in morte,” id. Phil. 9, 6, 13: “(Niobe) posuit sensum saxea facta mali,” Ov. P. 1, 2, 32: “sensum voluptatemque percipere,” Plin. Ep. 1, 10, 12. —

B. A sense, capacity for feeling: “ut idem interitus sit animorum et corporum nec ullus sensus maneat, etc.,” Cic. Lael. 4, 14: “tactus corporis est sensus,” Lucr. 2, 435: “oculorum,” id. 3, 361; so, “oculorum, aurium,” Cic. Tusc. 5, 38, 111; id. Fin. 2, 16, 52; id. Div. 2, 52, 107; cf. “videndi,” id. de Or. 2, 87, 357: “audiendi,” id. Rep. 6, 18, 19: “quod neque oculis neque auribus neque ullo sensu percipi potest,” id. Or. 2, 8: “quamquam oriretur (tertia philosophiae pars) a sensibus, tamen non esse judicium veritatis in sensibus,” id. Ac. 1, 8, 30: “res subjectae sensibus,” id. ib. 1, 8, 31: “gustatus, qui est sensus ex omnibus maxime voluptarius,” id. de Or. 3, 25, 99: “sensus autem interpretes ac nuntii rerum in capite et facti et conlocati sunt,” id. N. D. 2, 56, 140: “omne animal sensus habet,” id. ib. 3, 13, 32: “carent conchae visu, omnique sensu alio quam cibi et periculi,” Plin. 9, 30, 48, § 90: “ab eā parte opus orsus, ut a sensu ejus, averteret,” Curt. 4, 6, 9.—

II. Mental, feeling, sentiment, emotion, affection; sense, understanding, capacity; humor, inclination, disposition, frame of mind, etc.: “ipse in commovendis judicibus eis ipsis sensibus, ad quos illos adducere vellem, permoverer,” Cic. de Or. 2, 45, 189: “an vos quoque hic innocentium cruciatus pari sensu doloris adficit?” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 46, § 123: “vestri sensus ignarus,” id. Mil. 27, 72: “humanitatis,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47; id. Rosc. Am. 53, 154: “applicatio animi cum quodam sensu amandi ... ut facile earum (bestiarum) sensus appareat ... sensus amoris exsistit, etc.,” id. Lael. 8, 27; cf.: “ipsi intellegamus naturā gigni sensum diligendi,” id. ib. 9, 32: “meus me sensus, quanta vis fraterni sit amoris, admonet,” id. Fam. 5, 2, 10: “utere argumento ipse sensus tui,” id. Rep. 1, 38, 59: “nihil est tam molle, tam aut fragile aut flexibile quam voluntas erga nos sensusque civium,” id. Mil. 16, 42: “quae mihi indigna et intolerabilia videntur, ea pro me ipso et animi mei sensu ac dolore pronuntio,” id. Rosc. Am. 44, 129.—

2. Opinion, thought, sense, view: “animi,” Cic. de Or. 2, 35, 148: “valde mihi placebat sensus ejus de re publicā,” id. Att. 15, 7: “(orator) ita peragrat per animos hominum, ita sensus mentesque pertractat, ut, etc.,” id. de Or. 1, 51, 222 sq.: “qui est iste tuus sensus, quae cogitatio? Brutos ut non probes, Antonios probes?” id. Phil. 10, 2, 4: “dissidenti sensus suos aperire,” Nep. Dion, 8, 2: “sensus reconditi,” Plin. Ep. 2, 3, 2.—

3. Esp., the common feelings of humanity, the moral sense, taste, discretion, tact in intercourse with men, often called in full sensus communis (sometimes with hominum), and often in other phrases of similar force: “ut in ceteris (artium studiis) id maxime excellat, quod longissime sit ab imperitorum intellegentiā sensuque disjunctum, in dicendo autem vitium vel maximum sit a volgari genere orationis atque a consuetudine communis sensus abhorrere,” Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 12: “quae versantur in sensu hominum communi,” id. ib. 2, 16, 68; id. Planc. 13, 31: “communis ille sensus in aliis fortasse latuit,” id. ib. 14, 34; Hor. S. 1, 3, 66: “sit in beneficio sensus communis,” Sen. Ben. 1, 12, 3; id. Ep. 5, 4; 105, 3; Quint. 1, 2, 20: “rarus sensus communis in illā fortunā,” Juv. 8, 73. —Plur., Cic. Clu. 6, 17: “ea sunt in communibus infixa sensibus,” id. de Or. 3, 50, 195; so, “vulgaris popularisque sensus,” id. ib. 1, 23, 108: “haec oratio longe a nostris sensibus abhorrebat,” id. ib. 1, 18, 83; cf.: “mirari solebam istum in his ipsis rebus aliquem sensum habere, quem scirem nullā in re quicquam simile hominis habere,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 33.—

B. Transf. (in the poets, and also in prose after the Aug. per.), of the thinking faculty, sense, understanding, mind, reason (syn.: mens, ratio).

1. In gen. (rare): “misero quod omnes Eripit sensus mihi,” Cat. 51, 6; cf.: “tibi sensibus ereptis mens excidit,” id. 66, 25; Ov. M. 3, 631; 14, 178: “(quibus fortuna) sensum communem abstulit,” common sense, Phaedr. 1, 7, 4 (in another signif., v. supra, II. A. fin., and infra, 2. fin.): “eam personam, quae furore detenta est, quia sensum non habet, etc.,” Dig. 24, 3, 22, § 7: “nec potest animal injuriam fecisse, quod sensu caret,” ib. 9, 1, 1, § 3.—

2. In partic., of discourse.

a. Abstr., sense, idea, notion, meaning, signification (syn.: sententia, notio, significatio, vis; poet. and post-Aug.; freq. in Quint.): nec testamenti potuit sensus colligi, Phaedr. 4, 5, 19: “verba, quibus voces sensusque notarent,” Hor. S. 1, 3, 103: “is verbi sensus,” Ov. F. 5, 484: “quae verbis aperta occultos sensus habent,” Quint. 8, 2, 20: “ambiguitas, quae turbare potest sensum,” id. 8, 2, 16: “verba duos sensus significantia,” id. 6, 3, 48: ἀλληγορία aliud verbis, aliud sensu ostendit, id. 8, 6, 44: “Pomponium sensibus celebrem, verbis rudem,” Vell. 2, 9, 5: “horum versuum sensus atque ordo sic, opinor, est,” Gell. 7, 2, 10: “egregie dicta circa eumdem sensum tria,” Sen. Ep. 7, 10.—Introducing a quotation: “erat autem litterarum sensus hujusmodi,” Amm. 20, 8, 4.—With gen. person: “salvo modo poëtae sensu,” the meaning, Quint. 1, 9, 2.—

b. Concr., a thought expressed in words, a sentence, period (postAug.): “sensus omnis habet suum finem, poscitque naturale intervallum, quo a sequentis initio dividatur,” Quint. 9, 4, 61; 7, 10, 16; cf. id. 11, 2, 20: “puer ut sciat, ubi claudatur sensus,” id. 1, 8, 1: “ridendi, qui velut leges prooemiis omnibus dederunt, ut intra quattuor sensus terminarentur,” id. 4, 1, 62: “verbo sensum cludere multo optimum est,” id. 9, 4, 26 et saep.—Hence, communes sensus (corresp. with loci), commonplaces, Tac. Or. 31.

168 sententĭa , ae, f. for sentientia, from sentio,

I. a way of thinking, opinion, judgment, sentiment; a purpose, determination, decision, will, etc.

I. Lit. (cf.: opinio, voluntas, studium).

A. In gen.: “quoniam sententiae atque opinionis meae voluistis esse participes, nihil occultabo et quoad potero, vobis exponam, quid de quāque re sentiam,” Cic. de Or. 1, 37, 172: “sententia et opinio mea,” id. ib. 2, 34, 146: “senis sententia de nuptiis,” Ter. And. 1, 3, 2: “de aliquā re,” id. Ad. 3, 5, 5; id. Phorm. 2, 4, 4; cf.: “de diis immortalibus habere non errantem et vagam, sed stabilem certamque sententiam,” Cic. N. D. 2, 1, 2: “de hac sententiā Non demovebor,” Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 45; cf. Cic. Verr. 1, 17, 52: “de sententiā deducere, deicere, depellere, deterrere, decedere, desistere, etc., v. h. vv.: nisi quid tua secus sententia est,” Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 95; cf.: “mihi sententia eadem est,” id. Trin. 2, 4, 44: “adhuc in hac sum sententiā, nihil ut faciamus nisi, etc.,” Cic. Fam. 4, 4, 5: “eā omnes stant sententiā,” Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 35; cf.: “perstat in sententiā Saturius,” Cic. Rosc. Com. 18, 56; so, “in sententiā manere, permanere, etc., v. h. vv.: non prima sed melior vicit sententia,” Plin. Pan. 76, 2.—Plur.: “variis dictis sententiis, quarum pars censebant, etc.,” Caes. B. G. 7, 77: “erant sententiae, quae censerent,” id. B. C. 2, 30: “sententiae numerantur, non ponderantur,” Plin. Ep. 2, 12, 5: “nos quibus Cotta tantum modo locos ac sententias hujus disputationis tradidisset,” the leading thoughts, Cic. de Or. 3, 4, 16.—Prov.: “quot homines, tot sententiae,” many men, many minds, Ter. Phorm. 2, 4, 14; Cic. Fin. 1, 5, 15. —

2. In the phrases,

(a). Sententia est, with subj.-clause, it is my purpose, will, opinion, etc., Auct. Her. 3, 24, 40: “si honestatem tueri ac retinere sententia est,” if one's purpose be, if one be determined, Cic. Off. 3, 33, 116; and: stat sententia, with obj.clause, Ov. M. 8, 67; cf.“, parenthetically: sic stat sententia,” id. ib. 1, 243.—

(b). De sententiā alicujus aliquid facere, Cic. Cael. 29, 68: “neque ego haud committam, ut si quid peccatum siet, Fecisse dicas de meā sententiā,” according to my wish, to suit me, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 115: “gerere,” Cic. Sull. 19 fin.; cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 21, § 53; id. Att. 16, 16, C, § 11; 7, 5 fin.; Liv. 38, 45, 5 et saep.—

(g). Meā quidem sententiā, in my opinion or judgment, as I think: “nimis stulte faciunt, meā quidem sententiā,” Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 5: “meā quidem sententiā,” id. Cas. 3, 3, 1; id. Poen. 5, 6, 1; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 40; 5, 9, 2; id. Phorm. 2, 2, 21; “and simply meā sententiā,” Plaut. Ep. 3, 3, 11; id. Merc. 2, 3, 58; Cic. Rep. 1, 26, 42; 1, 45, 69; id. de Or. 2, 23, 95 al.—

(d). Ex meā (tuā, etc.) sententiā, according to my (thy, etc.) wish: “quoniam haec evenerunt nostrā ex sententiā,” Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 89; id. Cist. 1, 2, 7; id. Men. 2, 2, 1; 5, 7, 30; id. Truc. 5, 72; id. Capt. 2, 3, 87; Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 5; Cic. Fam. 2, 7, 3; 2, 15, 1; and more freq., simply ex sententiā, to one's mind or liking, Plaut. Pers. 1, 1, 18; id. Capt. 2, 2, 97; id. Mil. 4, 1, 1; id. Aul. 4, 1, 3; id. Truc. 5, 69; Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 17; id. Hec. 5, 4, 32; id. Phorm. 2, 1, 26; Cic. de Or. 1, 27, 123; id. Att. 5, 21; id. Fam. 1, 7, 5; 12, 10, 2; Sall. J. 43, 5 et saep. (v. also infra, B. 2.).—(ε) Praeter animi sententiam, against one's inclination: “quam (crapulam) potavi praeter animi mei sententiam,” Plaut. Rud. 2, 7, 29.—

B. In partic., publicists' and jurid. t.t., an official determination, a decision, sentence, judgment, vote (cf. suffragium): “SENATVOS SENTENTIAM VTEI SCIENTES ESETIS, EORVM SENTENTIA ITA FVIT, S. C. de Bacch.: (L. Tarquinius) antiquos patres majorum gentium appellavit, quos priores sententiam rogabat,” Cic. Rep. 2, 20, 35: “non viribus ... res magnae geruntur, sed consilio, auctoritate, sententiā,” id. Sen. 6, 17: “(Marcellinus) sententiam dixit, ut, etc. ... postea Racilius de privatis me primum sententiam rogavit, etc.,” id. Q. Fr. 2, 1, 2: “accurate sententiam dixi ... factum est senatusconsultum in meam sententiam,” id. Att. 4, 1, 6: “DE SENATVOS SENTENTIAD ... DE PR. VRBANI SENATVOSQVE SENTENTIAD, S. C. de Bacch.: ex senatus sententiā,” Cic. Fam. 12, 4, 1: “victos paucis sententiis,” Liv. 22, 61, 8.—Hence, sententiam dare, to vote: “meae partes exquirendae magis sententiae quam dandae sunt,” Liv. 8, 20, 12: “omnes in eam sententiam ierunt,” id. 23, 10, 4: “cum in hanc sententiam pedibus omnes issent,” id. 22, 56, 1: “aliquem sequor, aliquem jubebo sententiam dividere,” to divide the question, Sen. Vit. Beat. 3, 2; cf.: “quod fieri in senatu solet ... cum censuit aliquis quod ex parte mihi placeat, jubeo illum dividere sententiam et sequor,” id. Ep. 21, 9.—Hence, de eventu fortuna judicat, cui de me sententiam non do, I give no vote, Sen. Ep. 14, 16.—Of the people in the comitia: “de singulis magistratibus sententiam ferre,” Cic. Agr. 2, 11, 26: “de quo foedere populus Romanus sententiam non tulit,” id. Balb. 15, 34.—Of the votes of judges: “itur in consilium: servus ille innocens omnibus sententiis absolvitur, quo facilius vos hunc omnibus sententiis condemnare possitis,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 45, § 100; id. Clu. 26, 72: “condemnatur enim perpaucis sententiis,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 30, § 75: M. Cato (judex) sententiam dixit, pronounced the decision or sentence, id. Off. 3, 16, 66: “sententiis paribus reus absolvitur,” Sen. Ep. 81, 26.—

2. Ex animi mei (tui) sententiā, in the formula of an oath, to the best of my (your) knowledge and belief, on my (your) conscience: “(majores) jurare ex sui animi sententiā quemque voluerunt,” Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 146: “quod ex animi tui sententiā juraris, id non facere perjurium est,” id. Off. 3, 29, 108; Liv. 22, 53, 10; 43, 15 fin.—In a play on this signif. and that of ex sententiā, supra: “ridicule illud L. Nasica censori Catoni, cum ille: Ex tui animi sententiā tu uxorem habes? Non hercule, inquit, ex animi mei sententiā,” Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 260; cf. Quint. 8, 5 init.; Gell. 4, 20, 2 sqq.— Transf., as a formula of assurance: “me quidem, ex animi mei sententiā, nulla oratio laedere potest,” by my faith, Sall. J. 85, 27.—

II. Transf., of words, discourse, etc., sense, meaning, signification, idea, notion, etc.: “sonitum ut possis sentire, neque illam Internoscere, verborum sententiam quae sit,” Lucr. 4, 561: “cum verbum potest in duas plurisve sententias accipi,” Auct. Her. 4, 53, 67: “cum continenter verbum non in eādem sententiā ponitur,” Cic. Or. 39, 136: “formantur et verba et sententiae paene innumerabiliter,” id. de Or. 3, 52, 201: “cognitā sententiā verba subtiliter exquiri noluerunt,” id. Caecin. 20, 57: “quod summum bonum a Stoicis dicitur convenienter naturae vivere, id habet hanc, ut opinor, sententiam: cum virtute congruere semper,” id. Off. 3, 3, 13: “haec (philosophia) nos docuit, ut nosmet ipsos nosceremus: cujus praecepti tanta vis, tanta sententia est, ut ea non homini cuipiam, sed Delphico deo tribueretur,” such depth of meaning, id. Leg. 1, 22, 58: “legis (with vis),” id. ib. 2, 5, 11: “de Domitio dixit versum Graecum eādem sententiā, quā etiam nos habemus Latinum: Pereant amici, etc.,” id. Deiot. 9, 25: “est vitium in sententiā, si quid absurdum, aut alienum est,” id. Opt. Gen. 3, 7; cf. id. de Or. 3, 52, 200.—

B. Concr.

1. In gen., a thought expressed in words; a sentence, period: dum de singulis sententiis breviter disputo, Cic. Phil. 13, 10, 22: “est brevitate opus, ut currat sententia, etc.,” Hor. S. 1, 10, 9: “initia et clausulae sententiarum,” Quint. 9, 3, 45; cf. id. 9, 3, 36; 11, 3, 135; 8, 4, 26; 9, 4, 18; 9, 4, 29; 10, 1, 130 al.—

2. In partic., a philosophical proposition, an aphorism, apophthegm, maxim, axiom (cf. praeceptum): selectae (Epicuri) brevesque sententiae, quas appellatis κυρίας δόξας, Cic. N. D. 1, 30, 85: “quid est tam jucundum cognitu atque auditu, quam sapientibus sententiis gravibusque verbis ornata oratio et perpolita,” id. de Or. 1, 8, 31: “acutae,” id. ib. 2, 8, 34: “concinnae acutaeque,” id. Brut. 78, 272; Quint. 8, 5, 2 sq.; 9, 3, 76; 10, 1, 60; “11, 3, 120 al.: (Sophocles) sententiis densus,” id. 10, 1, 68; cf. id. 10, 1, 90; 10, 1, 102: “subiti ictūs sententiarum,” Sen. Ep. 100, 8.

169 sermo , ōnis, m. 2. sero, qs. serta, conserta oratio,

I. a speaking or talking with any one; talk, conversation, discourse: “sermo est a serie: sermo enim non potest in uno homine esse solo, sed ubi oratio cum altero conjuncta,” Varr. L. L. 6, § 64 Müll. (very freq. in prose and poetry).

I. Lit.

A. In gen. (syn. colloquium): quoniam magna vis orationis est eaque duplex, altera contentionis, altera sermonis: contentio disceptationibus tribuatur judiciorum, contionum, senatus: sermo in circulis, disputationibus, congressionibus familiarium versetur; “sequatur etiam convivia, etc.,” Cic. Off. 1, 37, 132: “quod mihi servus sermonem serat,” Plaut. Curc. 1, 3, 37: “sermones serere,” id. Mil. 3, 1, 106: “multa inter sese vario sermone serebant,” Verg. A. 6, 160: “sermonem nobiscum ibi copulat,” Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 42: “dum sermones fabulandi conferant,” id. ib. prol. 34: “caput et pes sermonis,” id. As. 3, 3, 139: “cum ea tu sermonem nec joco nec serio Tibi habeas,” id. Am. 3, 2, 25; Ter. Hec. 4, 3, 1: “ibi illa cum sermonem occipit,” id. Eun. 4, 1, 8: “dum sermones caedimus,” id. Heaut. 2, 3, 1: “sermonem cum aliquo conferre,” Cic. Off. 1, 38, 136; id. Inv. 2, 4, 14: “in nostris sermonibus collocutionibusque,” id. Fam. 1, 9, 4: “mature veniunt, discumbitur: fit sermo inter eos,” Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66: “dum longior consulto ab Ambiorige instituitur sermo,” Caes. B. G. 5, 37: “sermonis aditum cum aliquo habere,” id. ib. 5, 41: “nullum tibi omnino cum Albinovano sermonem ullā de re fuisse,” Cic. Vatin. 1, 3; id. de Or. 2, 73, 296: “erat in ore, in sermone omnium,” id. Phil. 10, 7, 14; cf.: memini in eum sermonem illum incidere, qui tum fere multis erat in ore, id. Lael. 1, 2: “aestivam sermone benigno tendere noctem,” Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 11: “referre sermones deorum,” id. C. 3, 3, 71 (cf.: “consiliantibus divis,” id. ib. 3, 3, 18): “et euntem multa loquendo Detinuit sermone diem,” Ov. M. 1, 683: “nunc inter eos tu sermo es,” you are the talk, Prop. 2, 21 (3, 14), 7: “jucundus est mihi sermo litterarum tuarum,” the conversing with you by letter, Cic. Fam. 7, 32, 3; cf.: “littera sermonis fida ministra mei,” Ov. Tr. 3, 7, 2.—

B. In partic.

1. Literary conversation, discourse, disputation, discussion (cf. oratio): tum Furius: Quid vos agitis? num sermonem vestrum aliquem diremit noster interventus? Minime vero, Africanus; “soles enim tu haec studiose investigare, quae sunt in hoc genere, de quo instituerat paulo ante Tubero quaerere,” Cic. Rep. 1, 11, 17; cf. id. ib. 1, 13, 19: “in sermonem ingredi (just before: in disputationem ingredi),” id. ib. 1, 24, 38: “(Scaevola) exposuit nobis sermonem Laelii de amicitiā habitum ab illo secum ... Ejus disputationis sententias memoriae mandavi, etc.... ut tamquam a praesentibus haberi sermo videretur,” id. Lael. 1, 3: “rebus his, de quibus hic sermo est,” id. Fin. 3, 12, 40: “feci sermonem inter nos habitum in Cumano. Tibi dedi partes Antiochinas, etc.,” id. Fam. 9, 8, 1: “in quo (circulo) de philosophiā sermo haberetur,” Nep. Epam. 3, 3: “Socratici sermones,” Hor. C. 3, 21, 9; cf. Quint. 6, 3, 44; 2, 15, 26: “in longum sermonem me vocas, Attice,” Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 13: “nunc enim sermo de naturā est,” our subject, Plin. 11, 19, 21, § 67; 3, 1, pr. § 2; 16, 32, 58, § 134; Macr. Somn. Scip. 2, 17, 15; Capitol. Gord. 3, 3 init.—

b. Concr., a talk, speech, discourse (more informal and unpretending than oratio): “meos multos et illustres et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,” Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 2; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 2; Quint. 11, 2, 24.—

2. Ordinary speech, speaking, talking, the language of conversation (opp. contentio): “sermo est oratio remissa et finitima cottidianae locutioni,” Auct. Her. 3, 13, 23; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 37, 132: “mollis est oratio philosophorum et umbratilis, etc.... Itaque sermo potius quam oratio dicitur,” id. Or. 19, 64: in argumentis Caecilius poscit palmam, in sermonibus Plautus, i. e. in dialogue, Varr. ap. Non. 374, 9: “soluta oratio, qualis in sermone et epistulis,” Quint. 9, 4, 19: “C. Piso, statarius et sermonis plenus orator,” Cic. Brut. 68, 239: “si quis scribat, uti nos, Sermoni propiora,” Hor. S. 1, 4, 42: “vocem sermoni proximam,” Quint. 11, 3, 162: “ut litigantes quoque a sermone incipiant, ad vociferationem transeant,” Sen. Ep. 15, 6.—Of prose as opposed to poetry: “comoedia ... nisi quod pede certo Differt sermoni sermo merus,” Hor. S. 1, 4, 48: “et tragicus plerumque dolet sermone pedestri Telephus et Peleus, etc.,” id. A. P. 95.—

b. Concr., of verses in a conversational style, a satire: “ille (delectatur) Bioneis sermonibus et sale nigro,” Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 60: “Albi, nostrorum sermonum candide judex,” id. ib. 1, 4, 1: “nec sermones ego mallem Repentes per humum quam res componere gestas,” id. ib. 2, 1, 250.—

3. With reference to some particular object, common talk respecting any thing, report, rumor (syn.: “fama, rumor): vulgi sermo,” Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1: “nunc per urbem solus sermo est omnibus, Eum, etc.,” Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 4: “sermo est totā Asiā dissipatus, Cn. Pompeium, etc.,” Cic. Fl. 6, 14: “mihi venit in mentem multum fore sermonem, me, etc.,” id. Att. 7, 23, 2: “si istiusmodi sermones ad te delati de me sunt, non debuisti credere,” id. Fam. 3, 8, 5 sq.: “in sermonem hominum venire,” Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 7, § 13: “audita et percelebrata sermonibus res est,” id. Cael. 29, 69; cf.: “vix feram sermones hominum, si, etc.,” id. Cat. 1, 9, 23: “vestrae perigrinantur aures, neque in hoc pervagato civitatis sermone versantur,” this talk of the town, id. Mil. 12, 33: “refrigerato jam levissimo sermone hominum,” id. Fam. 3, 8, 1: “sermones inimicorum effugere,” id. Cael. 16, 38: “sermones lacessere, reprimere,” id. Fam. 3, 8, 7: retudit sermones, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 1: “ne putet aliquid oratione meā sermonis in sese aut invidiae esse quaesitum,” of slander, calumny, Cic. Fl. 5, 13: “dabimus sermonem iis, qui, etc.,” give them something to talk about, id. Fam. 9, 3; so, “materiam sermonibus praebere,” Tac. H. 4, 4: cataplus ille Puteolanus, sermo illius temporis, Cic. Rab. Post. 14, 40 B. and K. dub.; v. Orell. N. cr.—

II. Transf., a manner of speaking, mode of expression, language, style, diction, etc. (cf. lingua): “sermone eo debemus uti, qui notus est nobis, ne, ut quidam Graeca verba inculcantes jure optimo rideamur,” Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111: “cujus (Terentii) fabellae propter elegantiam sermonis putabantur a C. Laelio scribi,” id. Att. 7, 3, 10: “et sane quid est aliud vetus sermo quam vetus loquendi consuetudo?” Quint. 1, 6, 43; 12, 2, 3.—

B. A language, the speech of a nation, etc.: “cui (Catulo) non solum nos Latini sermonis, sed etiam Graeci ipsi solent suae linguae subtilitatem elegantiamque concedere,” Cic. de Or. 2, 7, 28: “in Latino sermone,” id. ib. 3, 11, 42: “quae philosophi Graeco sermone tractavissent, ea Latinis litteris mandaremus,” id. Fin. 1, 1, 1: “patrii sermonis egestas,” Lucr. 1, 832; 3, 260: “cum lingua Catonis et Enni Sermonem patrium ditaverit,” Hor. A. P. 57: “aves, quae sermonem imitantur humanum ... Agrippina turdum habuit imitantem sermones hominum ... lusciniae Graeco atque Latino sermone dociles,” Plin. 10, 42, 59, § 120.—

C. Of a single expression: “si quis ita legaverit: Fructus annuos, etc., perinde accipi debet hic sermo, ac si, etc.,” Dig. 7, 1, 20; 11, 7, 2, § 1; 28, 5, 29.— Hence, of a single word (late Lat.): δέος sermo Graecus est, Cassiod. in Psa. 21, 1.

170 prōpŏsĭtĭo , ōnis, f. propono.

I. A setting forth or proposing, a representation.

A. (Mental; “class.) Vitae,” Cic. Tusc. 3, 18, 39: “rerum magnarum cum animi amplā quādam propositione cogitatio,” Cic. Inv. 2, 54, 163.—

B. (In words.) Sunt quaedam tam breves causae, ut propositionem potius habeant quam narrationem, Quint. 4, 2, 4; cf. Dig. 2, 1, 7, § 2.—

II. A design, purpose, resolution, determination: “propositio animi,” Dig. 50, 16, 225.—

III. In logic, the first proposition of a syllogism (class.): “propositio est, per quem locus is breviter exponitur, ex quo vis omnis oportet emanet ratiocinationis,” Cic. Inv. 1, 37, 67; 1, 34, 35; Auct. Her. 2, 18, 28.—

B. Transf.

1. A principal subject, theme (class.), Cic. de Or. 3, 53; Sen. Ben. 6, 7, 1; Quint. 5, 14, 1.—

2. Still more generally, a proposition of any kind (post-Aug.), Quint. 7, 1, 47, § 9; Gell. 2, 7, 21.—

IV. In jurid. lang., a statement of a question of law; a case submitted for legal opinion, Dig. 16, 1, 19, § 1; 36, 4, 6.—

V. Esp. in bibl. lang., a setting forth for public view: “panes propositionis,” Vulg. Exod. 25, 30; id. Marc. 2, 26 et saep.

171 rē-spondĕo , di, sum, 2, v. a.

I. Lit., to promise a thing in return for something else; to offer or present in return. So, only in a few examples, the phrase par pari (dat.) respondere, to return like for like: par pari respondes dicto, you return tit for tat with your tongue (syn. refero), Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 41; cf.: istuc serva; et verbum verbo par pari ut respondeas, Ter Phorm. 1, 4, 35; and: “paria paribus respondimus,” Cic. Att. 6, 1, 23.— Pass.: provide, si cui quid debetur, ut sit, unde par pari respondeatur, i. e. that there be wherewithal to meet the demand, Atticus ap. Cic. Att. 16, 7, 6; cf. also under II. A. 1, the lusus verbb. with spondeo; and II. B. init.—

II. In a more general signification.

A. To answer, reply, respond (either to a question, or to any statement or remark, and either